MirOS Manual: sail(6)

SAIL(6)                      BSD Reference Manual                      SAIL(6)

NAME

     sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS

     sail [-s [-l]] [-x] [-b] [num]

DESCRIPTION

     sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail origi-
     nally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

     Players of sail take command of an old-fashioned Man of War and fight
     other players or the computer. They may re-enact one of the many histori-
     cal sea battles recorded in the game, or they can choose a fictional bat-
     tle.

     As a sea captain in the sail Navy, the player has complete control over
     the workings of his ship. He must order every maneuver, change the set of
     his sails, and judge the right moment to let loose the terrible destruc-
     tion of his broadsides. In addition to fighting the enemy, he must har-
     ness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him. The out-
     come of many battles during the age of sail was decided by the ability of
     one captain to hold the 'weather gage'.

     The flags are:

     -s    Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

     -l    Show the login name. Only effective with -s.

     -x    Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

     -b    No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION

     sail is really two programs in one. Each player starts up a process which
     runs his own ship. In addition, a driver process is forked (by the first
     player) to run the computer ships and take care of global bookkeeping.

     Because the driver must calculate moves for each ship it controls, the
     more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.

     If a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize with the other
     players (a rather slow process for everyone), and then he may play along
     with the rest.

     To implement a multi-user game in UNIX Version 7, which was the operating
     system sail was first written under, the communicating processes must use
     a common temporary file as a place to read and write messages. In addi-
     tion, a locking mechanism must be provided to ensure exclusive access to
     the shared file. For example, sail uses a temporary file named
     /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21, and corresponding file names for the
     other scenarios. To provide exclusive access to the temporary file, sail
     uses a technique stolen from an old game called pubcaves by Jeff Cohen.
     Processes do a busy wait in the loop

           for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
                   sleep(2);

     until they are able to create a link to a file named /tmp/#saillock.??.
     The "??" correspond to the scenario number of the game. Since UNIX
     guarantees that a link will point to only one file, the process that
     succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to the temporary file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES

     When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
     the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
     For example, if a player wants to move in a certain direction, he writes
     a message into the temporary file requesting that the driver move his
     ship. Each "turn", the driver reads all the messages sent from the
     players and decides what happened. It then writes back into the temporary
     file new values of variables, etc.

     The most noticeable effect this communication has on the game is the de-
     lay in moving. Suppose a player types a move for his ship and hits re-
     turn. What happens then? The player process saves up messages to be writ-
     ten to the temporary file in a buffer. Every 7 seconds or so, the player
     process gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes out its
     buffer to the file. The driver, running asynchronously, must read in the
     movement command, process it, and write out the results. This takes two
     exclusive accesses to the temporary file. Finally, when the player pro-
     cess gets around to doing another 7-second update, the results of the
     move are displayed on the screen. Hence, every movement requires four ex-
     clusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
     depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the results of his
     moves.

     In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they would appear. There
     is room for "pipelining" in the movement. After the player writes out a
     first movement message, a second movement command can then be issued. The
     first message will be in the temporary file waiting for the driver, and
     the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be written to the file.
     Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the time, the player can
     sail around quite quickly.

     If the player types several movement commands between two 7-second up-
     dates, only the last movement command typed will be seen by the driver.
     Movement commands within the same update "overwrite" each other, in a
     sense.

HISTORICAL INFO

     Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate
     sailing. Their only disadvantage was an inability to sail very close to
     the wind. The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the guns to bear
     to the left and right sides. A few guns of small aspect (usually 6 or 9
     pounders) could point forward, but their effect was small compared to a
     68-gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders. The guns bear approximately like
     so:

                  \
                   b----------------
               ---0
                   \
                    \
                     \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                      \
                       \
                        \

     An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down the
     length of an enemy ship. The shot tended to bounce along the deck and did
     several times more damage. This phenomenon was called a rake. Because the
     bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target than the
     stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes more damage
     than a bow rake.

                                   b
                                  00   ----  Stern rake!
                                    a

     Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close-
     range cannons. American ships from the revolution until the War of 1812
     were almost entirely armed with carronades.

     The period of history covered in sail is approximately from the 1770s un-
     til the end of Napoleonic France in 1815. There are many excellent books
     about the age of sail (see REFERENCES).

     Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament. The mainstays
     of any fleet were its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle Ships".
     They were so named because these ships fought together in great lines.
     They were close enough for mutual support, yet every ship could fire both
     its broadsides. We get the modern words "ocean liner", or "liner", and
     "battleship" from "ship of the line". The most common size was the 74-gun
     two-decked ship of the line. The two gun decks usually mounted 18 and 24
     pounder guns.

     The pride of the fleet were the first rates. These were huge three decked
     ships of the line mounting 80 to 136 guns. The guns in the three tiers
     were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top to bottom.

     Various other ships came next. They were almost all "razees", or ships of
     the line with one deck sawed off. They mounted 40-64 guns and were a poor
     cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship. They neither had the
     speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

     Next came the "eyes of the fleet". Frigates came in many sizes mounting
     anywhere from 32 to 44 guns. They were very handy vessels. They could
     outsail anything bigger and outshoot anything smaller. Frigates didn't
     fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74's did. Instead, they
     harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships. They were much more
     useful in missions away from the fleet, such as cutting out expeditions
     or boat actions. They could hit hard and get away fast.

     Lastly, there were the corvettes, sloops, and brigs. These were smaller
     ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns. A corvette was only slightly
     smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns. Sloops were used
     for carrying dispatches or passengers. Brigs were something you built for
     land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS

     Ships in sail are represented by two characters. One character represents
     the bow of the ship, and the other represents the stern. Ships have na-
     tionalities and numbers. The first ship of a nationality is number 0, the
     second number 1, etc. Therefore, the first British ship in a game would
     be printed as 'b0'. The second Brit would be 'b1', and the fifth Don
     would be 's4'.

     Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas
     called Full Sails. A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed,
     and it can move much faster than a ship under Battle Sails. The only
     trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on sail and
     rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into ribbons where
     it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail. For this reason, rig-
     ging damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set. Don't let that
     discourage you from using full sails: I like to keep them up right into
     the heat of battle. A ship with full sails set has a capital letter for
     its nationality. E.g., a Frog, 'f0', with full sails set would be printed
     as 'F0'.

     When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard "strikes
     the colors". This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender. The nationali-
     ty character of a surrendered ship is printed as '!'. E.g., the Frog of
     our last example would soon be '!0'.

     A ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches
     the stage of listing hulk. A sinking ship has a tilde '~' printed for its
     nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a '#' printed.

     Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew. Therefore, if an
     American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an 'a'
     printed for its nationality. In addition, the ship number is changed to
     '&', ''', '(', ''), '*', or '+' depending upon the original number, be it
     0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. E.g., the 'b0' captured by an American becomes the
     'a&'. The 's4' captured by a Frog becomes the 'f*'.

     The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an
     American: '#&'.

MOVEMENT

     Movement is the most confusing part of sail to many. Ships can head in 8
     directions:

                                      0      0      0
             b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
             0        0                                             0

     The stern of a ship moves when it turns. The bow remains stationary.
     Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind (unless they are becalmed).
     All ships drift when they lose headway. If a ship doesn't move forward at
     all for two turns, it will begin to drift. If a ship has begun to drift,
     then it must move forward before it turns, if it plans to do more than
     make a right or left turn, which is always possible.

     Movement commands to sail are a string of forward moves and turns. An ex-
     ample is 'l3'. It will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3 spaces.
     In the drawing above, the 'b0' made 7 successive left turns. When sail
     prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import. E.g.,

           move (7, 4):

     The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
     turns. The second number is the maximum number of turns you can make.
     Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote '''. If the quote is
     present, it means that your ship has been drifting, and you must move
     ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above). Some of the
     possible moves for the example above are as follows:

           move (7, 4): 7
           move (7, 4): 1
           move (7, 4): d          /* drift, or do nothing */
           move (7, 4): 6r
           move (7, 4): 5r1
           move (7, 4): 4r1r
           move (7, 4): l1r1r2
           move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

     Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
     any point in a movement command you turn into the wind, the movement
     stops there. E.g.,

           move (7, 4): l1l4
           Movement Error;
           Helm: l1l

     Moreover, whenever you make a turn, your movement allowance drops to the
     lesser of what's left or what you would have at the new attitude. In
     short, if you turn closer to the wind, you most likely won't be able to
     sail the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

     Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind. Captains
     in sail are no different. A ship's ability to move depends on its atti-
     tude to the wind. The best angle possible is to have the wind off your
     quarter, that is, just off the stern. The direction rose on the side of
     the screen gives the possible movements for your ship at all positions to
     the wind. Battle sail speeds are given first, and full sail speeds are
     given in parentheses.

                                      0 1(2)
                                     \|/
                                     -^-3(6)
                                     /|\
                                      | 4(7)
                                     3(6)

     Pretend the bow of your ship (the '^') is pointing upward and the wind is
     blowing from the bottom to the top of the page. The numbers at the bottom
     '3(6)' will be your speed under battle or full sails in such a situation.
     If the wind is off your quarter, then you can move '4(7)'. If the wind is
     off your beam, '3(6)'. If the wind is off your bow, then you can only
     move '1(2)'. If you are facing into the wind, you can't move at all;
     ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION

     The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little weather vane on the
     side of the screen. The number in the middle of the vane indicates the
     wind speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction. The wind blows
     from the + sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure). E.g.,

                 |
                 3
                 +

     The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate breeze,
     3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7 = hurri-
     cane. If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING

     If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tangled together.
     This is called "fouling". Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither
     can move. They can unfoul each other if they want to. Boarding parties
     can only be sent across to ships when the antagonists are either fouled
     or grappled.

     Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of the
     other.

     The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
     right of the screen.

BOARDING

     Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life. Boarding par-
     ties may be formed in sail to either board an enemy ship or to defend
     your own ship against attack. Men organized as Defensive Boarding Parties
     fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left unorganized.

     The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the
     number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY

     The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities. American
     sailors, however, were actually the best seamen in the world. Because the
     American Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy, British seamen
     who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

     In sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels. Elite crews can
     outshoot and outfight all other sailors. Crack crews are next. Mundane
     crews are average, and Green and Mutinous crews are below average. A good
     rule of thumb is that Crack or Elite crews get one extra hit per broad-
     side compared to Mundane crews. Don't expect too much from Green crews.

BROADSIDES

     Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot: grape, chain,
     round, and double. You have guns and carronades in both the port and
     starboard batteries. Carronades only have a range of two, so you have to
     get in close to be able to fire them. You have the choice of firing at
     the hull or rigging of another ship. If the range of the ship is greater
     than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

     The types of shot and their advantages are:

     ROUND    Range of 10. Good for hull or rigging hits.

     DOUBLE   Range of 1. Extra good for hull or rigging hits. Double takes
              two turns to load.

     CHAIN    Range of 3. Excellent for tearing down rigging. Cannot damage
              hull or guns, though.

     GRAPE    Range of 1. Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

     On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your
     ship:

           Load  D! R!
           Hull  9
           Crew  4  4  2
           Guns  4  4
           Carr  2  2
           Rigg  5 5 5 5

     "Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
     loaded with. A '!' after the type of shot indicates that it is an initial
     broadside. Initial broadside were loaded with care before battle and be-
     fore the decks ran red with blood. As a consequence, initial broadsides
     are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later. A '*' after the
     type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still loading it, and you
     cannot fire yet. "Hull" shows how much hull you have left. "Crew" shows
     your three sections of crew. As your crew dies off, your ability to fire
     decreases. "Guns" and "Carr" show your port and starboard guns. As you
     lose guns, your ability to fire decreases. "Rigg" shows how much rigging
     you have on your 3 or 4 masts. As rigging is shot away, you lose mobili-
     ty.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE

     It is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the
     mere opportunity to fire them does not guarantee any hits. Many factors
     influence the destructive force of a broadside. First of all, and the
     chief factor, is distance. It is harder to hit a ship at range ten than
     it is to hit one sloshing alongside. Next is raking. Raking fire, as men-
     tioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten. Next, crew size
     and quality affects the damage done by a broadside. The number of guns
     firing also bears on the point, so to speak. Lastly, weather affects the
     accuracy of a broadside. If the seas are high (5 or 6), then the lower
     gunports of ships of the line can't even be opened to run out the guns.
     This gives frigates and other flush decked vessels an advantage in a
     storm. The scenario Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme takes advantage of
     this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS

     Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
     two points per three turns. The message "Repairs Completed" will be
     printed if no more repairs can be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS

     Computer ships in sail follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.
     Computer ships never repair damage. If they did, the players could never
     beat them. They play well enough as it is. As a consolation, the computer
     ships can fire double shot every turn. That fluke is a good reason to
     keep your distance. The driver figures out the moves of the computer
     ships. It computes them with a typical A.I. distance function and a
     depth-first search to find the maximum "score". It seems to work fairly
     well, although it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY

     Commands are given to sail by typing a single character. You will then be
     prompted for further input. A brief summary of the commands follows.

COMMAND SUMMARY


     f    Fire broadsides if they bear

     l    Reload

     L    Unload broadsides (to change ammo)

     m    Move

     i    Print the closest ship

     I    Print all ships

     F    Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. 'a?' for all Americans)

     s    Send a message around the fleet

     b    Attempt to board an enemy ship

     B    Recall boarding parties

     c    Change set of sail

     r    Repair

     u    Attempt to unfoul

     g    Grapple/ungrapple

     v    Print version number of game

     ^L   Redraw screen

     Q    Quit

     C    Center your ship in the window

     U    Move window up

     D,N  Move window down

     H    Move window left

     J    Move window right

     S    Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS

     Here is a summary of the scenarios in sail:

Ranger vs. Drake:

     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
     (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle. Aboard the Bonhomme
     Richard, he was able to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by
     quickly boarding her.

     (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:

     Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

     (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:

     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:

     Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
     (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
     (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:

     Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:

     Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

     (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
     (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
     (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
     (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:

     Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

     (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:

     Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Cyane             24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Levant            20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:

     Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

     (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:

     Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
     (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
     (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
     (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:

     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
     (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
     (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
     (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
     (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:

     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:

     Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

     A scenario for you Horny fans. Remember, he sank the Natividad against
     heavy odds and winds. Hint: don't try to board the Natividad; her crew is
     much bigger, albeit green.

     (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

     (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:

     Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

     (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
     (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:

     Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

     The only battle Hornblower ever lost. He was able to dismast one ship and
     stern rake the others though. See if you can do as well.

     (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:

     Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

     (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:

     Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Watch that little Cypress go!

     (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:

     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:

     Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

     (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
     (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:

     Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:

     Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

Star Trek:

     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

HISTORY

     Dave Riggle wrote the first version of sail on a PDP 11/70 in the fall of
     1980. Needless to say, says Dave, the code was horrendous, not portable
     in any sense of the word, and didn't work. The program was not very modu-
     lar and had fseek()s and fwrites()s every few lines. After a tremendous
     rewrite from the top down, he got the first working version up by 1981.
     There were several annoying bugs concerning firing broadsides and finding
     angles. sail uses no floating point, by the way, so the direction rou-
     tines are rather tricky. Ed Wang rewrote the angle() routine in 1981 to
     be less incorrect, and he added code to let a player select which ship he
     wanted at the start of the game.

     Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making sail portable for
     the first time. This was no easy task, by the way.

     sail received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall
     of 1983: Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat) al-
     most from scratch. Although he introduced many new bugs, the final result
     was very much cleaner and (?) faster. He added window movement commands
     and find ship commands.

AUTHORS

     sail has been a group effort.

     Dave Riggle

     Ed Wang, co-author

     Craig Leres, refitting

CONSULTANTS

     Chris Guthrie
     Captain Happy
     Horatio Nelson
          and many valiant others...

REFERENCES

     Avalon Hill, Wooden Ships & Iron Men.

     C.S. Forester, Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them).

     Alexander Kent, Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them).

     The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat. Of these, especially
           Mr. Midshipman Easy
           Peter Simple
           Jacob Faithful
           Japhet in Search of a Father
           Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
           Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS

     Probably a few.

MirOS BSD #10-current         December 30, 1993                             12

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