MirOS Manual: File::Glob(3p)


File::Glob(3p)  Perl Programmers Reference Guide   File::Glob(3p)

NAME

     File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine

SYNOPSIS

       use File::Glob ':glob';

       @list = bsd_glob('*.[ch]');
       $homedir = bsd_glob('~gnat', GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ERR);

       if (GLOB_ERROR) {
         # an error occurred reading $homedir
       }

       ## override the core glob (CORE::glob() does this automatically
       ## by default anyway, since v5.6.0)
       use File::Glob ':globally';
       my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

       ## override the core glob, forcing case sensitivity
       use File::Glob qw(:globally :case);
       my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

       ## override the core glob forcing case insensitivity
       use File::Glob qw(:globally :nocase);
       my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

       ## glob on all files in home directory
       use File::Glob ':globally';
       my @sources = <~gnat/*>;

DESCRIPTION

     The glob angle-bracket operator "<>" is a pathname generator
     that implements the rules for file name pattern matching
     used by Unix-like shells such as the Bourne shell or C
     shell.

     File::Glob::bsd_glob() implements the FreeBSD glob(3) rou-
     tine, which is a superset of the POSIX glob() (described in
     IEEE Std 1003.2 "POSIX.2"). bsd_glob() takes a mandatory
     "pattern" argument, and an optional "flags" argument, and
     returns a list of filenames matching the pattern, with
     interpretation of the pattern modified by the "flags" vari-
     able.

     Since v5.6.0, Perl's CORE::glob() is implemented in terms of
     bsd_glob(). Note that they don't share the same prototype--
     CORE::glob() only accepts a single argument.  Due to histor-
     ical reasons, CORE::glob() will also split its argument on
     whitespace, treating it as multiple patterns, whereas
     bsd_glob() considers them as one pattern.

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     META CHARACTERS

       \       Quote the next metacharacter
       []      Character class
       {}      Multiple pattern
       *       Match any string of characters
       ?       Match any single character
       ~       User name home directory

     The metanotation "a{b,c,d}e" is a shorthand for "abe ace
     ade".  Left to right order is preserved, with results of
     matches being sorted separately at a low level to preserve
     this order. As a special case "{", "}", and "{}" are passed
     undisturbed.

     POSIX FLAGS

     The POSIX defined flags for bsd_glob() are:

     "GLOB_ERR"
         Force bsd_glob() to return an error when it encounters a
         directory it cannot open or read.  Ordinarily bsd_glob()
         continues to find matches.

     "GLOB_LIMIT"
         Make bsd_glob() return an error (GLOB_NOSPACE) when the
         pattern expands to a size bigger than the system con-
         stant "ARG_MAX" (usually found in limits.h).  If your
         system does not define this constant, bsd_glob() uses
         "sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)" or "_POSIX_ARG_MAX" where avail-
         able (in that order).  You can inspect these values
         using the standard "POSIX" extension.

     "GLOB_MARK"
         Each pathname that is a directory that matches the pat-
         tern has a slash appended.

     "GLOB_NOCASE"
         By default, file names are assumed to be case sensitive;
         this flag makes bsd_glob() treat case differences as not
         significant.

     "GLOB_NOCHECK"
         If the pattern does not match any pathname, then
         bsd_glob() returns a list consisting of only the pat-
         tern.  If "GLOB_QUOTE" is set, its effect is present in
         the pattern returned.

     "GLOB_NOSORT"
         By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending ASCII
         order; this flag prevents that sorting (speeding up
         bsd_glob()).

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     The FreeBSD extensions to the POSIX standard are the follow-
     ing flags:

     "GLOB_BRACE"
         Pre-process the string to expand "{pat,pat,...}" strings
         like csh(1). The pattern '{}' is left unexpanded for
         historical reasons (and csh(1) does the same thing to
         ease typing of find(1) patterns).

     "GLOB_NOMAGIC"
         Same as "GLOB_NOCHECK" but it only returns the pattern
         if it does not contain any of the special characters
         "*", "?" or "[".  "NOMAGIC" is provided to simplify
         implementing the historic csh(1) globbing behaviour and
         should probably not be used anywhere else.

     "GLOB_QUOTE"
         Use the backslash ('\') character for quoting: every
         occurrence of a backslash followed by a character in the
         pattern is replaced by that character, avoiding any spe-
         cial interpretation of the character. (But see below for
         exceptions on DOSISH systems).

     "GLOB_TILDE"
         Expand patterns that start with '~' to user name home
         directories.

     "GLOB_CSH"
         For convenience, "GLOB_CSH" is a synonym for "GLOB_BRACE
         | GLOB_NOMAGIC | GLOB_QUOTE | GLOB_TILDE |
         GLOB_ALPHASORT".

     The POSIX provided "GLOB_APPEND", "GLOB_DOOFFS", and the
     FreeBSD extensions "GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC", and "GLOB_MAGCHAR"
     flags have not been implemented in the Perl version because
     they involve more complex interaction with the underlying C
     structures.

     The following flag has been added in the Perl implementation
     for csh compatibility:

     "GLOB_ALPHASORT"
         If "GLOB_NOSORT" is not in effect, sort filenames is
         alphabetical order (case does not matter) rather than in
         ASCII order.

DIAGNOSTICS

     bsd_glob() returns a list of matching paths, possibly zero
     length.  If an error occurred, &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR will
     be non-zero and $! will be set.  &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR is
     guaranteed to be zero if no error occurred, or one of the
     following values otherwise:

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     "GLOB_NOSPACE"
         An attempt to allocate memory failed.

     "GLOB_ABEND"
         The glob was stopped because an error was encountered.

     In the case where bsd_glob() has found some matching paths,
     but is interrupted by an error, it will return a list of
     filenames and set &File::Glob::ERROR.

     Note that bsd_glob() deviates from POSIX and FreeBSD glob(3)
     behaviour by not considering "ENOENT" and "ENOTDIR" as
     errors - bsd_glob() will continue processing despite those
     errors, unless the "GLOB_ERR" flag is set.

     Be aware that all filenames returned from File::Glob are
     tainted.

NOTES

     +   If you want to use multiple patterns, e.g. "bsd_glob("a*
         b*")", you should probably throw them in a set as in
         "bsd_glob("{a*,b*}")".  This is because the argument to
         bsd_glob() isn't subjected to parsing by the C shell.
         Remember that you can use a backslash to escape things.

     +   On DOSISH systems, backslash is a valid directory
         separator character. In this case, use of backslash as a
         quoting character (via GLOB_QUOTE) interferes with the
         use of backslash as a directory separator. The best
         (simplest, most portable) solution is to use forward
         slashes for directory separators, and backslashes for
         quoting. However, this does not match "normal practice"
         on these systems. As a concession to user expectation,
         therefore, backslashes (under GLOB_QUOTE) only quote the
         glob metacharacters '[', ']', '{', '}', '-', '~', and
         backslash itself. All other backslashes are passed
         through unchanged.

     +   Win32 users should use the real slash.  If you really
         want to use backslashes, consider using Sarathy's
         File::DosGlob, which comes with the standard Perl dis-
         tribution.

     +   Mac OS (Classic) users should note a few differences.
         Since Mac OS is not Unix, when the glob code encounters
         a tilde glob (e.g. ~user) and the "GLOB_TILDE" flag is
         used, it simply returns that pattern without doing any
         expansion.

         Glob on Mac OS is case-insensitive by default (if you
         don't use any flags). If you specify any flags at all
         and still want glob to be case-insensitive, you must

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         include "GLOB_NOCASE" in the flags.

         The path separator is ':' (aka colon), not '/' (aka
         slash). Mac OS users should be careful about specifying
         relative pathnames. While a full path always begins with
         a volume name, a relative pathname should always begin
         with a ':'.  If specifying a volume name only, a trail-
         ing ':' is required.

         The specification of pathnames in glob patterns adheres
         to the usual Mac OS conventions: The path separator is a
         colon ':', not a slash '/'. A full path always begins
         with a volume name. A relative pathname on Mac OS must
         always begin with a ':', except when specifying a file
         or directory name in the current working directory,
         where the leading colon is optional. If specifying a
         volume name only, a trailing ':' is required. Due to
         these rules, a glob like <*:> will find all mounted
         volumes, while a glob like <*> or <:*> will find all
         files and directories in the current directory.

         Note that updirs in the glob pattern are resolved before
         the matching begins, i.e. a pattern like "*HD:t?p::a*"
         will be matched as "*HD:a*". Note also, that a single
         trailing ':' in the pattern is ignored (unless it's a
         volume name pattern like "*HD:"), i.e. a glob like <:*:>
         will find both directories and files (and not, as one
         might expect, only directories). You can, however, use
         the "GLOB_MARK" flag to distinguish (without a file
         test) directory names from file names.

         If the "GLOB_MARK" flag is set, all directory paths will
         have a ':' appended. Since a directory like 'lib:' is
         not a valid relative path on Mac OS, both a leading and
         a trailing colon will be added, when the directory name
         in question doesn't contain any colons (e.g. 'lib'
         becomes ':lib:').

SEE ALSO

     "glob" in perlfunc, glob(3)

AUTHOR

     The Perl interface was written by Nathan Torkington
     <gnat@frii.com>, and is released under the artistic license.
     Further modifications were made by Greg Bacon
     <gbacon@cs.uah.edu>, Gurusamy Sarathy
     <gsar@activestate.com>, and Thomas Wegner
     <wegner_thomas@yahoo.com>.  The C glob code has the follow-
     ing copyright:

         Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
         All rights reserved.

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         This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
         Guido van Rossum.

         Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
         modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
         are met:

         1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
            notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
         2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
            notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
            documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
         3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
            may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
            without specific prior written permission.

         THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
         ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
         IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
         ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
         FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
         DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
         OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
         HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
         LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
         OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
         SUCH DAMAGE.

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