MirOS Manual: bridge(4)

BRIDGE(4)                  BSD Programmer's Manual                   BRIDGE(4)

NAME

     bridge - Ethernet bridge interface

SYNOPSIS

     pseudo-device bridge [count]

DESCRIPTION

     The bridge device creates a logical link between two or more Ethernet in-
     terfaces or encapsulation interfaces (see gif(4)). This link between the
     interfaces selectively forwards frames from each interface on the bridge
     to every other interface on the bridge. A bridge can serve several ser-
     vices, including isolation of traffic between sets of machines so that
     traffic local to one set of machines is not available on the wire of
     another set of machines, and it can act as a transparent filter for ip(4)
     datagrams.

     A bridge interface can be created at runtime using the ifconfig bridgeN
     create command or by setting up a bridgename.if(5) configuration file for
     netstart(8).

     The bridges provided by this interface are learning bridges with filter-
     ing, see pf(4). In general a bridge works like a hub, forwarding traffic
     from one interface to another. It differs from a hub in that it will
     "learn" which machines are on each of its attached segments by actively
     listening to incoming traffic and examining the headers of each frame. A
     table is built containing the MAC address and segment to which the MAC
     address is attached. This allows a bridge to be more selective about what
     it forwards, which can be used to reduce traffic on a set of segments and
     also to provide an IP firewall without changing the topology of the net-
     work.

     The algorithm works as follows by default, but can be modified via
     ioctl(2) or the utility brconfig(8). When a frame comes in, the origin
     segment and the source address are recorded. If the bridge has no
     knowledge about where the destination is to be found, the bridge will
     forward the frame to all attached segments. If the destination is known
     to be on a different segment from its origin, the bridge will forward the
     packet only to the destination segment. If the destination is on the same
     segment as the origin segment, the bridge will drop the packet because
     the receiver has already had a chance to see the frame. Before forwarding
     a frame, the bridge will check to see if the packet contains an ip(4) or
     ip6(4) datagram; if so, the datagram is run through the pf(4) interface
     so that it can be filtered.

IOCTLS

     A bridge interface responds to all of the ioctl(2) calls specific to oth-
     er interfaces listed in netintro(4). The following ioctl(2) calls are
     specific to bridge devices. They are defined in <sys/sockio.h>.

     SIOCBRDGIFS      (struct ifbifconf) Retrieve member interface list from a
                      bridge. This request takes an ifbifconf structure (see
                      below) as a value-result parameter. The ifbic_len field
                      should be initially set to the size of the buffer point-
                      ed to by ifbic_buf. On return it will contain the
                      length, in bytes, of the configuration list. Alterna-
                      tively, if the ifbic_len passed in is set to 0,
                      SIOCBRDGIFS will set ifbic_len to the size that
                      ifbic_buf needs to be to fit the entire configuration
                      list, and will not fill in the other parameters. This is
                      useful for determining the exact size that ifbic_buf
                      needs to be in advance.

                      The argument structure is defined as follows:

                            struct ifbreq {
                                    char ifbr_name[IFNAMSIZ];    /* brdg nam */
                                    char ifbr_ifsname[IFNAMSIZ]; /* if name */
                                    u_int32_t ifbr_ifsflags;     /* if flags */
                            };

                            #define IFBIF_LEARNING  0x1 /* learns addrs */
                            #define IFBIF_DISCOVER  0x2 /* gets fwd'd pkts */

                            struct ifbifconf {
                                    char ifbic_name[IFNAMSIZ]; /* brdg name */
                                    u_int32_t       ifbic_len; /* buf size */
                                    union {
                                            caddr_t ifbicu_buf; /* buffer */
                                            struct  ifbreq *ifbicu_req;
                                    } ifbic_ifbicu;
                            #define ifbic_buf       ifbic_ifbicu.ifbicu_buf
                            #define ifbic_req       ifbic_ifbicu.ifbicu_req
                            };

     SIOCBRDGADD      (struct ifbreq) Add the interface named in ifbr_ifsname
                      to the bridge named in ifbr_name.

     SIOCBRDGDEL      (struct ifbreq) Delete the interface named in
                      ifbr_ifsname from the bridge named in ifbr_name.

     SIOCBRDGADDS     (struct ifbreq) Add the interface named in ifbr_ifsname
                      as a span port to the bridge named in ifbr_name.

     SIOCBRDGDELS     (struct ifbreq) Delete the interface named in
                      ifbr_ifsname from the list of span ports of the bridge
                      named in ifbr_name.

     SIOCBRDGSIFFLGS  (struct ifbreq) Set the bridge member interface flags
                      for the interface named in ifbr_ifsname attached to the
                      bridge ifbr_name. If the flag IFBIF_LEARNING is set on
                      an interface, source addresses from frames received on
                      the interface are recorded in the address cache. If the
                      flag IFBIF_DISCOVER is set, the interface will receive
                      packets destined for unknown destinations, otherwise a
                      frame that has a destination not found in the address
                      cache is not forwarded to this interface. The default
                      for newly added interfaces has both flags set. If the
                      flag IFBIF_BLOCKNONIP is set, packets that are one of
                      ip(4), ip6(4), arp(4), or Reverse ARP, will not be
                      bridged from and to the interface.

     SIOCBRDGGIFFLGS  Retrieve the bridge member interface flags for the in-
                      terface named in ifbr_ifsname attached to the bridge
                      ifbr_name.

     SIOCBRDGRTS      (struct ifbaconf) Retrieve the address cache of the
                      bridge named in ifbac_name. This request takes an
                      ifbaconf structure (see below) as a value result parame-
                      ter. The ifbac_len field should be initially set to the
                      size of the buffer pointed to by ifbac_buf. On return,
                      it will contain the length, in bytes, of the configura-
                      tion list. Alternatively, if the ifbac_len passed in is
                      set to 0, SIOCBRDGRTS will set it to the size that
                      ifbac_buf needs to be to fit the entire configuration
                      list and not fill in the other parameters. As with
                      SIOCBRDGIFS, this is useful for determining the exact
                      size that ifbac_buf needs to be in advance.

                      The argument structure is defined as follows:

                            struct ifbareq {
                                    char ifba_name[IFNAMSIZ];   /* brdg nam */
                                    char ifba_ifsname[IFNAMSIZ];/* dest ifs */
                                    u_int8_t ifba_age;          /* addr age */
                                    u_int8_t ifba_flags;        /* addr flag */
                                    struct ether_addr ifba_dst; /* dst addr */
                            };

                            #define IFBAF_TYPEMASK 0x03  /* addr type mask */
                            #define IFBAF_DYNAMIC  0x00  /* dynamic addr */
                            #define IFBAF_STATIC   0x01  /* static address */

                            struct ifbaconf {
                                    char ifbac_name[IFNAMSIZ]; /* brdg name */
                                    u_int32_t ifbac_len;       /* buf size */
                                    union {
                                            caddr_t ifbacu_buf;     /* buf */
                                            struct ifbareq *ifbacu_req;
                                    } ifbac_ifbacu;
                            #define ifbac_buf       ifbac_ifbacu.ifbacu_buf
                            #define ifbac_req       ifbac_ifbacu.ifbacu_req
                            };
                      Address cache entries with the type set to IFBAF_DYNAMIC
                      in ifba_flags are entries learned by the bridge. Entries
                      with the type set to IFBAF_STATIC are manually added en-
                      tries.

     SIOCBRDGSADDR    (struct ifbareq) Add an entry, manually, to the address
                      cache for the bridge named in ifba_name. The address and
                      its associated interface and flags are set in the
                      ifba_dst, ifba_ifsname, and ifba_flags fields, respec-
                      tively.

     SIOCBRDGDADDR    (struct ifbareq) Delete an entry from the address cache
                      of the bridge named in ifba_name. Entries are deleted
                      strictly based on the address field ifba_dst.

     SIOCBRDGSCACHE   (struct ifbcachereq) Set the maximum address cache size
                      for the bridge named in ifbc_name to ifbc_size entries.

                      The argument structure is as follows:

                            struct ifbcachereq {
                                    char ifbc_name[IFNAMSIZ]; /* bridge */
                                    u_int32_t ifbc_size;      /* size */
                            };

     SIOCBRDGGCACHE   (struct ifbcachereq) Retrieve the maximum size of the
                      address cache for the bridge ifbc_name.

     SIOCBRDGSTO      (struct ifbcachetoreq) Set the time, in seconds, that
                      addresses which have not been seen on the network
                      (transmitted a packet) remain in the cache. If the time
                      is set to zero, no aging is performed on the address
                      cache. The argument structure is as follows:

                            struct ifbcachetoreq {
                                    char ifbct_name[IFNAMSIZ]; /* bridge */
                                    u_int32_t ifbct_time;      /* time */
                            };

     SIOCBRDGGTO      (struct ifbcachetoreq) Retrieve the address cache ex-
                      piration time (see above).

     SIOCBRDGFLUSH    (struct ifbreq) Flush addresses from the cache.
                      ifbr_name contains the name of the bridge device, and
                      ifbr_ifsflags should be set to IFBF_FLUSHALL to flush
                      all addresses from the cache or IFBF_FLUSHDYN to flush
                      only the dynamically learned addresses from the cache.

     SIOCBRDGARL      (struct ifbrlreq) Add an Ethernet address filtering rule
                      to the bridge on a specific interface. ifbr_name con-
                      tains the name of the bridge device, and ifbr_ifsname
                      contains the name of the bridge member interface. The
                      ifbr_action field is one of BRL_ACTION_PASS or
                      BRL_ACTION_BLOCK, to pass or block matching frames
                      respectively. The ifbr_flags specifies whether the rule
                      should match on input, output, or both be using the
                      flags BRL_FLAG_IN and BRL_FLAG_OUT. It also specifies
                      whether either (or both) of the source and destination
                      addresses should be matched by using the
                      BRL_FLAG_SRCVALID and BRL_FLAG_DSTVALID flags. The
                      ifbr_src field is the source address that triggers the
                      rule (only considered if ifbr_flags has the
                      BRL_FLAG_SRCVALID bit set). The ifbr_src field is the
                      destination address that triggers the rule (only con-
                      sidered if ifbr_flags has the BRL_FLAG_DSTVALID bit
                      set).

                      The argument structure is as follows:

                            struct ifbrlreq {
                                    char ifbr_name[IFNAMSIZ];
                                    char ifbr_ifsname[IFNAMSIZ];
                                    u_int8_t ifbr_action;
                                    u_int8_t ifbr_flags;
                                    struct ether_addr ifbr_src;
                                    struct ether_addr ifbr_dst;
                                    char ifbr_tagname[PF_TAG_NAME_SIZE];
                            };
                            #define BRL_ACTION_BLOCK 0x01
                            #define BRL_ACTION_PASS  0x02
                            #define BRL_FLAG_IN      0x08
                            #define BRL_FLAG_OUT     0x04

     SIOCBRDGFRL      (struct ifbrlreq) Remove all filtering rules from a
                      bridge interface member. ifbr_name contains the name of
                      the bridge device, and ifbr_ifsname contains the name of
                      the bridge member interface.

     SIOCBRDGGRL      (struct ifbrlconf) Retrieve all of the rules from the
                      bridge, ifbrl_name, for the member interface,
                      ifbrl_ifsname. This request takes an ifbrlconf structure
                      (see below) as a value result parameter. The ifbrl_len
                      field should be initially set to the size of the buffer
                      pointed to by ifbrl_buf. On return, it will contain the
                      length, in bytes, of the configuration list. Alterna-
                      tively, if the ifbrl_len passed in is set to 0,
                      SIOCBRDGGRL will set it to the size that ifbrl_buf needs
                      to be to fit the entire configuration list and not fill
                      in the other parameters. As with SIOCBRDGIFS, this is
                      useful for determining the exact size that ifbrl_buf
                      needs to be in advance.

                      The argument structure is defined as follows:

                            struct ifbrlconf {
                                    char ifbrl_name[IFNAMSIZ];   /* brdg nam */
                                    char ifbrl_ifsname[IFNAMSIZ];/* ifs name */
                                    u_int32_t ifbr_len;         /* buf len */
                                    union {
                                            caddr_t ifbrlu_buf;
                                            struct ifbrlreq *ifbrlu_req;
                                    } ifrl_ifbrlu;
                            #define ifbrl_buf ifbrl_ifbrlu.ifbrlu_buf
                            #define ifbrl_req ifbrl_ifbrlu.ifbrlu_req
                            };

     SIOCBRDGARL      (struct ifbrlreq) Add a filtering rule to the bridge
                      named in ifbr_name on the interface named in
                      ifbr_ifsname. The argument structure is as follows:

                            struct ifbrlreq {
                                    char ifbr_name[IFNAMSIZ];    /* bridge */
                                    char ifbr_ifsname[IFNAMSIZ]; /* ifs */
                                    u_int8_t ifbr_action;        /* handling */
                                    u_int8_t ifbr_flags;         /* flags */
                                    struct ether_addr ifbr_src;  /* src mac */
                                    struct ether_addr ifbr_dst;  /* dst mac */
                            };
                            #define BRL_ACTION_BLOCK        0x01
                            #define BRL_ACTION_PASS         0x02
                            #define BRL_FLAG_IN             0x08
                            #define BRL_FLAG_OUT            0x04
                            #define BRL_FLAG_SRCVALID       0x02
                            #define BRL_FLAG_DSTVALID       0x01

                      Rules are applied in the order in which they were added
                      to the bridge, and the first matching rule's action
                      parameter determines the fate of the packet. The
                      ifbr_action parameter specifies whether a frame matching
                      the rule is to be blocked or passed.

                      If the BRL_FLAG_IN bit is set in ifbr_flags, then the
                      rule applies to frames received by the interface. If the
                      BRL_FLAG_OUT bit is set, then the rule applies to frame
                      transmitted by the interface. At least one of
                      BRL_FLAG_IN or BRL_FLAG_OUT must be set.

                      The source Ethernet address in ifbr_src is checked if
                      the BRL_FLAG_SRCVALID bit is set in ifbr_flags. The des-
                      tination address in ifbr_dst is checked if the
                      BRL_FLAG_DSTVALID bit is set. If neither bit is set, the
                      rule matches all frames.

     SIOCBRDGFRL      (struct ifbrlreq) Flush rules from the bridge ifbr_name
                      on the interface ifbr_ifsname.

     SIOCBRDGGRL      (struct ifbrlconf) Retrieve an array of rules from the
                      bridge for a particular interface. This request takes an
                      ifbrlconf structure (see below) as a value-result param-
                      eter. The ifbrl_len field should be initially set to the
                      size of the buffer pointed to by ifbrl_buf. On return it
                      will contain the length, in bytes, of the rule list. Al-
                      ternatively, if the ifbrl_len passed in is set to 0,
                      SIOCBRDGGRL will set ifbrl_len to the size that
                      ifbrl_buf needs to be to fit the entire configuration
                      list, and will not fill in the other parameters. This is
                      useful for determining the exact size that ifbrl_buf
                      needs to be in advance.

                      The argument structure is as follows:

                            struct ifbrlconf {
                                    char ifbrl_name[IFNAMSIZ];   /* bridge */
                                    char ifbrl_ifsname[IFNAMSIZ];/* member */
                                    u_int32_t ifbrl_len;         /* buflen */
                                    union {
                                            caddr_t ifbrlu_buf;
                                            struct  ifbrlreq *ifbrlu_req;
                                    } ifbrl_ifbrlu;
                            #define ifbrl_buf ifbrl_ifbrlu.ifbrlu_buf
                            #define ifbrl_req ifbrl_ifbrlu.ifbrlu_req
                            };

ERRORS

     If the ioctl(2) call fails, errno(2) is set to one of the following
     values:

     [ENOENT]      For an add request, this means that the named interface is
                   not configured into the system. For a delete operation, it
                   means that the named interface is not a member of the
                   bridge. For an address cache deletion, the address was not
                   found in the table.

     [ENOMEM]      Memory could not be allocated for an interface or cache en-
                   try to be added to the bridge.

     [EEXIST]      The named interface is already a member of the bridge.

     [EBUSY]       The named interface is already a member of another bridge.

     [EINVAL]      The named interface is not an Ethernet interface or an in-
                   valid ioctl was performed on the bridge.

     [ENETDOWN]    Address cache operation (flush, add, delete) on a bridge
                   that is in the down state.

     [EPERM]       Super-user privilege is required to add and delete inter-
                   faces to and from bridges and to set the bridge interface
                   flags.

     [EFAULT]      The buffer used in a SIOCBRDGIFS or SIOCBRDGRTS request
                   points outside of the process's allocated address space.

     [ESRCH]       No such member interface in the bridge.

NOTES

     Bridged packets pass through pf(4) twice. They can be filtered on any in-
     terface, in both directions. For stateful filtering, filtering on only
     one interface (using 'keep state') and passing all traffic on the other
     interfaces is recommended. A state entry only permits outgoing packets
     from initial source to destination and incoming packets from initial des-
     tination to source. Since bridged packets pass through the filter twice
     with the source and destination addresses reversed between interfaces,
     two state entries (one for each direction) are required when all inter-
     faces are filtered statefully.

     Return packets generated by PF itself are not routed using the kernel
     routing table. Instead, PF will send these replies back to the same Eth-
     ernet address that the original packet came from. This applies to rules
     with return, return-rst, return-icmp, return-icmp6 or synproxy defined.
     At the moment, only return-rst on IPv4 is implemented and the other pack-
     et generating rules are unsupported.

     If an IP packet is too large for the outgoing interface the bridge will
     perform IP fragmentation. This can happen when bridge members have dif-
     ferent MTUs or when IP fragments are reassembled by pf(4). Non-IP packets
     which are too large for the outgoing interface will be dropped.

     If the LINK2 flag is set on the bridge interface, the bridge will also
     perform transparent ipsec(4) processing on the packets (encrypt or de-
     crypt them), according to the policies set with the ipsecadm(8) command
     by the administrator. If appropriate security associations (SAs) do not
     exist, any key management daemons such as isakmpd(8) that are running on
     the bridge will be invoked to establish the necessary SAs. These daemons
     have to be configured as if they were running on the host whose traffic
     they are protecting (i.e., they need to have the appropriate authentica-
     tion and authorization material, such as keys and certificates, to imper-
     sonate the protected host(s).

SEE ALSO

     errno(2), ioctl(2), arp(4), gif(4), ip(4), ip6(4), ipsec(4), netintro(4),
     pf(4), bridgename.if(5), brconfig(8), ipsecadm(8), isakmpd(8)

HISTORY

     The brconfig(8) command and the bridge kernel interface first appeared in
     OpenBSD 2.5.

AUTHORS

     The brconfig(8) command and the bridge kernel interface were written by
     Jason L. Wright <jason@thought.net> as part of an undergraduate indepen-
     dent study at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

MirOS BSD #10-current         February 26, 1999                              6

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