MirOS Manual: ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ(3p)


ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlFProgrammers RefExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ(3p)

NAME

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions About
     MakeMaker

DESCRIPTION

     FAQs, tricks and tips for "ExtUtils::MakeMaker".

     Module Installation

     How do I keep from installing man pages?
         Recent versions of MakeMaker will only install man pages
         on Unix like operating systems.

         For an individual module:

                 perl Makefile.PL INSTALLMAN1DIR=none INSTALLMAN3DIR=none

         If you want to suppress man page installation for all
         modules you have to reconfigure Perl and tell it 'none'
         when it asks where to install man pages.

     How do I use a module without installing it?
         Two ways.  One is to build the module normally...

                 perl Makefile.PL
                 make

         ...and then set the PERL5LIB environment variable to
         point at the blib/lib and blib/arch directories.

         The other is to install the module in a temporary loca-
         tion.

                 perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~/tmp LIB=~/tmp/lib/perl

         And then set PERL5LIB to ~/tmp/lib/perl.  This works
         well when you have multiple modules to work with.  It
         also ensures that the module goes through its full
         installation process which may modify it.

     Philosophy and History

     Why not just use <insert other build config tool here>?
         Why did MakeMaker reinvent the build configuration
         wheel?  Why not just use autoconf or automake or ppm or
         Ant or ...

         There are many reasons, but the major one is cross-
         platform compatibility.

         Perl is one of the most ported pieces of software ever.
         It works on operating systems I've never even heard of

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         (see perlport for details). It needs a build tool that
         can work on all those platforms and with any wacky C
         compilers and linkers they might have.

         No such build tool exists.  Even make itself has wildly
         different dialects.  So we have to build our own.

     What is Module::Build and how does it relate to MakeMaker?
         Module::Build is a project by Ken Williams to supplant
         MakeMaker. Its primary advantages are:

         * pure perl.  no make, no shell commands
         * easier to customize
         * cleaner internals
         * less cruft

         Module::Build is the official heir apparent to MakeMaker
         and we encourage people to work on M::B rather than
         spending time adding features to MakeMaker.

     Module Writing

     How do I keep my $VERSION up to date without resetting it manu-
      ally?
         Often you want to manually set the $VERSION in the main
         module distribution because this is the version that
         everybody sees on CPAN and maybe you want to customize
         it a bit.  But for all the other modules in your dist,
         $VERSION is really just bookkeeping and all that's
         important is it goes up every time the module is
         changed.  Doing this by hand is a pain and you often
         forget.

         Simplest way to do it automatically is to use your ver-
         sion control system's revision number (you are using
         version control, right?).

         In CVS, RCS and SVN you use $Revision: 1.3 $ (see the
         documentation of your version control system for
         details) writing it like so:

             $VERSION = sprintf "%d.%03d", q$Revision: 1.3 $ =~ /(\d+)/g;

         Every time the file is checked in the $Revision: 1.3 $
         will be updated, updating your $VERSION.

         In CVS version 1.9 is followed by 1.10.  Since CPAN com-
         pares version numbers numerically we use a sprintf() to
         convert 1.9 to 1.009 and 1.10 to 1.010 which compare
         properly.

         If branches are involved (ie. $Revision: 1.3 $) its a

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         little more complicated.

             # must be all on one line or MakeMaker will get confused.
             $VERSION = do { my @r = (q$Revision: 1.3 $ =~ /\d+/g); sprintf "%d."."%03d" x $#r, @r };

     What's this META.yml thing and how did it get in my MANIFEST?!
         META.yml is a module meta-data file pioneered by
         Module::Build and automatically generated as part of the
         'distdir' target (and thus 'dist').  See "Module
         Meta-Data" in ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

         To shut off its generation, pass the "NO_META" flag to
         "WriteMakefile()".

     XS

     How to I prevent "object version X.XX does not match bootstrap
      parameter Y.YY" errors?
         XS code is very sensitive to the module version number
         and will complain if the version number in your Perl
         module doesn't match.  If you change your module's ver-
         sion # without reruning Makefile.PL the old version
         number will remain in the Makefile causing the XS code
         to be built with the wrong number.

         To avoid this, you can force the Makefile to be rebuilt
         whenever you change the module containing the version
         number by adding this to your WriteMakefile() arguments.

             depend => { '$(FIRST_MAKEFILE)' => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

     How do I make two or more XS files coexist in the same directory?
         Sometimes you need to have two and more XS files in the
         same package. One way to go is to put them into separate
         directories, but sometimes this is not the most suitable
         solution. The following technique allows you to put two
         (and more) XS files in the same directory.

         Let's assume that we have a package "Cool::Foo", which
         includes "Cool::Foo" and "Cool::Bar" modules each having
         a separate XS file. First we use the following
         Makefile.PL:

           use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

           WriteMakefile(
               NAME              => 'Cool::Foo',
               VERSION_FROM      => 'Foo.pm',
               OBJECT              => q/$(O_FILES)/,
               # ... other attrs ...
           );

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         Notice the "OBJECT" attribute. MakeMaker generates the
         following variables in Makefile:

           # Handy lists of source code files:
           XS_FILES= Bar.xs \
                 Foo.xs
           C_FILES = Bar.c \
                 Foo.c
           O_FILES = Bar.o \
                 Foo.o

         Therefore we can use the "O_FILES" variable to tell Mak-
         eMaker to use these objects into the shared library.

         That's pretty much it. Now write Foo.pm and Foo.xs,
         Bar.pm and Bar.xs, where Foo.pm bootstraps the shared
         library and Bar.pm simply loading Foo.pm.

         The only issue left is to how to bootstrap Bar.xs. This
         is done from Foo.xs:

           MODULE = Cool::Foo PACKAGE = Cool::Foo

           BOOT:
           # boot the second XS file
           boot_Cool__Bar(aTHX_ cv);

         If you have more than two files, this is the place where
         you should boot extra XS files from.

         The following four files sum up all the details dis-
         cussed so far.

           Foo.pm:
           -------
           package Cool::Foo;

           require DynaLoader;

           our @ISA = qw(DynaLoader);
           our $VERSION = '0.01';
           bootstrap Cool::Foo $VERSION;

           1;

           Bar.pm:
           -------
           package Cool::Bar;

           use Cool::Foo; # bootstraps Bar.xs

           1;

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           Foo.xs:
           -------
           #include "EXTERN.h"
           #include "perl.h"
           #include "XSUB.h"

           MODULE = Cool::Foo  PACKAGE = Cool::Foo

           BOOT:
           # boot the second XS file
           boot_Cool__Bar(aTHX_ cv);

           MODULE = Cool::Foo  PACKAGE = Cool::Foo  PREFIX = cool_foo_

           void
           cool_foo_perl_rules()

               CODE:
               fprintf(stderr, "Cool::Foo says: Perl Rules\n");

           Bar.xs:
           -------
           #include "EXTERN.h"
           #include "perl.h"
           #include "XSUB.h"

           MODULE = Cool::Bar  PACKAGE = Cool::Bar PREFIX = cool_bar_

           void
           cool_bar_perl_rules()

               CODE:
               fprintf(stderr, "Cool::Bar says: Perl Rules\n");

         And of course a very basic test:

           test.pl:
           --------
           use Test;
           BEGIN { plan tests => 1 };
           use Cool::Foo;
           use Cool::Bar;
           Cool::Foo::perl_rules();
           Cool::Bar::perl_rules();
           ok 1;

         This tip has been brought to you by Nick Ing-Simmons and
         Stas Bekman.

PATCHING

     If you have a question you'd like to see added to the FAQ
     (whether or not you have the answer) please send it to

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ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlFProgrammers RefExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ(3p)

     makemaker@perl.org.

AUTHOR

     The denizens of makemaker@perl.org.

SEE ALSO

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker

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