MAKEFS(8) BSD System Manager's Manual MAKEFS(8)
makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree
makefs [-x] [-B byte-order] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask] [-F specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-t fs-type] image-file directory
The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree directory. No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task. The options are as follows: -B byte-order Set the byte order of the image to byte-order. Valid byte orders are '4321', 'big', or 'be' for big endian, and '1234', 'little', or 'le' for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored. -b free-blocks Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the im- age. An optional '%' suffix may be provided to indicate that free- blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size. -d debug-mask Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask. XXX: document these -F specfile Use specfile as an mtree(8) 'specfile' specification. If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its per- missions and modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry. In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored. Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is neces- sary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in the case of block or character devices), and link (in the case of symbolic links). If time isn't provided, the current time will be used. If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length files. -f free-files Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image. An optional '%' suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size. -M minimum-size Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size. -m maximum-size Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided directory tree. -N dbdir Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls. -o fs-options Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed below. -S sector-size Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512. -s image-size Set the size of the file system image to image-size. -t fs-type Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system types are supported: ffs BSD fast file system (default). cd9660 ISO 9660 file system. -x Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile. Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an "x" to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes: b Block; multiply by 512 k Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB) m Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB) g Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB) t Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB) w Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer
ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign ('='), and a value. The following keywords are supported: avgfilesize Expected average file size. avgfpdir Expected number of files per directory. bsize Block size. density Bytes per inode. fsize Fragment size. maxbpg Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group. minfree Minimum % free. optimization Optimization preference; one of 'space' or 'time'. extent Maximum extent size. maxbpcg Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group. version UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.
cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be pro- vided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign ('='), and a value. The following keywords are supported: allow-deep-trees Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in the spec. allow-max-name Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the version id. allow-multidot Allow multiple dots in a filename. applicationid Application ID of the image. archimedes Use the 'ARCHIMEDES' extension to encode RISC OS metadata. boot-info-table Write a legacy 56-byte table at offset 8 into the boot image (see below). boot-load-segment Set load segment for the boot image. bootimage Filename of a boot image in the format "sysid;filename", where "sysid" is one of 'i386', 'mac68k', 'macppc', or 'powerpc'. creation-date Override PVD creation date. effective-date Override PVD effective date. expiration-date Override PVD expiration date. generic-bootimage Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660 image. hard-disk-boot Boot image is a hard disk image. hide-rr-moved Assign the RR_MOVED directory a rock ridge name of the empty string instead of the de- fault .rr_moved. keep-bad-images Don't throw away images whose write was aborted due to an error. For debugging pur- poses. label Label name of the image. modification-date Override PVD modification date. no-boot Boot image is not bootable. no-emul-boot Boot image is a "no emulation" ElTorito im- age. no-trailing-padding Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding). omit-trailing-period Violate the standard, do not append a trail- ing period to filenames without an extension. preparer Preparer ID of the image. publisher Publisher ID of the image. rockridge Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.). rr-squash Force uid 0, gid 0, and rationalised permis- sion bits for RockRidge entries. volumeid Volume set identifier of the image. The boot-info-table currently consists of the following fields (all 7.3.1 numbers), offsets relative to the boot image: 0 8 bytes: kept as is, not part of checksum 8 LBA of PVD 12 LBA of boot image 16 Size in bytes of boot image 20 32-bit additive sum of all 32-bit words of boot image 24 40 reserved bytes (MBZ) 64 Begin of checksummed data, kept as is Dates (to override) are in 184.108.40.206 format (YYYYmmddHHMMSS00) and Univer- sal Time, i.e. with zero offset from Greenwich Mean Time.
strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)
The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6. Support for overriding PVD dates and the boot info table was added in MirOS #11.
Luke Mewburn <lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program) Daniel Watt, Walter Deignan, Ryan Gabrys, Alan Perez-Rathke, Ram Vedam (cd9660 support) Thorsten Glaser <firstname.lastname@example.org>
makefs may be limited to images less than 2 GiB in size due to internal use of the long type. MirOS BSD #10-current February 11, 2016 3
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