MirOS Manual: perlreref(1)


PERLREREF(1)    Perl Programmers Reference Guide     PERLREREF(1)

NAME

     perlreref - Perl Regular Expressions Reference

DESCRIPTION

     This is a quick reference to Perl's regular expressions. For
     full information see perlre and perlop, as well as the "SEE
     ALSO" section in this document.

     OPERATORS

       =~ determines to which variable the regex is applied.
          In its absence, $_ is used.

             $var =~ /foo/;

       !~ determines to which variable the regex is applied,
          and negates the result of the match; it returns
          false if the match succeeds, and true if it fails.

            $var !~ /foo/;

       m/pattern/igmsoxc searches a string for a pattern match,
          applying the given options.

             i  case-Insensitive
             g  Global - all occurrences
             m  Multiline mode - ^ and $ match internal lines
             s  match as a Single line - . matches \n
             o  compile pattern Once
             x  eXtended legibility - free whitespace and comments
             c  don't reset pos on failed matches when using /g

          If 'pattern' is an empty string, the last I<successfully> matched
          regex is used. Delimiters other than '/' may be used for both this
          operator and the following ones.

       qr/pattern/imsox lets you store a regex in a variable,
          or pass one around. Modifiers as for m// and are stored
          within the regex.

       s/pattern/replacement/igmsoxe substitutes matches of
          'pattern' with 'replacement'. Modifiers as for m//
          with one addition:

             e  Evaluate replacement as an expression

          'e' may be specified multiple times. 'replacement' is interpreted
          as a double quoted string unless a single-quote (') is the delimiter.

       ?pattern? is like m/pattern/ but matches only once. No alternate
           delimiters can be used. Must be reset with L<reset|perlfunc/reset>.

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     SYNTAX

        \       Escapes the character immediately following it
        .       Matches any single character except a newline (unless /s is used)
        ^       Matches at the beginning of the string (or line, if /m is used)
        $       Matches at the end of the string (or line, if /m is used)
        *       Matches the preceding element 0 or more times
        +       Matches the preceding element 1 or more times
        ?       Matches the preceding element 0 or 1 times
        {...}   Specifies a range of occurrences for the element preceding it
        [...]   Matches any one of the characters contained within the brackets
        (...)   Groups subexpressions for capturing to $1, $2...
        (?:...) Groups subexpressions without capturing (cluster)
        |       Matches either the subexpression preceding or following it
        \1, \2 ...  The text from the Nth group

     ESCAPE SEQUENCES

     These work as in normal strings.

        \a       Alarm (beep)
        \e       Escape
        \f       Formfeed
        \n       Newline
        \r       Carriage return
        \t       Tab
        \037     Any octal ASCII value
        \x7f     Any hexadecimal ASCII value
        \x{263a} A wide hexadecimal value
        \cx      Control-x
        \N{name} A named character

        \l  Lowercase next character
        \u  Titlecase next character
        \L  Lowercase until \E
        \U  Uppercase until \E
        \Q  Disable pattern metacharacters until \E
        \E  End case modification

     For Titlecase, see "Titlecase".

     This one works differently from normal strings:

        \b  An assertion, not backspace, except in a character class

     CHARACTER CLASSES

        [amy]    Match 'a', 'm' or 'y'
        [f-j]    Dash specifies "range"
        [f-j-]   Dash escaped or at start or end means 'dash'
        [^f-j]   Caret indicates "match any character _except_ these"

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     The following sequences work within or without a character
     class. The first six are locale aware, all are Unicode
     aware.  The default character class equivalent are given.
     See perllocale and perlunicode for details.

        \d      A digit                     [0-9]
        \D      A nondigit                  [^0-9]
        \w      A word character            [a-zA-Z0-9_]
        \W      A non-word character        [^a-zA-Z0-9_]
        \s      A whitespace character      [ \t\n\r\f]
        \S      A non-whitespace character  [^ \t\n\r\f]

        \C      Match a byte (with Unicode, '.' matches a character)
        \pP     Match P-named (Unicode) property
        \p{...} Match Unicode property with long name
        \PP     Match non-P
        \P{...} Match lack of Unicode property with long name
        \X      Match extended unicode sequence

     POSIX character classes and their Unicode and Perl
     equivalents:

        alnum   IsAlnum              Alphanumeric
        alpha   IsAlpha              Alphabetic
        ascii   IsASCII              Any ASCII char
        blank   IsSpace  [ \t]       Horizontal whitespace (GNU extension)
        cntrl   IsCntrl              Control characters
        digit   IsDigit  \d          Digits
        graph   IsGraph              Alphanumeric and punctuation
        lower   IsLower              Lowercase chars (locale and Unicode aware)
        print   IsPrint              Alphanumeric, punct, and space
        punct   IsPunct              Punctuation
        space   IsSpace  [\s\ck]     Whitespace
                IsSpacePerl   \s     Perl's whitespace definition
        upper   IsUpper              Uppercase chars (locale and Unicode aware)
        word    IsWord   \w          Alphanumeric plus _ (Perl extension)
        xdigit  IsXDigit [0-9A-Fa-f] Hexadecimal digit

     Within a character class:

         POSIX       traditional   Unicode
         [:digit:]       \d        \p{IsDigit}
         [:^digit:]      \D        \P{IsDigit}

     ANCHORS

     All are zero-width assertions.

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        ^  Match string start (or line, if /m is used)
        $  Match string end (or line, if /m is used) or before newline
        \b Match word boundary (between \w and \W)
        \B Match except at word boundary (between \w and \w or \W and \W)
        \A Match string start (regardless of /m)
        \Z Match string end (before optional newline)
        \z Match absolute string end
        \G Match where previous m//g left off

     QUANTIFIERS

     Quantifiers are greedy by default -- match the longest left-
     most.

        Maximal Minimal Allowed range
        ------- ------- -------------
        {n,m}   {n,m}?  Must occur at least n times but no more than m times
        {n,}    {n,}?   Must occur at least n times
        {n}     {n}?    Must occur exactly n times
        *       *?      0 or more times (same as {0,})
        +       +?      1 or more times (same as {1,})
        ?       ??      0 or 1 time (same as {0,1})

     There is no quantifier {,n} -- that gets understood as a
     literal string.

     EXTENDED CONSTRUCTS

        (?#text)         A comment
        (?imxs-imsx:...) Enable/disable option (as per m// modifiers)
        (?=...)          Zero-width positive lookahead assertion
        (?!...)          Zero-width negative lookahead assertion
        (?<=...)         Zero-width positive lookbehind assertion
        (?<!...)         Zero-width negative lookbehind assertion
        (?>...)          Grab what we can, prohibit backtracking
        (?{ code })      Embedded code, return value becomes $^R
        (??{ code })     Dynamic regex, return value used as regex
        (?(cond)yes|no)  cond being integer corresponding to capturing parens
        (?(cond)yes)        or a lookaround/eval zero-width assertion

     VARIABLES

        $_    Default variable for operators to use
        $*    Enable multiline matching (deprecated; not in 5.9.0 or later)

        $&    Entire matched string
        $`    Everything prior to matched string
        $'    Everything after to matched string

     The use of those last three will slow down all regex use
     within your program. Consult perlvar for @LAST_MATCH_START
     to see equivalent expressions that won't cause slow down.

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     See also Devel::SawAmpersand.

        $1, $2 ...  hold the Xth captured expr
        $+    Last parenthesized pattern match
        $^N   Holds the most recently closed capture
        $^R   Holds the result of the last (?{...}) expr
        @-    Offsets of starts of groups. $-[0] holds start of whole match
        @+    Offsets of ends of groups. $+[0] holds end of whole match

     Captured groups are numbered according to their opening
     paren.

     FUNCTIONS

        lc          Lowercase a string
        lcfirst     Lowercase first char of a string
        uc          Uppercase a string
        ucfirst     Titlecase first char of a string

        pos         Return or set current match position
        quotemeta   Quote metacharacters
        reset       Reset ?pattern? status
        study       Analyze string for optimizing matching

        split       Use regex to split a string into parts

     The first four of these are like the escape sequences "\L",
     "\l", "\U", and "\u".  For Titlecase, see "Titlecase".

     TERMINOLOGY

     Titlecase

     Unicode concept which most often is equal to uppercase, but
     for certain characters like the German "sharp s" there is a
     difference.

AUTHOR

     Iain Truskett.

     This document may be distributed under the same terms as
     Perl itself.

SEE ALSO

     +   perlretut for a tutorial on regular expressions.

     +   perlrequick for a rapid tutorial.

     +   perlre for more details.

     +   perlvar for details on the variables.

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     +   perlop for details on the operators.

     +   perlfunc for details on the functions.

     +   perlfaq6 for FAQs on regular expressions.

     +   The re module to alter behaviour and aid debugging.

     +   "Debugging regular expressions" in perldebug

     +   perluniintro, perlunicode, charnames and locale for
         details on regexes and internationalisation.

     +   Mastering Regular Expressions by Jeffrey Friedl
         (http://regex.info/) for a thorough grounding and refer-
         ence on the topic.

THANKS

     David P.C. Wollmann, Richard Soderberg, Sean M. Burke, Tom
     Christiansen, Jim Cromie, and Jeffrey Goff for useful
     advice.

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