MirOS Manual: glob(7)

GLOB(7)                      BSD Reference Manual                      GLOB(7)


     glob - shell-style pattern matching


     Globbing characters (wildcards) are special characters used to perform
     pattern matching of pathnames and command arguments in the mksh(1),
     csh(1), and sh(1) shells as well as the C library functions fnmatch(3)
     and glob(3). A glob pattern is a word containing one or more unquoted '?'
     or '*' characters, or "[..]" sequences.

     Globs should not be confused with the more powerful regular expressions
     used by programs such as grep(1). While there is some overlap in the spe-
     cial characters used in regular expressions and globs, their meaning is

     The pattern elements have the following meaning:

     ?       Matches any single character.

     *       Matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

     [..]    Matches any of the characters inside the brackets. Ranges of
             characters can be specified by separating two characters by a '-'
             (e.g. "[a0-9]" matches the letter 'a' or any digit). In order to
             represent itself, a '-' must either be quoted or the first or
             last character in the character list. Similarly, a ']' must be
             quoted or the first character in the list if it is to represent
             itself instead of the end of the list. Also, a '!' appearing at
             the start of the list has special meaning (see below), so to
             represent itself it must be quoted or appear later in the list.

             Within a bracket expression, the name of a character class en-
             closed in '[:' and ':]' stands for the list of all characters be-
             longing to that class. Supported character classes:

                   alnum     cntrl     lower     space
                   alpha     digit     print     upper
                   blank     graph     punct     xdigit

             These match characters using the macros specified in ctype(3). A
             character class may not be used as an endpoint of a range.

             Note that character classes may not be universally supported.

     [!..]   Like [..], except it matches any character not inside the brack-

     \       Matches the character following it verbatim. This is useful to
             quote the special characters '?', '*', '[', and '\' such that
             they lose their special meaning. For example, the pattern
             "\\\*\[x]\?" matches the string "\*[x]?".

     Note that when matching a pathname, the path separator '/', is not
     matched by a '?', or '*', character or by a "[..]" sequence. Thus,
     /usr/*/*/X11 would match /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 and /usr/X11R6/include/X11
     while /usr/*/X11 would not match either. Likewise, /usr/*/bin would match
     /usr/local/bin but not /usr/bin.


     fnmatch(3), glob(3), re_format(7)


     In early versions of UNIX, the shell did not do pattern expansion itself.
     A dedicated program, /etc/glob, was used to perform the expansion and
     pass the results to a command. In Version 7 AT&T UNIX, with the introduc-
     tion of the Bourne shell, this functionality was incorporated into the
     shell itself.

MirOS BSD #10-current         December 26, 2013                              1

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