MirOS Manual: Unicode::UCD(3p)


Unicode::UCD(3p)Perl Programmers Reference Guide Unicode::UCD(3p)

NAME

     Unicode::UCD - Unicode character database

SYNOPSIS

         use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo';
         my $charinfo   = charinfo($codepoint);

         use Unicode::UCD 'charblock';
         my $charblock  = charblock($codepoint);

         use Unicode::UCD 'charscript';
         my $charscript = charscript($codepoint);

         use Unicode::UCD 'charblocks';
         my $charblocks = charblocks();

         use Unicode::UCD 'charscripts';
         my %charscripts = charscripts();

         use Unicode::UCD qw(charscript charinrange);
         my $range = charscript($script);
         print "looks like $script\n" if charinrange($range, $codepoint);

         use Unicode::UCD 'compexcl';
         my $compexcl = compexcl($codepoint);

         use Unicode::UCD 'namedseq';
         my $namedseq = namedseq($named_sequence_name);

         my $unicode_version = Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion();

DESCRIPTION

     The Unicode::UCD module offers a simple interface to the
     Unicode Character Database.

     charinfo

         use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo';

         my $charinfo = charinfo(0x41);

     charinfo() returns a reference to a hash that has the fol-
     lowing fields as defined by the Unicode standard:

         key

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         code             code point with at least four hexdigits
         name             name of the character IN UPPER CASE
         category         general category of the character
         combining        classes used in the Canonical Ordering Algorithm
         bidi             bidirectional category
         decomposition    character decomposition mapping
         decimal          if decimal digit this is the integer numeric value
         digit            if digit this is the numeric value
         numeric          if numeric is the integer or rational numeric value
         mirrored         if mirrored in bidirectional text
         unicode10        Unicode 1.0 name if existed and different
         comment          ISO 10646 comment field
         upper            uppercase equivalent mapping
         lower            lowercase equivalent mapping
         title            titlecase equivalent mapping

         block            block the character belongs to (used in \p{In...})
         script           script the character belongs to

     If no match is found, a reference to an empty hash is
     returned.

     The "block" property is the same as returned by charinfo().
     It is not defined in the Unicode Character Database proper
     (Chapter 4 of the Unicode 3.0 Standard, aka TUS3) but
     instead in an auxiliary database (Chapter 14 of TUS3).
     Similarly for the "script" property.

     Note that you cannot do (de)composition and casing based
     solely on the above "decomposition" and "lower", "upper",
     "title", properties, you will need also the compexcl(),
     casefold(), and casespec() functions.

     charblock

         use Unicode::UCD 'charblock';

         my $charblock = charblock(0x41);
         my $charblock = charblock(1234);
         my $charblock = charblock("0x263a");
         my $charblock = charblock("U+263a");

         my $range     = charblock('Armenian');

     With a code point argument charblock() returns the block the
     character belongs to, e.g.  "Basic Latin".  Note that not
     all the character positions within all blocks are defined.

     See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

     If supplied with an argument that can't be a code point,
     charblock() tries to do the opposite and interpret the

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     argument as a character block. The return value is a range:
     an anonymous list of lists that contain start-of-range,
     end-of-range code point pairs. You can test whether a code
     point is in a range using the "charinrange" function. If the
     argument is not a known character block, "undef" is
     returned.

     charscript

         use Unicode::UCD 'charscript';

         my $charscript = charscript(0x41);
         my $charscript = charscript(1234);
         my $charscript = charscript("U+263a");

         my $range      = charscript('Thai');

     With a code point argument charscript() returns the script
     the character belongs to, e.g.  "Latin", "Greek", "Han".

     See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

     If supplied with an argument that can't be a code point,
     charscript() tries to do the opposite and interpret the
     argument as a character script. The return value is a range:
     an anonymous list of lists that contain start-of-range,
     end-of-range code point pairs. You can test whether a code
     point is in a range using the "charinrange" function. If the
     argument is not a known character script, "undef" is
     returned.

     charblocks

         use Unicode::UCD 'charblocks';

         my $charblocks = charblocks();

     charblocks() returns a reference to a hash with the known
     block names as the keys, and the code point ranges (see
     "charblock") as the values.

     See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

     charscripts

         use Unicode::UCD 'charscripts';

         my %charscripts = charscripts();

     charscripts() returns a hash with the known script names as
     the keys, and the code point ranges (see "charscript") as
     the values.

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     See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

     Blocks versus Scripts

     The difference between a block and a script is that scripts
     are closer to the linguistic notion of a set of characters
     required to present languages, while block is more of an
     artifact of the Unicode character numbering and separation
     into blocks of (mostly) 256 characters.

     For example the Latin script is spread over several blocks,
     such as "Basic Latin", "Latin 1 Supplement", "Latin
     Extended-A", and "Latin Extended-B".  On the other hand, the
     Latin script does not contain all the characters of the
     "Basic Latin" block (also known as the ASCII): it includes
     only the letters, and not, for example, the digits or the
     punctuation.

     For blocks see
     http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/Blocks.txt

     For scripts see UTR #24:
     http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr24/

     Matching Scripts and Blocks

     Scripts are matched with the regular-expression construct
     "\p{...}" (e.g. "\p{Tibetan}" matches characters of the
     Tibetan script), while "\p{In...}" is used for blocks (e.g.
     "\p{InTibetan}" matches any of the 256 code points in the
     Tibetan block).

     Code Point Arguments

     A code point argument is either a decimal or a hexadecimal
     scalar designating a Unicode character, or "U+" followed by
     hexadecimals designating a Unicode character.  In other
     words, if you want a code point to be interpreted as a hexa-
     decimal number, you must prefix it with either "0x" or "U+",
     because a string like e.g. 123 will be interpreted as a
     decimal code point.  Also note that Unicode is not limited
     to 16 bits (the number of Unicode characters is open-ended,
     in theory unlimited): you may have more than 4 hexdigits.

     charinrange

     In addition to using the "\p{In...}" and "\P{In...}" con-
     structs, you can also test whether a code point is in the
     range as returned by "charblock" and "charscript" or as the
     values of the hash returned by "charblocks" and "char-
     scripts" by using charinrange():

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         use Unicode::UCD qw(charscript charinrange);

         $range = charscript('Hiragana');
         print "looks like hiragana\n" if charinrange($range, $codepoint);

     compexcl

         use Unicode::UCD 'compexcl';

         my $compexcl = compexcl("09dc");

     The compexcl() returns the composition exclusion (that is,
     if the character should not be produced during a precomposi-
     tion) of the character specified by a code point argument.

     If there is a composition exclusion for the character, true
     is returned.  Otherwise, false is returned.

     casefold

         use Unicode::UCD 'casefold';

         my $casefold = casefold("00DF");

     The casefold() returns the locale-independent case folding
     of the character specified by a code point argument.

     If there is a case folding for that character, a reference
     to a hash with the following fields is returned:

         key

         code             code point with at least four hexdigits
         status           "C", "F", "S", or "I"
         mapping          one or more codes separated by spaces

     The meaning of the status is as follows:

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        C                 common case folding, common mappings shared
                          by both simple and full mappings
        F                 full case folding, mappings that cause strings
                          to grow in length. Multiple characters are separated
                          by spaces
        S                 simple case folding, mappings to single characters
                          where different from F
        I                 special case for dotted uppercase I and
                          dotless lowercase i
                          - If this mapping is included, the result is
                            case-insensitive, but dotless and dotted I's
                            are not distinguished
                          - If this mapping is excluded, the result is not
                            fully case-insensitive, but dotless and dotted
                            I's are distinguished

     If there is no case folding for that character, "undef" is
     returned.

     For more information about case mappings see
     http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/

     casespec

         use Unicode::UCD 'casespec';

         my $casespec = casespec("FB00");

     The casespec() returns the potentially locale-dependent case
     mapping of the character specified by a code point argument.
     The mapping may change the length of the string (which the
     basic Unicode case mappings as returned by charinfo() never
     do).

     If there is a case folding for that character, a reference
     to a hash with the following fields is returned:

         key

         code             code point with at least four hexdigits
         lower            lowercase
         title            titlecase
         upper            uppercase
         condition        condition list (may be undef)

     The "condition" is optional.  Where present, it consists of
     one or more locales or contexts, separated by spaces (other
     than as used to separate elements, spaces are to be
     ignored).  A condition list overrides the normal behavior if
     all of the listed conditions are true.  Case distinctions in
     the condition list are not significant. Conditions preceded
     by "NON_" represent the negation of the condition.

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     Note that when there are multiple case folding definitions
     for a single code point because of different locales, the
     value returned by casespec() is a hash reference which has
     the locales as the keys and hash references as described
     above as the values.

     A locale is defined as a 2-letter ISO 3166 country code,
     possibly followed by a "_" and a 2-letter ISO language code
     (possibly followed by a "_" and a variant code).  You can
     find the lists of those codes, see Locale::Country and
     Locale::Language.

     A context is one of the following choices:

         FINAL            The letter is not followed by a letter of
                          general category L (e.g. Ll, Lt, Lu, Lm, or Lo)
         MODERN           The mapping is only used for modern text
         AFTER_i          The last base character was "i" (U+0069)

     For more information about case mappings see
     http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/

     namedseq()

         use Unicode::UCD 'namedseq';

         my $namedseq = namedseq("KATAKANA LETTER AINU P");
         my @namedseq = namedseq("KATAKANA LETTER AINU P");
         my %namedseq = namedseq();

     If used with a single argument in a scalar context, returns
     the string consisting of the code points of the named
     sequence, or "undef" if no named sequence by that name
     exists.  If used with a single argument in a list context,
     returns list of the code points.  If used with no arguments
     in a list context, returns a hash with the names of the
     named sequences as the keys and the named sequences as
     strings as the values.  Otherwise, returns "undef" or empty
     list depending on the context.

     (New from Unicode 4.1.0)

     Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion

     Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion() returns the version of the
     Unicode Character Database, in other words, the version of
     the Unicode standard the database implements.  The version
     is a string of numbers delimited by dots ('.').

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     Implementation Note

     The first use of charinfo() opens a read-only filehandle to
     the Unicode Character Database (the database is included in
     the Perl distribution). The filehandle is then kept open for
     further queries.  In other words, if you are wondering where
     one of your filehandles went, that's where.

BUGS

     Does not yet support EBCDIC platforms.

AUTHOR

     Jarkko Hietaniemi

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