MirOS Manual: twm(1)


TWM(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               TWM(1)

NAME

     twm - Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

SYNTAX

     twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f initfile ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION

     Twm is a window manager for the X Window System.  It pro-
     vides titlebars, shaped windows, several forms of icon
     management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and
     pointer-driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and
     pointer button bindings.

     This program is usually started by the user's session
     manager or startup script.  When used from xdm(1) or
     xinit(1) without a session manager, twm is frequently exe-
     cuted in the foreground as the last client.  When run this
     way, exiting twm causes the session to be terminated (i.e.,
     logged out).

     By default, application windows are surrounded by a
     ``frame'' with a titlebar at the top and a special border
     around the window.  The titlebar contains the window's name,
     a rectangle that is lit when the window is receiving key-
     board input, and function boxes known as ``titlebuttons'' at
     the left and right edges of the titlebar.

     Pressing pointer Button1 (usually the left-most button
     unless it has been changed with xmodmap) on a titlebutton
     will invoke the function associated with the button. In the
     default interface, windows are iconified by clicking (press-
     ing and then immediately releasing) the left titlebutton
     (which looks like a Dot).  Conversely, windows are deiconi-
     fied by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon
     manager (see description of the variable ShowIconManager and
     of the function f.showiconmgr).

     Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which
     resembles a group of nested squares), dragging the pointer
     over edge that is to be moved, and releasing the pointer
     when the outline of the window is the desired size.  Simi-
     larly, windows are moved by pressing in the title or
     highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new loca-
     tion, and then releasing when the outline is in the desired
     position.  Just clicking in the title or highlight region
     raises the window without moving it.

     When new windows are created, twm will honor any size and
     location information requested by the user (usually through
     -geometry command line argument or resources for the indivi-
     dual applications). Otherwise, an outline of the window's
     default size, its titlebar, and lines dividing the window

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     into a 3x3 grid that track the pointer are displayed. Click-
     ing pointer Button1 will position the window at the current
     position and give it the default size.  Pressing pointer
     Button2 (usually the middle pointer button) and dragging the
     outline will give the window its current position but allow
     the sides to be resized as described above.  Clicking
     pointer Button3 (usually the right pointer button) will give
     the window its current position but attempt to make it long
     enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS

     Twm accepts the following command line options:

     -display dpy
             This option specifies the X server to use.

     -s      This option indicates that only the default screen
             (as specified by -display or by the DISPLAY environ-
             ment variable) should be managed.  By default, twm
             will attempt to manage all screens on the display.

     -f filename
             This option specifies the name of the startup file
             to use.  By default, twm will look in the user's
             home directory for files named .twmrc.num (where num
             is a screen number) or .twmrc.

     -v      This option indicates that twm should print error
             messages whenever an unexpected X Error event is
             received.  This can be useful when debugging appli-
             cations but can be distracting in regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION

     Much of twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled by
     providing a startup file in one of the following locations
     (searched in order for each screen being managed when twm
     begins):

     $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
             The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0,
             1, etc.) representing the screen number (e.g. the
             last number in the DISPLAY environment variable
             host:displaynum.screennum) that would be used to
             contact that screen of the display.  This is
             intended for displays with multiple screens of
             differing visual types.

     $HOME/.twmrc
             This is the usual name for an individual user's
             startup file.

     /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

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             If neither of the preceding files are found, twm
             will look in this file for a default configuration.
             This is often tailored by the site administrator to
             provide convenient menus or familiar bindings for
             novice users.

     If no startup files are found, twm will use the built-in
     defaults described above.  The only resource used by twm is
     bitmapFilePath for a colon-separated list of directories to
     search when looking for bitmap files (for more information,
     see the Athena Widgets manual and xrdb(1)).

     Twm startup files are logically broken up into three types
     of specifications:  Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Vari-
     ables section must come first and is used to describe the
     fonts, colors, cursors, border widths, icon and window
     placement, highlighting, autoraising, layout of titles,
     warping, use of the icon manager. The Bindings section usu-
     ally comes second and is used to specify the functions that
     should be to be invoked when keyboard and pointer buttons
     are pressed in windows, icons, titles, and frames.  The
     Menus section gives any user-defined menus (containing func-
     tions to be invoked or commands to be executed).

     Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings
     must be surrounded by double quote characters (e.g. "blue")
     and are case-sensitive. A pound sign (#) outside of a string
     causes the remainder of the line in which the character
     appears to be treated as a comment.

VARIABLES

     Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled
     by variables that may be set in the user's startup file.
     Some of the options are enabled or disabled simply by the
     presence of a particular keyword.  Other options require
     keywords, numbers, strings, or lists of all of these.

     Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by
     whitespace or a newline.  For example:
     AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
     or
     AutoRaise
     {
          "emacs"
          "XTerm"
          "Xmh"
     }
     When a variable containing a list of strings representing
     windows is searched (e.g. to determine whether or not to
     enable autoraise as shown above), a string must be an exact,
     case-sensitive match to the window's name (given by the
     WM_NAME window property), resource name or class name (both

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     given by the WM_CLASS window property).  The preceding exam-
     ple would enable autoraise on windows named ``emacs'' as
     well as any xterm (since they are of class ``XTerm'') or xmh
     windows (which are of class ``Xmh'').

     String arguments that are interpreted as filenames (see the
     Pixmaps, Cursors, and IconDirectory below) will prepend the
     user's directory (specified by the HOME environment vari-
     able) if the first character is a tilde (~).  If, instead,
     the first character is a colon (:), the name is assumed to
     refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to create
     the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or :delete (both
     refer to the X logo), :dot or :iconify (both refer to the
     dot), :resize (the nested squares used by the resize but-
     ton), :menu (a page with lines), and :question (the question
     mark used for non-existent bitmap files).

     The following variables may be specified at the top of a twm
     startup file.  Lists of Window name prefix strings are indi-
     cated by win-list. Optional arguments are shown in square
     brackets:

     AutoRaise { win-list }
             This variable specifies a list of windows that
             should automatically be raised whenever the pointer
             enters the window.  This action can be interactively
             enabled or disabled on individual windows using the
             function f.autoraise.

     AutoRelativeResize
             This variable indicates that dragging out a window
             size (either when initially sizing the window with
             pointer Button2 or when resizing it) should not wait
             until the pointer has crossed the window edges.
             Instead, moving the pointer automatically causes the
             nearest edge or edges to move by the same amount.
             This allows the resizing of windows that extend off
             the edge of the screen. If the pointer is in the
             center of the window, or if the resize is begun by
             pressing a titlebutton, twm will still wait for the
             pointer to cross a window edge (to prevent
             accidents).  This option is particularly useful for
             people who like the press-drag-release method of
             sweeping out window sizes.

     BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
             This variable specifies the default color of the
             border to be placed around all non-iconified win-
             dows, and may only be given within a Color, Grays-
             cale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist
             specifies a list of window and color name pairs for
             specifying particular border colors for different

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             types of windows.  For example:
             BorderColor "gray50"
             {
                  "XTerm"   "red"
                  "xmh"     "green"
             }
             The default is "black".

     BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
             This variable specifies the default background color
             in the gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders
             (only if NoHighlight hasn't been set), and may only
             be given within a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
             list.  The optional wincolorlist allows per-window
             colors to be specified. The default  is "white".

     BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
             This variable specifies the default foreground color
             in the gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders
             (only if NoHighlight hasn't been set), and may only
             be given within a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
             list.  The optional wincolorlist allows per-window
             colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

     BorderWidth pixels
             This variable specifies the width in pixels of the
             border surrounding all client window frames if
             ClientBorderWidth has not been specified. This value
             is also used to set the border size of windows
             created by twm (such as the icon manager).  The
             default is 2.

     ButtonIndent pixels
             This variable specifies the amount by which
             titlebuttons should be indented on all sides.  Posi-
             tive values cause the buttons to be smaller than the
             window text and highlight area so that they stand
             out.  Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth
             variables to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and
             wide as possible.  The default is 1.

     ClientBorderWidth
             This variable indicates that border width of a
             window's frame should be set to the initial border
             width of the window, rather than to the value of
             BorderWidth.

     Color { colors-list }
             This variable specifies a list of color assignments
             to be made if the default display is capable of
             displaying more than simple black and white.  The
             colors-list is made up of the following color

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             variables and their values: DefaultBackground,
             DefaultForeground, MenuBackground, MenuForeground,
             MenuTitleBackground, MenuTitleForeground, MenuSha-
             dowColor, MenuBorderColor, PointerForeground, and
             PointerBackground. The following color variables may
             also be given a list of window and color name pairs
             to allow per-window colors to be specified (see Bor-
             derColor for details): BorderColor, Icon-
             ManagerHighlight, BorderTitleBackground, Border-
             TitleForeground, TitleBackground, TitleForeground,
             IconBackground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,
             IconManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground.
             For example:
             Color
             {
                  MenuBackground      "gray50"
                  MenuForeground      "blue"
                  BorderColor              "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
                  TitleForeground          "yellow"
                  TitleBackground          "blue"
             }
             All of these color variables may also be specified
             for the Monochrome variable, allowing the same ini-
             tialization file to be used on both color and mono-
             chrome displays.

     ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
             This variable specifies the length of time between
             button clicks needed to begin a constrained move
             operation.  Double clicking within this amount of
             time when invoking f.move will cause the window to
             be moved only in a horizontal or vertical direction.
             Setting this value to 0 will disable constrained
             moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

     Cursors { cursor-list }
             This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should
             use for various pointer cursors.  Each cursor may be
             defined either from the cursor font or from two bit-
             map files. Shapes from the cursor font may be speci-
             fied directly as:
                  cursorname     "string"
             where cursorname is one of the cursor names listed
             below, and string is the name of a glyph as found in
             the file /usr/X11R6/include/X11/cursorfont.h
             (without the ``XC_'' prefix). If the cursor is to be
             defined from bitmap files, the following syntax is
             used instead:
                  cursorname     "image"   "mask"
             The image and mask strings specify the names of
             files containing the glyph image and mask in bit-
             map(1) form. The bitmap files are located in the

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             same manner as icon bitmap files. The following
             example shows the default cursor definitions:
             Cursors
             {
                  Frame          "top_left_arrow"
                  Title          "top_left_arrow"
                  Icon      "top_left_arrow"
                  IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
                  Move      "fleur"
                  Resize         "fleur"
                  Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
                  Button         "hand2"
                  Wait      "watch"
                  Select         "dot"
                  Destroy   "pirate"
             }

     DecorateTransients
             This variable indicates that transient windows
             (those containing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property)
             should have titlebars.  By default, transients are
             not reparented.

     DefaultBackground string
             This variable specifies the background color to be
             used for sizing and information windows.  The
             default is "white".

     DefaultForeground string
             This variable specifies the foreground color to be
             used for sizing and information windows.  The
             default is "black".

     DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
             This variable specifies a list of windows that
             should not be iconified by simply unmapping the win-
             dow (as would be the case if IconifyByUnmapping had
             been set).  This is frequently used to force some
             windows to be treated as icons while other windows
             are handled by the icon manager.

     DontMoveOff
             This variable indicates that windows should not be
             allowed to be moved off the screen.  It can be over-
             ridden by the f.forcemove function.

     DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that titlebars should not be
             squeezed to their minimum size as described under
             SqueezeTitle below. If the optional window list is
             supplied, only those windows will be prevented from
             being squeezed.

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     ForceIcons
             This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified
             in the Icons variable should override any client-
             supplied pixmaps.

     FramePadding pixels
             This variable specifies the distance between the
             titlebar decorations (the button and text) and the
             window frame.  The default is 2 pixels.

     Grayscale { colors }
             This variable specifies a list of color assignments
             that should be made if the screen has a GrayScale
             default visual.  See the description of Colors.

     IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the background color of
             icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color,
             Grayscale or Monochrome list. The optional win-list
             is a list of window names and colors so that per-
             window colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor
             variable for a complete description of the win-list.
             The default is "white".

     IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the color of the border used
             for icon windows, and may only be specified inside
             of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list. The
             optional win-list is a list of window names and
             colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
             See the BorderColor variable for a complete descrip-
             tion of the win-list. The default is "black".

     IconBorderWidth pixels
             This variable specifies the width in pixels of the
             border surrounding icon windows.  The default is 2.

     IconMaxWidth pixels
             This variable specifies the maximum width in pixels
             of the icon window. The default is 1024.

     IconDirectory string
             This variable specifies the directory that should be
             searched if if a bitmap file cannot be found in any
             of the directories in the bitmapFilePath resource.

     IconFont string
             This variable specifies the font to be used to
             display icon names within icons.  The default is
             "variable".

     IconForeground string [{ win-list }]

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             This variable specifies the foreground color to be
             used when displaying icons, and may only be speci-
             fied inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
             list. The optional win-list is a list of window
             names and colors so that per-window colors may be
             specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a com-
             plete description of the win-list. The default is
             "black".

     IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that windows should be icon-
             ified by being unmapped without trying to map any
             icons.  This assumes that the user will remap the
             window through the icon manager, the f.warpto func-
             tion, or the TwmWindows menu. If the optional win-
             list is provided, only those windows will be iconi-
             fied by simply unmapping.  Windows that have both
             this and the IconManagerDontShow options set may not
             be accessible if no binding to the TwmWindows menu
             is set in the user's startup file.

     IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the background color to use
             for icon manager entries, and may only be specified
             inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list. The
             optional win-list is a list of window names and
             colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
             See the BorderColor variable for a complete descrip-
             tion of the win-list. The default is "white".

     IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that the icon manager should
             not display any windows.  If the optional win-list
             is given, only those windows will not be displayed.
             This variable is used to prevent windows that are
             rarely iconified (such as xclock or xload) from tak-
             ing up space in the icon manager.

     IconManagerFont string
             This variable specifies the font to be used when
             displaying icon manager entries.  The default is
             "variable".

     IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the foreground color to be
             used when displaying icon manager entries, and may
             only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or
             Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of
             window names and colors so that per-window colors
             may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for
             a complete description of the win-list. The default
             is "black".

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     IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
             This variable specifies the geometry of the icon
             manager window.  The string argument is standard
             geometry specification that indicates the initial
             full size of the icon manager.  The icon manager
             window is then broken into columns pieces and scaled
             according to the number of entries in the icon
             manager.  Extra entries are wrapped to form addi-
             tional rows.  The default number of columns is 1.

     IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the border color to be used
             when highlighting the icon manager entry that
             currently has the focus, and can only be specified
             inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list. The
             optional win-list is a list of window names and
             colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
             See the BorderColor variable for a complete descrip-
             tion of the win-list. The default is "black".

     IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
             This variable specifies a list of icon managers to
             create.  Each item in the iconmgr-list has the fol-
             lowing format:
                  "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry" columns
             where winname is the name of the windows that should
             be put into this icon manager, iconname is the name
             of that icon manager window's icon, geometry is a
             standard geometry specification, and columns is the
             number of columns in this icon manager as described
             in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
             IconManagers
             {
                  "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
                  "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
             }
             Clients whose name or class is ``XTerm'' will have
             an entry created in the ``XTerm'' icon manager.
             Clients whose name was ``myhost'' would be put into
             the ``myhost'' icon manager.

     IconManagerShow { win-list }
             This variable specifies a list of windows that
             should appear in the icon manager.  When used in
             conjunction with the IconManagerDontShow variable,
             only the windows in this list will be shown in the
             icon manager.

     IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
             This variable specifies an area on the root window
             in which icons are placed if no specific icon loca-
             tion is provided by the client.  The geomstring is a

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             quoted string containing a standard geometry specif-
             ication. If more than one IconRegion lines are
             given, icons will be put into the succeeding icon
             regions when the first is full. The vgrav argument
             should be either North or South and control and is
             used to control whether icons are first filled in
             from the top or bottom of the icon region.  Simi-
             larly, the hgrav argument should be either East or
             West and is used to control whether icons should be
             filled in from left from the right.  Icons are laid
             out within the region in a grid with cells gridwidth
             pixels wide and gridheight pixels high.

     Icons { win-list }
             This variable specifies a list of window names and
             the bitmap filenames that should be used as their
             icons.  For example:
             Icons
             {
                  "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
                  "xfd"          "xfd_icon"
             }
             Windows that match ``XTerm'' and would not be iconi-
             fied by unmapping, and would try to use the icon
             bitmap in the file ``xterm.icon''.  If ForceIcons is
             specified, this bitmap will be used even if the
             client has requested its own icon pixmap.

     InterpolateMenuColors
             This variable indicates that menu entry colors
             should be interpolated between entry specified
             colors.  In the example below:
             Menu "mymenu"
             {
                  "Title"        ("black":"red")          f.title
                  "entry1"                 f.nop
                  "entry2"                 f.nop
                  "entry3"  ("white":"green")   f.nop
                  "entry4"                 f.nop
                  "entry5"  ("red":"white")          f.nop
             }
             the foreground colors for ``entry1'' and ``entry2''
             will be interpolated between black and white, and
             the background colors between red and green. Simi-
             larly, the foreground for ``entry4'' will be half-
             way between white and red, and the background will
             be half-way between green and white.

     MakeTitle { win-list }
             This variable specifies a list of windows on which a
             titlebar should be placed and is used to request
             titles on specific windows when NoTitle has been

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             set.

     MaxWindowSize string
             This variable specifies a geometry in which the
             width and height give the maximum size for a given
             window.  This is typically used to restrict windows
             to the size of the screen.  The default width is
             32767 - screen width.  The default height is 32767 -
             screen height.

     MenuBackground string
             This variable specifies the background color used
             for menus, and can only be specified inside of a
             Color or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

     MenuBorderColor string
             This variable specifies the color of the menu border
             and can only be specified inside of a Color, Grays-
             cale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

     MenuBorderWidth pixels
             This variable specifies the width in pixels of the
             border surrounding menu windows.  The default is 2.

     MenuFont string
             This variable specifies the font to use when
             displaying menus.  The default is "variable".

     MenuForeground string
             This variable specifies the foreground color used
             for menus, and can only be specified inside of a
             Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is
             "black".

     MenuShadowColor string
             This variable specifies the color of the shadow
             behind pull-down menus and can only be specified
             inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.
             The default is "black".

     MenuTitleBackground string
             This variable specifies the background color for
             f.title entries in menus, and can only be specified
             inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.
             The default is "white".

     MenuTitleForeground string
             This variable specifies the foreground color for
             f.title entries in menus and can only be specified
             inside of a Color or Monochrome list.  The default
             is "black".

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     Monochrome { colors }
             This variable specifies a list of color assignments
             that should be made if the screen has a depth of 1.
             See the description of Colors.

     MoveDelta pixels
             This variable specifies the number of pixels the
             pointer must move before the f.move function starts
             working.  Also see the f.deltastop function.  The
             default is zero pixels.

     NoBackingStore
             This variable indicates that twm's menus should not
             request backing store to minimize repainting of
             menus.  This is typically used with servers that can
             repaint faster than they can handle backing store.

     NoCaseSensitive
             This variable indicates that case should be ignored
             when sorting icon names in an icon manager.  This
             option is typically used with applications that cap-
             italize the first letter of their icon name.

     NoDefaults
             This variable indicates that twm should not supply
             the default titlebuttons and bindings.  This option
             should only be used if the startup file contains a
             completely new set of bindings and definitions.

     NoGrabServer
             This variable indicates that twm should not grab the
             server when popping up menus and moving opaque win-
             dows.

     NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that borders should not be
             highlighted to track the location of the pointer.
             If the optional win-list is given, highlighting will
             only be disabled for those windows. When the border
             is highlighted, it will be drawn in the current Bor-
             derColor.  When the border is not highlighted, it
             will be stippled with a gray pattern using the
             current BorderTileForeground and BorderTileBack-
             ground colors.

     NoIconManagers
             This variable indicates that no icon manager should
             be created.

     NoMenuShadows
             This variable indicates that menus should not have
             drop shadows drawn behind them.  This is typically

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             used with slower servers since it speeds up menu
             drawing at the expense of making the menu slightly
             harder to read.

     NoRaiseOnDeiconify
             This variable indicates that windows that are
             deiconified should not be raised.

     NoRaiseOnMove
             This variable indicates that windows should not be
             raised when moved.  This is typically used to allow
             windows to slide underneath each other.

     NoRaiseOnResize
             This variable indicates that windows should not be
             raised when resized.  This is typically used to
             allow windows to be resized underneath each other.

     NoRaiseOnWarp
             This variable indicates that windows should not be
             raised when the pointer is warped into them with the
             f.warpto function.  If this option is set, warping
             to an occluded window may result in the pointer end-
             ing up in the occluding window instead the desired
             window (which causes unexpected behavior with
             f.warpring).

     NoSaveUnders
             This variable indicates that menus should not
             request save-unders to minimize window repainting
             following menu selection.  It is typically used with
             displays that can repaint faster than they can han-
             dle save-unders.

     NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that client window requests
             to change stacking order should be ignored.  If the
             optional win-list is given, only requests on those
             windows will be ignored.  This is typically used to
             prevent applications from relentlessly popping them-
             selves to the front of the window stack.

     NoTitle [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that windows should not have
             titlebars.  If the optional win-list is given, only
             those windows will not have titlebars. MakeTitle may
             be used with this option to force titlebars to be
             put on specific windows.

     NoTitleFocus
             This variable indicates that twm should not set key-
             board input focus to each window as it is entered.

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             Normally, twm sets the focus so that focus and key
             events from the titlebar and icon managers are
             delivered to the application.  If the pointer is
             moved quickly and twm is slow to respond, input can
             be directed to the old window instead of the new.
             This option is typically used to prevent this
             ``input lag'' and to work around bugs in older
             applications that have problems with focus events.

     NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that the highlight area of
             the titlebar, which is used to indicate the window
             that currently has the input focus, should not be
             displayed.  If the optional win-list is given, only
             those windows will not have highlight areas.  This
             and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to substan-
             tially reduce the amount of screen space required by
             titlebars.

     OpaqueMove
             This variable indicates that the f.move function
             should actually move the window instead of just an
             outline so that the user can immediately see what
             the window will look like in the new position.  This
             option is typically used on fast displays (particu-
             larly if NoGrabServer is set).

     Pixmaps { pixmaps }
             This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that
             define the appearance of various images.  Each entry
             is a keyword indicating the pixmap to set, followed
             by a string giving the name of the bitmap file.  The
             following pixmaps may be specified:
             Pixmaps
             {
                  TitleHighlight "gray1"
             }
             The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even
             stipple pattern.

     Priority priority
             This variable sets twm's priority.  priority should
             be an unquoted, signed number (e.g. 999).  This
             variable has an effect only if the server supports
             the SYNC extension.

     RandomPlacement
             This variable indicates that windows with no speci-
             fied geometry should be placed in a pseudo-random
             location instead of having the user drag out an out-
             line.

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     ResizeFont string
             This variable specifies the font to be used for in
             the dimensions window when resizing windows.  The
             default is "fixed".

     RestartPreviousState
             This variable indicates that twm should attempt to
             use the WM_STATE property on client windows to tell
             which windows should be iconified and which should
             be left visible. This is typically used to try to
             regenerate the state that the screen was in before
             the previous window manager was shutdown.

     SaveColor { colors-list }
             This variable indicates a list of color assignments
             to be stored as pixel values in the root window pro-
             perty _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS.  Clients may elect to
             preserve these values when installing their own
             colormap.  Note that use of this mechanism is a way
             an for application to avoid the "technicolor" prob-
             lem, whereby useful screen objects such as window
             borders and titlebars disappear when a programs cus-
             tom colors are installed by the window manager. For
             example:
             SaveColor
             {
                     BorderColor
                     TitleBackground
                     TitleForeground
                     "red"
                     "green"
                     "blue"
             }
             This would place on the root window 3 pixel values
             for borders and titlebars, as well as the three
             color strings, all taken from the default colormap.

     ShowIconManager
             This variable indicates that the icon manager window
             should be displayed when twm is started.  It can
             always be brought up using the f.showiconmgr func-
             tion.

     SortIconManager
             This variable indicates that entries in the icon
             manager should be sorted alphabetically rather than
             by simply appending new windows to the end.

     SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
             This variable indicates that twm should attempt to
             use the SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy
             only as much screen space as they need, rather than

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             extending all the way across the top of the window.
             The optional squeeze-list may be used to control the
             location of the squeezed titlebar along the top of
             the window.  It contains entries of the form:
                  "name"         justification  num  denom
             where name is a window name, justification is either
             left, center, or right, and num and denom are
             numbers specifying a ratio giving the relative posi-
             tion about which the titlebar is justified.  The
             ratio is measured from left to right if the numera-
             tor is positive, and right to left if negative.  A
             denominator of 0 indicates that the numerator should
             be measured in pixels.  For convenience, the ratio
             0/0 is the same as 1/2 for center and -1/1 for
             right.  For example:
             SqueezeTitle
             {
                  "XTerm"   left      0    0
                  "xterm1"  left      1    3
                  "xterm2"  left      2    3
                  "oclock"  center         0    0
                  "emacs"   right          0    0
             }
             The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off
             squeezing on certain titles.

     StartIconified [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that client windows should
             initially be left as icons until explicitly deiconi-
             fied by the user.  If the optional win-list is
             given, only those windows will be started iconic.
             This is useful for programs that do not support an
             -iconic command line option or resource.

     TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the background color used in
             titlebars, and may only be specified inside of a
             Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list. The optional
             win-list is a list of window names and colors so
             that per-window colors may be specified. The default
             is "white".

     TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
             This variable specifies the width in pixels of the
             border surrounding titlebuttons.  This is typically
             set to 0 to allow titlebuttons to take up as much
             space as possible and to not have a border. The
             default is 1.

     TitleFont string
             This variable specifies the font to be used for
             displaying window names in titlebars.  The default

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             is "variable".

     TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
             This variable specifies the foreground color used in
             titlebars, and may only be specified inside of a
             Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list. The optional
             win-list is a list of window names and colors so
             that per-window colors may be specified. The default
             is "black".

     TitleIndent pixels
             This variable specifies the amount by which window
             name should be indented on the left.  The default is
             0.

     TitlePadding pixels
             This variable specifies the distance between the
             various buttons, text, and highlight areas in the
             titlebar.  The default is 8 pixels.

     UnknownIcon string
             This variable specifies the filename of a bitmap
             file to be used as the default icon.  This bitmap
             will be used as the icon of all clients which do not
             provide an icon bitmap and are not listed in the
             Icons list.

     UsePPosition string
             This variable specifies whether or not twm should
             honor program-requested locations (given by the PPo-
             sition flag in the WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the
             absence of a user-specified position. The argument
             string may have one of three values:  "off" (the
             default) indicating that twm should ignore the
             program-supplied position, "on" indicating that the
             position should be used, and "non-zero" indicating
             that the position should used if it is other than
             (0,0).  The latter option is for working around a
             bug in older toolkits.

     WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
             This variable indicates that the pointer should be
             warped into windows when they are deiconified.  If
             the optional win-list is given, the pointer will
             only be warped when those windows are deiconified.

     WindowRing { win-list }
             This variable specifies a list of windows along
             which the f.warpring function cycles.

     WarpUnmapped
             This variable indicates that the f.warpto function

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             should deiconify any iconified windows it
             encounters.  This is typically used to make a key
             binding that will pop a particular window (such as
             xmh), no matter where it is.  The default is for
             f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.

     XorValue number
             This variable specifies the value to use when draw-
             ing window outlines for moving and resizing.  This
             should be set to a value that will result in a
             variety of of distinguishable colors when
             exclusive-or'ed with the contents of the user's typ-
             ical screen.  Setting this variable to 1 often gives
             nice results if adjacent colors in the default
             colormap are distinct.  By default, twm will attempt
             to cause temporary lines to appear at the opposite
             end of the colormap from the graphics.

     Zoom [ count ]
             This variable indicates that outlines suggesting
             movement of a window to and from its iconified state
             should be displayed whenever a window is iconified
             or deiconified.  The optional count argument speci-
             fies the number of outlines to be drawn.  The
             default count is 8.

     The following variables must be set after the fonts have
     been assigned, so it is usually best to put them at the end
     of the variables or beginning of the bindings sections:

     DefaultFunction function
             This variable specifies the function to be executed
             when a key or button event is received for which no
             binding is provided.  This is typically bound to
             f.nop, f.beep, or a menu containing window opera-
             tions.

     WindowFunction function
             This variable specifies the function to execute when
             a window is selected from the TwmWindows menu.  If
             this variable is not set, the window will be deicon-
             ified and raised.

BINDINGS

     After the desired variables have been set, functions may be
     attached titlebuttons and key and pointer buttons.
     Titlebuttons may be added from the left or right side and
     appear in the titlebar from left-to-right according to the
     order in which they are specified.  Key and pointer button
     bindings may be given in any order.

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     Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the
     pixmap to use in the button box and the function to be
     invoked when a pointer button is pressed within them:
     LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
     or
     RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function
     The bitmapname may refer to one of the  built-in bitmaps
     (which are scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropri-
     ate colon-prefixed name described above.

     Key and pointer button specifications must give the modif-
     iers that must be pressed, over which parts of the screen
     the pointer must be, and what function is to be invoked.
     Keys are given as strings containing the appropriate keysym
     name; buttons are given as the keywords Button1-Button5:
     "FP1"          = modlist : context : function
     Button1   = modlist : context : function
     The modlist is any combination of the modifier names shift,
     control, lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which
     may be abbreviated as s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5,
     respectively) separated by a vertical bar (|). Similarly,
     the context is any combination of window, title, icon, root,
     frame, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr abbreviation is
     m), or all, separated by a vertical bar.  The function is
     any of the f. keywords described below.  For example, the
     default startup file contains the following bindings:
     Button1   =    : root         : f.menu "TwmWindows"
     Button1   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-lower"
     Button2   = m  : window | icon     : f.iconify
     Button3   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-raise"
     Button1   =    : title        : f.function "move-or-raise"
     Button2   =    : title        : f.raiselower
     Button1   =    : icon         : f.function "move-or-iconify"
     Button2   =    : icon         : f.iconify
     Button1   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
     Button2   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
     A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the
     keyboard could use the following bindings:
     "F1" =    : all          : f.iconify
     "F2" =    : all          : f.raiselower
     "F3" =    : all          : f.warpring "next"
     "F4" =    : all          : f.warpto "xmh"
     "F5" =    : all          : f.warpto "emacs"
     "F6" =    : all          : f.colormap "next"
     "F7" =    : all          : f.colormap "default"
     "F20"     =    : all          : f.warptoscreen "next"
     "Left"    = m  : all          : f.backiconmgr
     "Right"   = m | s   : all          : f.forwiconmgr
     "Up" = m  : all          : f.upiconmgr
     "Down"    = m | s   : all          : f.downiconmgr
     Twm provides many more window manipulation primitives than
     can be conveniently stored in a titlebar, menu, or set of

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     key bindings.  Although a small set of defaults are supplied
     (unless the NoDefaults is specified), most users will want
     to have their most common operations bound to key and button
     strokes.  To do this, twm associates names with each of the
     primitives and provides user-defined functions for building
     higher level primitives and menus for interactively select-
     ing among groups of functions.

     User-defined functions contain the name by which they are
     referenced in calls to f.function and a list of other func-
     tions to execute.  For example:
     Function "move-or-lower" { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
     Function "move-or-raise" { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
     Function "move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
     Function "restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
     The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it
     appears in the function specification.

     In the descriptions below, if the function is said to
     operate on the selected window, but is invoked from a root
     menu, the cursor will be changed to the Select cursor and
     the next window to receive a button press will be chosen:

     ! string
             This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

     f.autoraise
             This function toggles whether or not the selected
             window is raised whenever entered by the pointer.
             See the description of the variable AutoRaise.

     f.backiconmgr
             This function warps the pointer to the previous
             column in the current icon manager, wrapping back to
             the previous row if necessary.

     f.beep  This function sounds the keyboard bell.

     f.bottomzoom
             This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function,
             but resizes the window to fill only the bottom half
             of the screen.

     f.circledown
             This function lowers the top-most window that
             occludes another window.

     f.circleup
             This function raises the bottom-most window that is
             occluded by another window.

     f.colormap string

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             This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from
             the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window) that
             twm will display when the pointer is in this window.
             The argument string may have one of the following
             values: "next", "prev", and "default".  It should be
             noted here that in general, the installed colormap
             is determined by keyboard focus. A pointer driven
             keyboard focus will install a private colormap upon
             entry of the window owning the colormap.  Using the
             click to type model, private colormaps will not be
             installed until the user presses a mouse button on
             the target window.

     f.deiconify
             This function deiconifies the selected window.  If
             the window is not an icon, this function does noth-
             ing.

     f.delete
             This function sends the WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to
             the selected window if the client application has
             requested it through the WM_PROTOCOLS window pro-
             perty.  The application is supposed to respond to
             the message by removing the indicated window.  If
             the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW mes-
             sages, the keyboard bell will be rung indicating
             that the user should choose an alternative method.
             Note this is very different from f.destroy.  The
             intent here is to delete a single window,  not
             necessarily the entire application.

     f.deltastop
             This function allows a user-defined function to be
             aborted if the pointer has been moved more than
             MoveDelta pixels.  See the example definition given
             for Function "move-or-raise" at the beginning of the
             section.

     f.destroy
             This function instructs the X server to close the
             display connection of the client that created the
             selected window.  This should only be used as a last
             resort for shutting down runaway clients.  See also
             f.delete.

     f.downiconmgr
             This function warps the pointer to the next row in
             the current icon manger, wrapping to the beginning
             of the next column if necessary.

     f.exec string
             This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh

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             for execution. In multiscreen mode, if string starts
             a new X client without giving a display argument,
             the client will appear on the screen from which this
             function was invoked.

     f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus of the
             server to the selected window, changing the focus
             rule from pointer-driven if necessary. If the
             selected window already was focused, this function
             executes an f.unfocus.

     f.forcemove
             This function is like f.move except that it ignores
             the DontMoveOff variable.

     f.forwiconmgr
             This function warps the pointer to the next column
             in the current icon manager, wrapping to the begin-
             ning of the next row if necessary.

     f.fullzoom
             This function resizes the selected window to the
             full size of the display or else restores the origi-
             nal size if the window was already zoomed.

     f.function string
             This function executes the user-defined function
             whose name is specified by the argument string.

     f.hbzoom
             This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

     f.hideiconmgr
             This function unmaps the current icon manager.

     f.horizoom
             This variable is similar to the f.zoom function
             except that the selected window is resized to the
             full width of the display.

     f.htzoom
             This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

     f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

     f.iconify
             This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected
             window or icon, respectively.

     f.identify
             This function displays a summary of the name and
             geometry of the selected window.  If the server

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             supports the SYNC extension, the priority of the
             client owning the window is also displayed. Clicking
             the pointer or pressing a key in the window will
             dismiss it.

     f.lefticonmgr
             This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that
             wrapping does not change rows.

     f.leftzoom
             This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom func-
             tion but causes the selected window is only resized
             to the left half of the display.

     f.lower This function lowers the selected window.

     f.menu string
             This function invokes the menu specified by the
             argument string. Cascaded menus may be built by
             nesting calls to f.menu.

     f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected win-
             dow (or the window itself if the OpaqueMove variable
             is set) until the invoking pointer button is
             released.  Double clicking within the number of mil-
             liseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the
             pointer to the center of the window and constrains
             the move to be either horizontal or vertical depend-
             ing on which grid line is crossed. To abort a move,
             press another button before releasing the first but-
             ton.

     f.nexticonmgr
             This function warps the pointer to the next icon
             manager containing any windows on the current or any
             succeeding screen.

     f.nop   This function does nothing and is typically used
             with the DefaultFunction or WindowFunction variables
             or to introduce blank lines in menus.

     f.previconmgr
             This function warps the pointer to the previous icon
             manager containing any windows on the current or
             preceding screens.

     f.priority string
             This function sets the priority of the client owning
             the selected window to the numeric value of the
             argument string, which should be a signed integer in
             double quotes (e.g. "999" ).  This function has an
             effect only if the server supports the SYNC

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             extension.

     f.quit  This function causes twm to restore the window's
             borders and exit.  If twm is the first client
             invoked from xdm, this will result in a server
             reset.

     f.raise This function raises the selected window.

     f.raiselower
             This function raises the selected window to the top
             of the stacking order if it is occluded by any win-
             dows, otherwise the window will be lowered.

     f.refresh
             This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

     f.resize
             This function displays an outline of the selected
             window.  Crossing a border (or setting AutoRela-
             tiveResize) will cause the outline to begin to
             rubber band until the invoking button is released.
             To abort a resize, press another button before
             releasing the first button.

     f.restart
             This function kills and restarts twm.

     f.startwm string
             This function kills twm and starts another window
             manager, as specified by string.

     f.righticonmgr
             This function is similar to f.nexticonmgr except
             that wrapping does not change rows.

     f.rightzoom
             This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom func-
             tion except that the selected window is only resized
             to the right half of the display.

     f.saveyourself
             This function sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the
             selected window if it has requested the message in
             its WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  Clients that
             accept this message are supposed to checkpoint all
             state associated with the window and update the
             WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM.  If
             the selected window has not selected for this mes-
             sage, the keyboard bell will be rung.

     f.showiconmgr

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             This function maps the current icon manager.

     f.sorticonmgr
             This function sorts the entries in the current icon
             manager alphabetically. See the variable SortIcon-
             Manager.

     f.title This function provides a centered, unselectable item
             in a menu definition.  It should not be used in any
             other context.

     f.topzoom
             This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom func-
             tion except that the selected window is only resized
             to the top half of the display.

     f.unfocus
             This function resets the focus back to pointer-
             driven.  This should be used when a focused window
             is no longer desired.

     f.upiconmgr
             This function warps the pointer to the previous row
             in the current icon manager, wrapping to the last
             row in the same column if necessary.

     f.vlzoom
             This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

     f.vrzoom
             This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

     f.warpring string
             This function warps the pointer to the next or pre-
             vious window (as indicated by the argument string,
             which may be "next" or "prev") specified in the Win-
             dowRing variable.

     f.warpto string
             This function warps the pointer to the window which
             has a name or class that matches string.  If the
             window is iconified, it will be deiconified if the
             variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

     f.warptoiconmgr string
             This function warps the pointer to the icon manager
             entry associated with the window containing the
             pointer in the icon manager specified by the argu-
             ment string.  If string is empty (i.e. ""), the
             current icon manager is chosen.

     f.warptoscreen string

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             This function warps the pointer to the screen speci-
             fied by the argument string.  String may be a number
             (e.g. "0" or "1"), the word "next" (indicating the
             current screen plus 1, skipping over any unmanaged
             screens), the word "back" (indicating the current
             screen minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged
             screens), or the word "prev" (indicating the last
             screen visited.

     f.winrefresh
             This function is similar to the f.refresh function
             except that only the selected window is refreshed.

     f.zoom  This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function,
             except that the only the height of the selected win-
             dow is changed.

MENUS

     Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using
     pop-up (when bound to a pointer button) or pull-down (when
     associated with a titlebutton) menus.  Each menu specifica-
     tion contains the name of the menu as it will be referred to
     by f.menu, optional default foreground and background
     colors, the list of item names and the functions they should
     invoke, and optional foreground and background colors for
     individual items:
     Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
     {
          string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]     function1
          string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]     function2
               .
               .
               .
          stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
     }

     The menuname is case-sensitive. The optional deffore and
     defback arguments specify the foreground and background
     colors used on a color display to highlight menu entries.
     The string portion of each menu entry will be the text which
     will appear in the menu. The optional fore and back argu-
     ments specify the foreground and background colors of the
     menu entry when the pointer is not in the entry.  These
     colors will only be used on a color display.  The default is
     to use the colors specified by the MenuForeground and Menu-
     Background variables. The function portion of the menu entry
     is one of the functions, including any user-defined func-
     tions, or additional menus.

     There is a special menu named TwmWindows which contains the
     names of all of the client and twm-supplied windows.
     Selecting an entry will cause the WindowFunction to be

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     executed on that window.  If WindowFunction hasn't been set,
     the window will be deiconified and raised.

ICONS

     Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconi-
     fied windows. The common pixmap-and-text style may be laid
     out by hand or automatically arranged as described by the
     IconRegion variable.  In addition, a terse grid of icon
     names, called an icon manager, provides a more efficient use
     of screen space as well as the ability to navigate among
     windows from the keyboard.

     An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected
     or all windows currently on the display.  In addition to the
     window name, a small button using the default iconify symbol
     will be displayed to the left of the name when the window is
     iconified.  By default, clicking on an entry in the icon
     manager performs f.iconify. To change the actions taken in
     the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specify-
     ing button and keyboard bindings.

     Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs key-
     board focus to the indicated window (setting the focus
     explicitly or else sending synthetic events NoTitleFocus is
     set). Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downiconmgr f.lefticonmgr,
     and f.righticonmgr functions, the input focus can be changed
     between windows directly from the keyboard.

BUGS

     The resource manager should have been used instead of all of
     the window lists.

     The IconRegion variable should take a list.

     Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move func-
     tion will sometimes cause the window to move, even though
     the pointer is not moved.

     If IconifyByUnmapping is on and windows are listed in Icon-
     ManagerDontShow but not in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may
     be lost if they are iconified and no bindings to f.menu
     "TwmWindows" or f.warpto are setup.

FILES

     $HOME/.twmrc.<screen number>
     $HOME/.twmrc
     /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

     DISPLAY This variable is used to determine which X server to
             use.  It is also set during f.exec so that programs
             come up on the proper screen.

XFree86                   Version 4.5.0                        28

TWM(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               TWM(1)

     HOME    This variable is used as the prefix for files that
             begin with a tilde and for locating the twm startup
             file.

SEE ALSO

     X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS

     Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consor-
     tium; Steve Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith Packard, MIT
     X Consortium; Dave Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne,
     Apple Computer.

XFree86                   Version 4.5.0                        29

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