debian tag cloud

Sponsored by
HostEurope Logo

debian tag cloud

All 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

A surprise to see my box booting up with the default GRUB 2.x menu, followed by “cannot find a working init”.

What happened?

Well, grub:i386 and grub:x32 are distinct packages, so APT helpfully decided to purge the GRUB config. OK. Manual boot menu entry editing later, re-adding “GRUB_DISABLE_SUBMENU=y” and “GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="syscall.x32=y"” to /etc/default/grub, removing “quiet” again from GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT, and uncommenting “GRUB_TERMINAL=console”… and don’t forget to “sudo update-grub”. There. This should work.

On the plus side, nvidia-driver:i386 seems to work… but not with boinc-client:x32 (why, again? I swear, its GPU detection has been driving me nuts on >¾ of all systems I installed it on, already!).

On the minus side, I now have to figure out why…

tglase@tglase:~ $ sudo ifup -v tap1
Configuring interface tap1=tap1 (inet)
run-parts --exit-on-error --verbose /etc/network/if-pre-up.d
run-parts: executing /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/bridge
run-parts: executing /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/ethtool
ip addr add broadcast   peer  dev tap1 label tap1
Cannot find device "tap1"
Failed to bring up tap1.

… this happens. This used to work before the cktN kernels.

Bernhard’s article on Plänet Debian about the “colon” command in the shell could use a clarification and a security-relevant correcture.

There is, indeed, no difference between the : and true built-in commands.

Stéphane Chazelas points out that writing : ${VARNAME:=default} is bad, : "${VARNAME:=default}" is correct. Reason: someone could preset $VARNAME with, for example, /*/*/*/*/../../../../*/*/*/*/../../../../*/*/*/* which will exhaust during globbing.

Besides that, the article is good. Thanks Bernhard for posting it!

PS: I sometimes use the colon as comment leader in the last line of a script or function, because it, unlike the octothorpe, sets $? to 0, which can be useful.

Update: As jilles pointed out in IRC, “colon” (‘:’) is a POSIX special built-in (most importantly, it keeps assignments), whereas “true” is a regular built-in utility.

d-i preseeding is not the answer

25.11.2014 by tg@
Tags: debian rant work

This post details what the d-i team currently shows as the only way.

It has several shortcomings and one missing documentation part.

Shortcoming: --purge is missing from the apt-get invocation. This leaves packages in “rc” state (requiring a manual dpkg --purge to completely remove them later, as they are then invisible to apt).

Worse shortcoming: this still leaves all dependencies pulled in by systemd around on the system, because packages installed by debootstrap are not eligible for “apt-get --purge autoremove”. Additionally, it does not influence debootstrap’s (nōn-existent, see #557322, #668001, #768062) dependency resolver, leading to possibly pessimistic package selections.

Missing: you can just hit Alt-F2 and enter the command…

	in-target apt-get --purge -y install sysvinit-core

… there, no need to preseed. But this does not eliminate the aforementioned shortcomings, of course.

Another PSA: something surprising about XML.

As you might all know, XML must be valid UTF-8 (or UTF-16 (or another encoding supported by the parser, but one which yields valid Unicode codepoints when read and converted)). Some characters, such as the ampersand ‘&’, must be escaped (“&#38;” or “&#x26;”, although “&amp;” may also work, depending on the domain) or put into a CDATA section (“<![CDATA[&]]>”).

A bit surprisingly, a literal backspace character (ASCII 08h, Unicode U+0008) is not allowed in the text. I filed a bugreport against libxml2, asking it to please encode these characters.

A bit more research followed. Surprisingly, there are characters that are not valid in XML “documents” in any way, not even as entities or in CDATA sections. (xmlstarlet, by the way, errors out somewhat nicely for an unescaped literal or entity-escaped backspace, but behaves absolutely hilarious for a literal backspace in a CDATA section.) Basically, XML contains a whitelist for the following Unicode codepoints:

  • U+0009
  • U+000A
  • U+000D
  • U+0020‥U+D7FF
  • U+E000‥U+FFFD
  • U-00010000‥U-0010FFFF

Additionally, a certain number of codepoints is discouraged: U+007F‥U+0084 (IMHO wise), U+0086‥U+009F (also wise, but why allow U+0085?), U+FDD0‥U+FDEF (a bit surprisingly, but consistent with disallowing the backspace character), and the last two codepoints of every plane (U+FFFE and U+FFFF were already disallowed, but U-0001FFFE, U-0001FFFF, …, U-0010FFFF weren’t; this is extremely wise).

The suggestion seems to be to just strip these characters silently from the XML “document”.

I’m a bit miffed about this, as I don’t even use XML directly (I’m extending a PHP “webapplication” that is a SOAP client and talks to a Java™ SOAP-WS) and would expect this to preserve my strings, but, oh my. I’ve forwarded the suggestion to just strip them silently to the libxml2 maintainers in the aforementioned bug report, for now, and may even hack that myself (on customer-paid time). More robust than hacking the PHP thingy to strip them first, anyway – I’ve got no control over the XML after all.

Sharing this so that more people know that not all UTF-8 is valid in XML. Maybe it saves someone else some time. (Now wondering whether to address this in my xhtml_escape shell function. Probably should. Meh.)

Apparently (the actual results have not yet been published by the Secretary), the GR is over, and the worst possible option has won. This is an absolutely ambiguous result, while at the same time sending a clear signal that Debian is not to be trusted wrt. investing anything into it, right now.

Why is this? Simply: “GR not required” means that “whatever people do is probably right”. Besides this, we have one statement from the CTTE (“systemd is default init system for jessie. Period.”) and nothing else. This means that runit, or upstart, or file-rc, or uselessd, can be the default init system for zurg^H^H^H^Hstretch, or even the only one. It also means that the vast majority of Debian Developers are sheeple, neither clearly voting to preserve freedom of choice between init systems for its users, nor clearly voting to unambiguously support systemd and progress over compatibility and choice, nor clearly stating that systemd is important but supporting other init systems is still recommended. (I’ll not go into detail on how the proposer of the apparently winning choice recommends others to ignore ftpmaster constraints and licences, and even suggests to run a GR to soften up the DFSG interpretation.) I’d have voted this as “no, absolutely not” if it was possible to do so more strongly.

Judging from the statistics, the only thing I voted above NOTA/FD is the one least accepted by DDs, although the only other proposal I considered is the first-rated of them: support for other init systems is recommended but not required. What made me vote it below NOTA/FD was: “The Debian Project makes no statement at this time on sysvinit support beyond the jessie release.” This sentence made even this proposal unbearable, unacceptable, for people wanting to invest (time, money, etc.) into Debian.

Update: Formal result announced. So 358 out of 483 voting DDs decided to be sheeple (if I understand the eMail correctly). We had 1006 DDs with voting rights, which is a bit ashaming as well. That’s 48.01% only. I wonder what’s worse.

This opens up a very hard problem: I’m absolutely stunned by this and wondering what to do now. While there is no real alternative to Debian at $dayjob I can always create customised packages in my own APT repository, and – while it was great when those were eventually (3.1.17-1) accepted into Debian, even replacing the previous packages completely – it is simpler and quicker to not do so. While $dayjob benefits from having packages I work on inside Debian itself, even though I cannot always test all scenarios Debian users would need, some work reduction due to… reactions… already led to Debian losing out on Mediawiki for jessie and some additional suffering. With my own package repository, I can – modulo installing/debootstrap – serve my needs for $dayjob much quicker, easily, etc. and only miss out on absolutely delightful user feedback. But then, others could always package software I’m upstream of for Debian. Or, if I do not leave the project, continue doing so via QA uploads.

I’m also disappointed because I have invested quite some effort into trying to make Debian better (my idea to join as DD was “if I’ve got to use it, it better be damn good!”), into packaging software and convincing people at work that developing software as Debian packages instead of (or not) thinking of packaging later was good. I’ve converted our versions of FusionForge and d-push to Debian packages, and it works pretty damn well. Sometimes it needs backports of my own, but that’s the corportate world, and no problem to an experienced DD. (I just feel bad we ($orkplace) lost some people, an FTP master along them, before this really gained traction.)

I’d convert to OpenBSD because, despite MirBSD’s history with them, they’re the only technically sound alternative, but apparently tedu (whom I respect technically, and who used to offer good advice to even me when asked, and who I think wouldn’t choose systemd himself) still (allying with the systemd “side” (I’m not against people being able to choose systemd, for the record, I just don’t want to be forced into it myself!)) has some sort of grudge against me. Plus, it’d be hard to get customers to follow. So, no alternative right now. But I’m used to managing my own forks of software; I’m doomed to basically hack and fix anything I use (I recently got someone who owns a licence to an old-enough Visual Studio version to transfer that to me, so I can hack on the Windows Mobile 6 version of Cachebox, to fix bugs in one of the geocaching applications I use. Now I “just” need to learn C# and the .NET Compact Framework. So I’m also used to some amount of pain.)

I’m still unresolved wrt. the attitude I should show the Debian project now. I had decided to just continue to live on, and work on the things I need done, but that was before this GR non-result. I absolutely cannot recommend anyone to “invest” into Debian (without sounding hypocriet), but I cannot recommend anything else either. I cannot justify leaving but don’t know if I want to stay. I think I should sleep over it.

One thing I promised, and thus will do, is to organise a meeting of the Debian/m68k people soonish. But then, major and important and powerful forces inside Debian still insist that Debian-Ports are not part of it… [Update: yes, DSA is moving it closer, thanks for that by the way, but that doesn’t mean anything to certain maintainers or the Release Team, although, the latter is actually understandable and probably sensible.] yet, all forks of Debian now suffer from the systemd adoption in it instead of having a freedom-of-choice upstream. I’ve said, and I still feel that systemd adoption should have done in a Debian downstream / (pure?) blend, and maybe (parts of) GNOME removed from Debian itself for it. (Adding cgroups support to the m68k kernel to support systemd was done. I adviced against it, on the grounds of memory and code size. But no downstream can remove it now.)

On a closing note: an Ewok told me I should not be surprised because of my communication style on the mailing lists. I just got private mails telling me that, indeed, I’ve been more civilised recently, plus I’ve not started out as aggressively as it became in the end of the heated systemd debate (with this GR result, I precisely lost what I had feared), plus I’ve hung on Usenet for too long… and I’m sometimes terse when I don’t want to repeat the, for me, same topic once again (I’ve usually looked at the things before and decided they’re just another hype, and know from experience to avoid them). So I feel this should not be held against me. Listen to advice, please. (I’m also somewhat shocked by certain people asserting systemd is “unavoidable”, now.)

We already edit /etc/tomcat7/server.xml after installing the tomcat7 Debian package, to get it to talk AJP instead of HTTP (so we can use libapache2-mod-jk to put it behind an Apache 2 httpd, which also terminates SSL):

We already comment out the block…

    <Connector port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
               redirectPort="8443" />

… and remove the comment chars around the line…

    <Connector port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />

… so all we need to do is edit that line to make it look like…

    <Connector address="" port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />

… and we’re all set.

(Your apache2 vhost needs a line JkMount /?* ajp13_worker and everything Just Works™ with the default configuration.)

Now, tomcat7 is only accessible from localhost (Legacy IP), and we don’t need to firewall the AJP (or HTTP/8080) port. Do make sure your Apache 2 access configuration works, though ☺

I just installed, for work, Hanno Böck’s bashcheck utility on our monitoring system, and watched all¹ systems go blue.

① All but two. One is not executing remote scripts from the monitoring for security reasons, the other is my desktop which runs Debian “sid” (unstable).

(Update, 2014-10-20: jessie, precise, trusty are also green now.)

This means that all those distributions still have unfixed #shellshock bugs.

  • lenny (with Md’s packages): bash (3.2-4.2) = 3.2.53(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • squeeze (LTS): bash (4.1-3+deb6u2) = 4.1.5(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • wheezy (stable-security): bash (4.2+dfsg-0.1+deb7u3) = 4.2.37(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
    • CVE-2014-6278 (lcamtuf bug #2)
  • jessie (testing): bash (4.3-10) = 4.3.27(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
    • CVE-2014-6278 (lcamtuf bug #2)
  • sid (unstable): bash (4.3-11) = 4.3.30(1)-release
    • none
  • CentOS 5.5: bash-3.2-24.el5 = 3.2.25(1)-release
    • extra-vulnerable (function import active)
    • CVE-2014-6271 (original shellshock)
    • CVE-2014-7169 (taviso bug)
    • CVE-2014-7186 (redir_stack bug)
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • CentOS 5.6: bash-3.2-24.el5 = 3.2.25(1)-release
    • extra-vulnerable (function import active)
    • CVE-2014-6271 (original shellshock)
    • CVE-2014-7169 (taviso bug)
    • CVE-2014-7186 (redir_stack bug)
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • CentOS 5.8: bash-3.2-33.el5_10.4 = 3.2.25(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • CentOS 5.9: bash-3.2-33.el5_10.4 = 3.2.25(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • CentOS 5.10: bash-3.2-33.el5_10.4 = 3.2.25(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • CentOS 6.4: bash-4.1.2-15.el6_5.2.x86_64 = 4.1.2(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • CentOS 6.5: bash-4.1.2-15.el6_5.2.x86_64 = 4.1.2(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • lucid (10.04): bash (4.1-2ubuntu3.4) = 4.1.5(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
  • precise (12.04): bash (4.2-2ubuntu2.5) = 4.2.25(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
    • CVE-2014-6278 (lcamtuf bug #2)
  • quantal (12.10): bash (4.2-5ubuntu1) = 4.2.37(1)-release
    • extra-vulnerable (function import active)
    • CVE-2014-6271 (original shellshock)
    • CVE-2014-7169 (taviso bug)
    • CVE-2014-7186 (redir_stack bug)
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
    • CVE-2014-6278 (lcamtuf bug #2)
  • trusty (14.04): bash (4.3-7ubuntu1.4) = 4.3.11(1)-release
    • CVE-2014-6277 (lcamtuf bug #1)
    • CVE-2014-6278 (lcamtuf bug #2)

I don’t know if/when all distributions will have patched their packages ☹ but thought you’d want to know the hysteria isn’t over yet…

… however, I hope you were not stupid enough to follow the advice of this site which suggests you to download some random file over the ’net and execute it with superuser permissions, unchecked. (I think the Ruby people were the first to spread this extremely insecure, stupid and reprehensible technique.)


  • rsc points out that CentOS only supports 5.«latest» and 6.«latest», and paying RHEL get 5.«x».«y» but only occasionally. We updated one of the two systems in question and shut the other down due to lack of use.
  • trusty (14.04): bash (4.3-7ubuntu1.5) = 4.3.11(1)-release
    • none
  • Yes, comments on this blog are disabled; mail for feedback.
  • Since I was asked (twice): the namespace patches by Florian Weimer protect from most exploits. The bugs are, nevertheless, present:
    root@debian-wheezy:~ # env 'BASH_FUNC_foo()=() { x() { _; }; x() { _; } <<'"$(perl -e '{print "A"x1000}'); }" bash -c :
    Segmentation fault
    139|root@debian-wheezy:~ # dmesg | tail -1
    [3121102.362274] bash[1699]: segfault at dfdfdfdf ip 00000000f766df36 sp 00000000ffe90b34 error 4 in[f75ee000+15d000]
  • To one eMail sender: If you do not understand why a CGI or something else could invoke a shell, or what a segmentation fault trap is, do not bother me. Especially not in that tone.
  • To another eMail sender: Yes, quantal is end of life. It’s also upgraded. First and last time I ever used *buntu’s “do-release-upgrade”. Broke kernel and GRUB, and upgraded to saucy. I manually “apt-get --purge dist-upgrade”d to trusty (went surprisingly well).
  • precise (12.04): bash (4.2-2ubuntu2.6) = 4.2.25(1)-release
    • none
  • jessie (testing): bash (4.3-11) = 4.3.30(1)-release
    • none
  • Update 27.10.2014: Clearly, distributions are not fixing the lcamtuf bug series (Debian stable, CentOS), believing that the affix patch makes them invulnerable, while it just removes the most common/popular/exposed attack vector. Sad story.

Thanks to ↳ tarent for letting me do this work during $dayjob time!

mksh R50d released

07.10.2014 by tg@
Tags: bug debian mksh news pcli

The last MirBSD Korn Shell update broke update-initramfs because I accidentally introduced a regression in field splitting while fixing other bugs – sorry!

mksh R50d was just released to fix that, and a small NULL pointer dereference found by Goodbox on IRC. Thanks to my employer tarent for a bit of time to work on it.

mksh R50c released, security fix

03.10.2014 by tg@
Tags: android bug debian mksh news pcli release security

The MirBSD Korn Shell has got a new security and maintenance release.

This release fixes one mksh(1)-specific issue when importing values from the environment. The issue has been detected by the main developer during careful code review, looking at whether the shell is affected by the recent “shellshock” bugs in GNU bash, many of which also affect AT&T ksh93. (The answer is: no, none of these bugs affects mksh.) Stephane Chanzelas kindly provided me with an in-depth look at how this can be exploited. The issue has not got a CVE identifier because it was identified as low-risk. The problem here is that the environment import filter mistakenly accepted variables named “FOO+” (for any FOO), which are, by general environ(7) syntax, distinct from “FOO”, and treated them as appending to the value of “FOO”. An attacker who already had access to the environment could so append values to parameters passed through programs (including sudo(8) or setuid) to shell scripts, including indirectly, after those programs intended to sanitise the environment, e.g. invalidating the last $PATH component. It could also be used to circumvent sudo’s environment filter which protected against the vulnerability of an unpatched GNU bash being exploited.

tl;dr: mksh not affected by any shellshock bugs, but we found a bug of our own, with low impact, which does not affect any other shell, during careful code review. Please do update to mksh R50c quickly.

git rebase is problematic (from a version control system user point of view) because it rewrites history. We all knew that.

But did you know that git pull --rebase, commonly used before a git push, can also be harmful, destroy history, and surprise users in a negative way?

10:08⎜<Beuc:#fusionforge> Lo-lan-do, we must have committed at the same time :)  First time I rebase and my commit disappear ;)
10:11⎜«Lo-lan-do:#fusionforge» So who won?
10:11⎜«Lo-lan-do:#fusionforge» Aha, I did :-)

This does fit git’s model of managing patches and tracking content, but is just irresponsible for a version control system. (Also, imagine incensed contributors whose commits just vanish.) So, danger, beware of using git rebasing when you use git as distributed version control system!

In a related way: merge commits are good. Especially when merging between, into or from feature branches. (A friend had his .gitconfig set up to default to rebasing… ugh.) So there should have been one place where you used rebase: to avoid merge commits when people work on the same repository at the same time (but, ideally, on different files). Those were mostly annoying. But, as you can see above, the alternatives are even worse…

Okay. I just created three events at tomorrow 10:00 CEST (08:00 UTC), on three different accounts on the very same Debian Lenny machine. All three use nxclient to log into KDE 3, with Kontact/KDEPIM Version 1.2.9 (enterprise35 20131030.a834355).

Then, I looked at the event invitations (METHOD:REQUEST BEGIN:VEVENT) in a simple eMail program (alpine). What I got made me beg to differ:





I should mention that I created the events at roughly 13:45 CEST today (11:45 UTC), and the system timezone on the box as well as the “Time & Date” zone in the Kontact settings are all “Europe/Berlin”.

To add insult to injury: the calendar view on the accounts that created the event all do show it for tomorrow, 10:00 local time.

I cannot possibly imagine how this could go wrong, seeing as those are all on the same machine…

WTF is going on here?

Update: .kde/share/config/korganizerrc had TimeZoneId wrong. I had to change a different timezone (such as Europe/Bratislava), hit the OK button, confirm to “Keep Times”, then re-open the settings dialogue and change back to Europe/Berlin, for it to work.

Dear FSF, stop recommending Enigmail.

05.06.2014 by tg@
Tags: debian pcli rant security tip work

Dear FSF, stop recommending Enigmail, please. It is broken, simple as that. Even if you switch everything HTML-related off, it still defaults to the latin9 (ISO-8859-15) encoding instead of UTF-8, and possibly some other nasties. Worse, it’s based upon obsolete Thunderbird/Icedove technology, which is dead since the release of Firefox® 17 and will only degrate over time.

Side note: I was asked recently how much entropy is used while generating a PGP key using GnuPG on Windows®, after having done the same for OpenSSL on Debian (and possibly almost all other OSes). I had to try to find out which was the actual code (GnuPG 2 with libgcrypt, it turns out), and it was not pretty. (You are hereby adviced to create a 600-byte file ${GNUPGHOME:-~/.gnupg}/random_seed from a good source before even attempting to use GnuPG 2 for the first time. OK, you can run gpg -k once, to create the GNUPGHOME directory from a skeleton.)

All 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

MirOS Logo