MirOS Manual: tar(1)

TAR(1)                       BSD Reference Manual                       TAR(1)

NAME

     tar - tape archiver

SYNOPSIS

     tar {crtux}[014578AabefHhJjLmNOoPRSpqsvwXZz] [blocking-
         factor | archive | replstr] [-C directory] [-I file] [file ...]
     tar {-crtux} [-014578AaeHhJjLmNOoPpqRSvwXZz] [-b blocking-factor]
         [-C directory] [-f archive] [-I file] [-M flag] [-s replstr]
         [file ...]

DESCRIPTION

     The tar command creates, adds files to, or extracts files from an archive
     file in "tar" format. A tar archive is often stored on a magnetic tape,
     but can be stored equally well on a floppy, CD-ROM, or in a regular disk
     file.

     In the first (legacy) form, all option flags except for -C and -I must be
     contained within the first argument to tar and must not be prefixed by a
     hyphen ('-'). Option arguments, if any, are processed as subsequent argu-
     ments to tar and are processed in the order in which their corresponding
     option flags have been presented on the command line.

     In the second and preferred form, option flags may be given in any order
     and are immediately followed by their corresponding option argument
     values.

     One of the following flags must be present:

     -c      Create new archive, or overwrite an existing archive, adding the
             specified files to it.

     -r      Append the named new files to existing archive. Note that this
             will only work on media on which an end-of-file mark can be
             overwritten.

     -t      List contents of archive. If any files are named on the command
             line, only those files will be listed. The file arguments may be
             specified as glob patterns (see glob(3) for more information), in
             which case tar will list all archive members that match each pat-
             tern.

     -u      Alias for -r.

     -x      Extract files from archive. If any files are named on the command
             line, only those files will be extracted from the archive. The
             file arguments may be specified as glob patterns (see glob(3) for
             more information), in which case tar will extract all archive
             members that match each pattern.

             If more than one copy of a file exists in the archive, later
             copies will overwrite earlier copies during extraction. The file
             mode and modification time are preserved if possible. The file
             mode is subject to modification by the umask(2).

     In addition to the flags mentioned above, any of the following flags may
     be used:

     -A      Write Unix Archiver libraries instead of tape archives.

     -a      Guess the compression utility based on the archive filename. Ina-
             bility to guess will result in quietly not using any compression.
             This option only exists for semi-compatibility with GNU tar; it
             is strongly recommended to archive to stdout and pipe into an
             external compression utility with appropriate arguments instead:
                   tar -cf - foo | xz -2e >foo.txz

     -b blocking-factor
             Set blocking factor to use for the archive. tar uses 512-byte
             blocks. The default is 20, the maximum is 126. Archives with a
             blocking factor larger than 63 violate the POSIX standard and
             will not be portable to all systems.

     -C directory
             This is a positional argument which sets the working directory
             for the following files. When extracting, files will be extracted
             into the specified directory; when creating, the specified files
             will be matched from the directory.

     -e      Stop after the first error.

     -f archive
             Filename where the archive is stored. Defaults to /dev/rst0.

     -H      Follow symlinks given on the command line only.

     -h      Follow symbolic links as if they were normal files or direc-
             tories. In extract mode this means that a directory entry in the
             archive will not overwrite an existing symbolic link, but rather
             what the link ultimately points to.

     -I file
             This is a positional argument which reads the names of files to
             archive or extract from the given file, one per line.

     -J      Use the xz utility to compress the archive.

     -j      Use the bzip2 utility to compress the archive.

     -L      Synonym for the -h option.

     -M flag
             Configure the archive normaliser. flag is either a numeric value
             compatible to strtonum(3) which is directly stored in the flags
             word, or one of the following values, optionally prefixed with
             "no-" to turn them off:

             inodes  0x0001: Serialise inodes, zero device info.
                     (cpio, sv4cpio, sv4crc)
             links   0x0002: Store content of hard links only once.
                     (cpio, sv4cpio, sv4crc)
             mtime   0x0004: Zero out the file modification time.
                     (ar, cpio, sv4cpio, sv4crc, ustar)
             uidgid  0x0008: Set owner to 0:0 (root:wheel).
                     (ar, cpio, sv4cpio, sv4crc, ustar)
             verb    0x0010: Debug this option.
             debug   0x0020: Debug file header storage.
             lncp    0x0040: Extract hard links by copy if link fails.
             numid   0x0080: Use only numeric uid and gid values.
                     (ustar)
             gslash  0x0100: Append a slash after directory names.
                     (ustar)
             set     0x0003: Keep ownership and mtime intact.
             dist    0x008B: Clean everything except mtime.
             norm    0x008F: Clean everything.
             root    0x0089: Clean owner and device information.

             When creating an archive and verbosely listing output, these nor-
             malisation operations are not reflected in the output, because
             they are made only after the output has been shown.

             This option is only implemented for the ar, cpio, sv4cpio,
             sv4crc, and ustar file format writing routines.

     -m      Do not preserve modification time.

     -N      Same as -M numid.

     -O      If reading, extract files to standard output.
             If writing, write old-style (non-POSIX) archives.

     -o      Don't write directory information that the older (V7) style tar
             is unable to decode. This implies the -O flag.

     -P      Do not strip leading slashes ('/') from pathnames. The default is
             to strip leading slashes.

     -p      Preserve user and group ID as well as file mode regardless of the
             current umask(2). The setuid and setgid bits are only preserved
             if the user is the superuser. Only meaningful in conjunction with
             the -x flag.

     -q      Select the first archive member that matches each file operand.
             No more than one archive member is matched for each file. When
             members of type directory are matched, the file hierarchy rooted
             at that directory is also matched.

     -R      Write SysVR4 CPIO files instead of tar or POSIX ustar files.
             Serialise inode numbers, zero out device information. The file
             content of hard links is stored only once.

     -S      Write SysVR4 CPIO files with CRC instead of tar or POSIX ustar
             files. Serialise inode numbers, zero out device information. The
             file content of hard links is stored only once.

     -s replstr
             Modify the archive member names according to the substitution ex-
             pression replstr, using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular
             expressions. file arguments may be given to restrict the list of
             archive members to those specified.

             The format of these regular expressions is

                   /old/new/[gp]

             As in ed(1), old is a basic regular expression (see re_format(7))
             and new can contain an ampersand ('&'), '\n' (where n is a digit)
             back-references, or subexpression matching. The old string may
             also contain newline characters. Any non-null character can be
             used as a delimiter ('/' is shown here). Multiple -s expressions
             can be specified. The expressions are applied in the order they
             are specified on the command line, terminating with the first
             successful substitution.

             The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution ex-
             pression to the pathname substring, which starts with the first
             character following the end of the last successful substitution.
             The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g
             option. The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a
             successful substitution to be written to standard error in the
             following format:

                   original-pathname >> new-pathname

             File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string
             are not selected and will be skipped.

     -v      Verbose operation mode.

     -w      Interactively rename files. This option causes tar to prompt the
             user for the filename to use when storing or extracting files in
             an archive.

     -X      Do not cross mount points in the file system.

     -Z      Use the compress(1) utility to compress the archive.

     -z      Use the gzip(1) utility to compress the archive.

     The options [-014578] can be used to select one of the compiled-in backup
     devices, /dev/rstN.

ENVIRONMENT

     TMPDIR      Path in which to store temporary files.

     TAPE        Default tape device to use instead of /dev/rst0.

FILES

     /dev/rst0  default archive name

EXIT STATUS

     The tar utility exits with one of the following values:

           0       All files were processed successfully.
           1       An error occurred.

EXAMPLES

     Create an archive on the default tape drive, containing the files named
     bonvole and sekve:

           $ tar c bonvole sekve

     Output a gzip(1) compressed archive containing the files bonvole and
     sekve to a file called foriru.tar.gz:

           $ tar zcf foriru.tar.gz bonvole sekve

     Verbosely create an archive, called backup.tar.gz, of all files matching
     the shell glob(3) function *.c:

           $ tar zcvf backup.tar.gz *.c

     Verbosely list, but do not extract, all files ending in .jpeg from a
     compressed archive named backup.tar.gz. Note that the glob pattern has
     been quoted to avoid expansion by the shell:

           $ tar tvzf backup.tar.gz '*.jpeg'

     For more detailed examples, see pax(1).

DIAGNOSTICS

     Whenever tar cannot create a file or a link when extracting an archive or
     cannot find a file while writing an archive, or cannot preserve the user
     ID, group ID, file mode, or access and modification times when the -p op-
     tion is specified, a diagnostic message is written to standard error and
     a non-zero exit value will be returned, but processing will continue. In
     the case where tar cannot create a link to a file, unless -M lncp is
     given, tar will not create a second copy of the file.

     If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by
     a signal or error, tar may have only partially extracted the file the
     user wanted. Additionally, the file modes of extracted files and direc-
     tories may have incorrect file bits, and the modification and access
     times may be wrong.

     If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or
     error, tar may have only partially created the archive, which may violate
     the specific archive format specification.

SEE ALSO

     ar(1), cpio(1), pax(1)

HISTORY

     A tar command first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

AUTHORS

     Keith Muller at the University of California, San Diego.

     MirOS extensions by Thorsten Glaser <tg@mirbsd.org>.

CAVEATS

     The flags -AaJjLMNRS are not portable to other implementations of tar
     where they may have a different meaning or not exist at all.

BUGS

     The pax file format is not yet supported.

MirOS                            July 3, 2014                                4

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