MirOS Manual: perlmodlib(1)


PERLMODLIB(1)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide    PERLMODLIB(1)

NAME

     perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding
     existing ones

THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY

     Many modules are included in the Perl distribution.  These
     are described below, and all end in .pm.  You may discover
     compiled library files (usually ending in .so) or small
     pieces of modules to be autoloaded (ending in .al); these
     were automatically generated by the installation process.
     You may also discover files in the library directory that
     end in either .pl or .ph.  These are old libraries supplied
     so that old programs that use them still run.  The .pl files
     will all eventually be converted into standard modules, and
     the .ph files made by h2ph will probably end up as extension
     modules made by h2xs.  (Some .ph values may already be
     available through the POSIX, Errno, or Fcntl modules.) The
     pl2pm file in the distribution may help in your conversion,
     but it's just a mechanical process and therefore far from
     bulletproof.

     Pragmatic Modules

     They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in
     that they tend to affect the compilation of your program,
     and thus will usually work well only when used within a
     "use", or "no".  Most of these are lexically scoped, so an
     inner BLOCK may countermand them by saying:

         no integer;
         no strict 'refs';
         no warnings;

     which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.

     Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that
     affect the $^H hints variable.  Others affect the current
     package instead, like "use vars" and "use subs", which allow
     you to predeclare a variables or subroutines within a par-
     ticular file rather than just a block.  Such declarations
     are effective for the entire file for which they were
     declared.  You cannot rescind them with "no vars" or "no
     subs".

     The following pragmas are defined (and have their own docu-
     mentation).

     attributes  Get/set subroutine or variable attributes

     attrs       Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

     autouse     Postpone load of modules until a function is

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                 used

     base        Establish IS-A relationship with base classes at
                 compile time

     bigint      Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

     bignum      Transparent BigNumber support for Perl

     bigrat      Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for
                 Perl

     blib        Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

     bytes       Force byte semantics rather than character
                 semantics

     charnames   Define character names for "\N{named}" string
                 literal escapes

     constant    Declare constants

     diagnostics Produce verbose warning diagnostics

     encoding    Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or
                 non-utf8

     fields      Compile-time class fields

     filetest    Control the filetest permission operators

     if          "use" a Perl module if a condition holds

     integer     Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point

     less        Request less of something from the compiler

     lib         Manipulate @INC at compile time

     locale      Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in opera-
                 tions

     open        Set default PerlIO layers for input and output

     ops         Restrict unsafe operations when compiling

     overload    Package for overloading Perl operations

     re          Alter regular expression behaviour

     sigtrap     Enable simple signal handling

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     sort        Control sort() behaviour

     strict      Restrict unsafe constructs

     subs        Predeclare sub names

     threads     Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based
                 threads from perl

     threads::shared
                 Perl extension for sharing data structures
                 between threads

     utf8        Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source
                 code

     vars        Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)

     vmsish      Control VMS-specific language features

     warnings    Control optional warnings

     warnings::register
                 Warnings import function

     Standard Modules

     Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a
     well-defined manner with respect to namespace pollution
     because they use the Exporter module.  See their own docu-
     mentation for details.

     It's possible that not all modules listed below are
     installed on your system. For example, the GDBM_File module
     will not be installed if you don't have the gdbm library.

     AnyDBM_File Provide framework for multiple DBMs

     Attribute::Handlers
                 Simpler definition of attribute handlers

     AutoLoader  Load subroutines only on demand

     AutoSplit   Split a package for autoloading

     B           The Perl Compiler

     B::Asmdata  Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to gen-
                 erate bytecode

     B::Assembler
                 Assemble Perl bytecode

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     B::Bblock   Walk basic blocks

     B::Bytecode Perl compiler's bytecode backend

     B::C        Perl compiler's C backend

     B::CC       Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend

     B::Concise  Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info
                 about ops

     B::Debug    Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about
                 ops

     B::Deparse  Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

     B::Disassembler
                 Disassemble Perl bytecode

     B::Lint     Perl lint

     B::Showlex  Show lexical variables used in functions or
                 files

     B::Stackobj Helper module for CC backend

     B::Stash    Show what stashes are loaded

     B::Terse    Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about
                 ops

     B::Xref     Generates cross reference reports for Perl pro-
                 grams

     Benchmark   Benchmark running times of Perl code

     ByteLoader  Load byte compiled perl code

     CGI         Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

     CGI::Apache Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm

     CGI::Carp   CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other)
                 error log

     CGI::Cookie Interface to Netscape Cookies

     CGI::Fast   CGI Interface for Fast CGI

     CGI::Pretty Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code

     CGI::Push   Simple Interface to Server Push

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     CGI::Switch Backward compatibility module for defunct
                 CGI::Switch

     CGI::Util   Internal utilities used by CGI module

     CPAN        Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN
                 sites

     CPAN::FirstTime
                 Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

     CPAN::Nox   Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS
                 module

     CPAN::Version
                 Utility functions to compare CPAN versions

     Carp        Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

     Carp::Heavy Heavy machinery, no user serviceable parts
                 inside

     Class::ISA  Report the search path for a class's ISA tree

     Class::Struct
                 Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

     Config      Access Perl configuration information

     Cwd         Get pathname of current working directory

     DB          Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API
                 (draft, subject to

     DBM_Filter  Filter DBM keys/values

     DB_File     Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

     Data::Dumper
                 Stringified perl data structures, suitable for
                 both printing and "eval"

     Devel::DProf
                 A Perl code profiler

     Devel::PPPort
                 Perl/Pollution/Portability

     Devel::Peek A data debugging tool for the XS programmer

     Devel::SelfStubber
                 Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

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     Digest      Modules that calculate message digests

     Digest::MD5 Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm

     Digest::base
                 Digest base class

     Digest::file
                 Calculate digests of files

     DirHandle   Supply object methods for directory handles

     Dumpvalue   Provides screen dump of Perl data.

     DynaLoader  Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

     Encode      Character encodings

     Encode::Alias
                 Alias definitions to encodings

     Encode::Byte
                 Single Byte Encodings

     Encode::CJKConstants
                 Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*

     Encode::CN  China-based Chinese Encodings

     Encode::CN::HZ
                 Internally used by Encode::CN

     Encode::Config
                 Internally used by Encode

     Encode::EBCDIC
                 EBCDIC Encodings

     Encode::Encoder
                 Object Oriented Encoder

     Encode::Encoding
                 Encode Implementation Base Class

     Encode::Guess
                 Guesses encoding from data

     Encode::JP  Japanese Encodings

     Encode::JP::H2Z
                 Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*

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     Encode::JP::JIS7
                 Internally used by Encode::JP

     Encode::KR  Korean Encodings

     Encode::KR::2022_KR
                 Internally used by Encode::KR

     Encode::MIME::Header
                 MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding

     Encode::PerlIO
                 A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO

     Encode::Supported
                 Encodings supported by Encode

     Encode::Symbol
                 Symbol Encodings

     Encode::TW  Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings

     Encode::Unicode
                 Various Unicode Transformation Formats

     Encode::Unicode::UTF7
                 UTF-7 encoding

     English     Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punc-
                 tuation variables

     Env         Perl module that imports environment variables
                 as scalars or arrays

     Errno       System errno constants

     Exporter    Implements default import method for modules

     Exporter::Heavy
                 Exporter guts

     ExtUtils::Command
                 Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in
                 Makefiles etc.

     ExtUtils::Command::MM
                 Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles

     ExtUtils::Constant
                 Generate XS code to import C header constants

     ExtUtils::Constant::Base

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                 Base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

     ExtUtils::Constant::Utils
                 Helper functions for ExtUtils::Constant

     ExtUtils::Constant::XS
                 Base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

     ExtUtils::Embed
                 Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applica-
                 tions

     ExtUtils::Install
                 Install files from here to there

     ExtUtils::Installed
                 Inventory management of installed modules

     ExtUtils::Liblist
                 Determine libraries to use and how to use them

     ExtUtils::MM
                 OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass

     ExtUtils::MM_AIX
                 AIX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

     ExtUtils::MM_Any
                 Platform-agnostic MM methods

     ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
                 Methods to override UN*X behaviour in
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
                 Methods to override UN*X behaviour in
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MM_DOS
                 DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

     ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
                 Once produced Makefiles for MacOS Classic

     ExtUtils::MM_NW5
                 Methods to override UN*X behaviour in
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MM_OS2
                 Methods to override UN*X behaviour in
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

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     ExtUtils::MM_QNX
                 QNX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

     ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
                 U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

     ExtUtils::MM_Unix
                 Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MM_VMS
                 Methods to override UN*X behaviour in
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MM_VOS
                 VOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

     ExtUtils::MM_Win32
                 Methods to override UN*X behaviour in
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MM_Win95
                 Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X

     ExtUtils::MY
                 ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker
                 Create a module Makefile

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Config
                 Wrapper around Config.pm

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ
                 Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial
                 Writing a module with MakeMaker

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes
                 Version-agnostic bytes.pm

     ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish
                 Platform-agnostic vmsish.pm

     ExtUtils::Manifest
                 Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

     ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
                 Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

     ExtUtils::Mksymlists
                 Write linker options files for dynamic extension

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     ExtUtils::Packlist
                 Manage .packlist files

     ExtUtils::testlib
                 Add blib/* directories to @INC

     Fatal       Replace functions with equivalents which succeed
                 or die

     Fcntl       Load the C Fcntl.h defines

     File::Basename
                 Parse file paths into directory, filename and
                 suffix.

     File::CheckTree
                 Run many filetest checks on a tree

     File::Compare
                 Compare files or filehandles

     File::Copy  Copy files or filehandles

     File::DosGlob
                 DOS like globbing and then some

     File::Find  Traverse a directory tree.

     File::Glob  Perl extension for BSD glob routine

     File::Path  Create or remove directory trees

     File::Spec  Portably perform operations on file names

     File::Spec::Cygwin
                 Methods for Cygwin file specs

     File::Spec::Epoc
                 Methods for Epoc file specs

     File::Spec::Functions
                 Portably perform operations on file names

     File::Spec::Mac
                 File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)

     File::Spec::OS2
                 Methods for OS/2 file specs

     File::Spec::Unix
                 File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec
                 modules

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     File::Spec::VMS
                 Methods for VMS file specs

     File::Spec::Win32
                 Methods for Win32 file specs

     File::Temp  Return name and handle of a temporary file
                 safely

     File::stat  By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat()
                 functions

     FileCache   Keep more files open than the system permits

     FileHandle  Supply object methods for filehandles

     Filter::Simple
                 Simplified source filtering

     Filter::Util::Call
                 Perl Source Filter Utility Module

     FindBin     Locate directory of original perl script

     GDBM_File   Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

     Getopt::Long
                 Extended processing of command line options

     Getopt::Std Process single-character switches with switch
                 clustering

     Hash::Util  A selection of general-utility hash subroutines

     I18N::Collate
                 Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the
                 current locale

     I18N::LangTags
                 Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style
                 language tags

     I18N::LangTags::Detect
                 Detect the user's language preferences

     I18N::LangTags::List
                 Tags and names for human languages

     I18N::Langinfo
                 Query locale information

     IO          Load various IO modules

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     IO::Dir     Supply object methods for directory handles

     IO::File    Supply object methods for filehandles

     IO::Handle  Supply object methods for I/O handles

     IO::Pipe    Supply object methods for pipes

     IO::Poll    Object interface to system poll call

     IO::Seekable
                 Supply seek based methods for I/O objects

     IO::Select  OO interface to the select system call

     IO::Socket  Object interface to socket communications

     IO::Socket::INET
                 Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

     IO::Socket::UNIX
                 Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

     IPC::Open2  Open a process for both reading and writing

     IPC::Open3  Open a process for reading, writing, and error
                 handling

     IPC::SysV   SysV IPC constants

     IPC::SysV::Msg
                 SysV Msg IPC object class

     IPC::SysV::Semaphore
                 SysV Semaphore IPC object class

     List::Util  A selection of general-utility list subroutines

     Locale::Constants
                 Constants for Locale codes

     Locale::Country
                 ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)

     Locale::Currency
                 ISO three letter codes for currency identifica-
                 tion (ISO 4217)

     Locale::Language
                 ISO two letter codes for language identification
                 (ISO 639)

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     Locale::Maketext
                 Framework for localization

     Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
                 Article about software localization

     Locale::Script
                 ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)

     MIME::Base64
                 Encoding and decoding of base64 strings

     MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint
                 Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable
                 strings

     Math::BigFloat
                 Arbitrary size floating point math package

     Math::BigInt
                 Arbitrary size integer/float math package

     Math::BigInt::Calc
                 Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt

     Math::BigInt::CalcEmu
                 Emulate low-level math with BigInt code

     Math::BigRat
                 Arbitrary big rational numbers

     Math::Complex
                 Complex numbers and associated mathematical
                 functions

     Math::Trig  Trigonometric functions

     Memoize     Make functions faster by trading space for time

     Memoize::AnyDBM_File
                 Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Stor-
                 able use

     Memoize::Expire
                 Plug-in module for automatic expiration of
                 memoized values

     Memoize::ExpireFile
                 Test for Memoize expiration semantics

     Memoize::ExpireTest
                 Test for Memoize expiration semantics

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     Memoize::NDBM_File
                 Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Stor-
                 able use

     Memoize::SDBM_File
                 Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Stor-
                 able use

     Memoize::Storable
                 Store Memoized data in Storable database

     NDBM_File   Tied access to ndbm files

     NEXT        Provide a pseudo-class NEXT (et al) that allows
                 method redispatch

     Net::Cmd    Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)

     Net::Config Local configuration data for libnet

     Net::Domain Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet
                 name and domain

     Net::FTP    FTP Client class

     Net::NNTP   NNTP Client class

     Net::Netrc  OO interface to users netrc file

     Net::POP3   Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)

     Net::Ping   Check a remote host for reachability

     Net::SMTP   Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client

     Net::Time   Time and daytime network client interface

     Net::hostent
                 By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*()
                 functions

     Net::libnetFAQ
                 Libnet Frequently Asked Questions

     Net::netent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*()
                 functions

     Net::protoent
                 By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*()
                 functions

     Net::servent

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                 By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*()
                 functions

     O           Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

     ODBM_File   Tied access to odbm files

     Opcode      Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

     POSIX       Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

     PerlIO      On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of
                 PerlIO::* name space

     PerlIO::encoding
                 Encoding layer

     PerlIO::scalar
                 In-memory IO, scalar IO

     PerlIO::via Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in
                 perl

     PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
                 PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings

     Pod::Checker
                 Check pod documents for syntax errors

     Pod::Find   Find POD documents in directory trees

     Pod::Functions
                 Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod

     Pod::Html   Module to convert pod files to HTML

     Pod::InputObjects
                 Objects representing POD input paragraphs, com-
                 mands, etc.

     Pod::LaTeX  Convert Pod data to formatted Latex

     Pod::Man    Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

     Pod::ParseLink
                 Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text

     Pod::ParseUtils
                 Helpers for POD parsing and conversion

     Pod::Parser Base class for creating POD filters and transla-
                 tors

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     Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker
                 Let Perldoc check Pod for errors

     Pod::Perldoc::ToMan
                 Let Perldoc render Pod as man pages

     Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff
                 Let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff

     Pod::Perldoc::ToPod
                 Let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!

     Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf
                 Let Perldoc render Pod as RTF

     Pod::Perldoc::ToText
                 Let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext

     Pod::Perldoc::ToTk
                 Let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod

     Pod::Perldoc::ToXml
                 Let Perldoc render Pod as XML

     Pod::PlainText
                 Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

     Pod::Plainer
                 Perl extension for converting Pod to old style
                 Pod.

     Pod::Select Extract selected sections of POD from input

     Pod::Text   Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

     Pod::Text::Color
                 Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text

     Pod::Text::Overstrike
                 Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text

     Pod::Text::Termcap
                 Convert POD data to ASCII text with format
                 escapes

     Pod::Usage  Print a usage message from embedded pod documen-
                 tation

     SDBM_File   Tied access to sdbm files

     Safe        Compile and execute code in restricted compart-
                 ments

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     Scalar::Util
                 A selection of general-utility scalar subrou-
                 tines

     Search::Dict
                 Search for key in dictionary file

     SelectSaver Save and restore selected file handle

     SelfLoader  Load functions only on demand

     Shell       Run shell commands transparently within perl

     Socket      Load the C socket.h defines and structure mani-
                 pulators

     Storable    Persistence for Perl data structures

     Switch      A switch statement for Perl

     Symbol      Manipulate Perl symbols and their names

     Sys::Hostname
                 Try every conceivable way to get hostname

     Sys::Syslog Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

     Term::ANSIColor
                 Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

     Term::Cap   Perl termcap interface

     Term::Complete
                 Perl word completion module

     Term::ReadLine
                 Perl interface to various "readline" packages.

     Test        Provides a simple framework for writing test
                 scripts

     Test::Builder
                 Backend for building test libraries

     Test::Builder::Module
                 Base class for test modules

     Test::Builder::Tester
                 Test testsuites that have been built with

     Test::Builder::Tester::Color
                 Turn on colour in Test::Builder::Tester

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     Test::Harness
                 Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics

     Test::Harness::Assert
                 Simple assert

     Test::Harness::Iterator
                 Internal Test::Harness Iterator

     Test::Harness::Point
                 Object for tracking a single test point

     Test::Harness::Straps
                 Detailed analysis of test results

     Test::Harness::TAP
                 Documentation for the TAP format

     Test::More  Yet another framework for writing test scripts

     Test::Simple
                 Basic utilities for writing tests.

     Test::Tutorial
                 A tutorial about writing really basic tests

     Text::Abbrev
                 Create an abbreviation table from a list

     Text::Balanced
                 Extract delimited text sequences from strings.

     Text::ParseWords
                 Parse text into an array of tokens or array of
                 arrays

     Text::Soundex
                 Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as
                 Described by Knuth

     Text::Tabs  Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1)
                 and unexpand(1)

     Text::Wrap  Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

     Thread      Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)

     Thread::Queue
                 Thread-safe queues

     Thread::Semaphore
                 Thread-safe semaphores

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     Thread::Signal
                 Start a thread which runs signal handlers reli-
                 ably (for old code)

     Thread::Specific
                 Thread-specific keys

     Tie::Array  Base class for tied arrays

     Tie::File   Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array

     Tie::Handle Base class definitions for tied handles

     Tie::Hash   Base class definitions for tied hashes

     Tie::Memoize
                 Add data to hash when needed

     Tie::RefHash
                 Use references as hash keys

     Tie::Scalar Base class definitions for tied scalars

     Tie::SubstrHash
                 Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

     Time::HiRes High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday,
                 interval timers

     Time::Local Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

     Time::gmtime
                 By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime()
                 function

     Time::localtime
                 By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime()
                 function

     Time::tm    Internal object used by Time::gmtime and
                 Time::localtime

     UNIVERSAL   Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

     Unicode::Collate
                 Unicode Collation Algorithm

     Unicode::Normalize
                 Unicode Normalization Forms

     Unicode::UCD
                 Unicode character database

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     User::grent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*()
                 functions

     User::pwent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*()
                 functions

     XS::APItest Test the perl C API

     XS::Typemap Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with
                 perl

     XSLoader    Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

     To find out all modules installed on your system, including
     those without documentation or outside the standard release,
     just use the following command (under the default win32
     shell, double quotes should be used instead of single
     quotes).

         % perl -MFile::Find=find -MFile::Spec::Functions -Tlwe \
           'find { wanted => sub { print canonpath $_ if /\.pm\z/ },
           no_chdir => 1 }, @INC'

     (The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)
     They should all have their own documentation installed and
     accessible via your system man(1) command.  If you do not
     have a find program, you can use the Perl find2perl program
     instead, which generates Perl code as output you can run
     through perl.  If you have a man program but it doesn't find
     your modules, you'll have to fix your manpath.  See perl for
     details.  If you have no system man command, you might try
     the perldoc program.

     Note also that the command "perldoc perllocal" gives you a
     (possibly incomplete) list of the modules that have been
     further installed on your system. (The perllocal.pod file is
     updated by the standard MakeMaker install process.)

     Extension Modules

     Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C).
     They are usually dynamically loaded into Perl if and when
     you need them, but may also be linked in statically.  Sup-
     ported extension modules include Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.

     Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at
     least, not completely) due to their sizes, volatility, or
     simply lack of time for adequate testing and configuration
     across the multitude of platforms on which Perl was
     beta-tested.  You are encouraged to look for them on CPAN
     (described below), or using web search engines like Alta
     Vista or Google.

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CPAN

     CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a
     globally replicated trove of Perl materials, including docu-
     mentation, style guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports
     to non-Unix systems and occasional binary distributions for
     these.   Search engines for CPAN can be found at
     http://www.cpan.org/

     Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled
     modules, some of which require a C compiler to build.  Major
     categories of modules are:

     +   Language Extensions and Documentation Tools

     +   Development Support

     +   Operating System Interfaces

     +   Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess
         Communication

     +   Data Types and Data Type Utilities

     +   Database Interfaces

     +   User Interfaces

     +   Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming
         Languages

     +   File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File
         Handles)

     +   String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing,
         and Searching

     +   Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Pro-
         cessing

     +   Internationalization and Locale

     +   Authentication, Security, and Encryption

     +   World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME

     +   Server and Daemon Utilities

     +   Archiving and Compression

     +   Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and
         Graphing

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     +   Mail and Usenet News

     +   Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)

     +   File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities

     +   Miscellaneous Modules

     The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing
     follows. Please note that the sorting order is alphabetical
     on fields:

     Continent
        |
        |-->Country
              |
              |-->[state/province]
                        |
                        |-->ftp
                        |
                        |-->[http]

     and thus the North American servers happen to be listed
     between the European and the South American sites.

     You should try to choose one close to you.

     Africa

     South Africa
                               http://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/

     Asia

     China
                               http://cpan.linuxforum.net/
                               http://cpan.shellhung.org/
                               ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://mirrors.hknet.com/CPAN

     Indonesia
                               http://mirrors.tf.itb.ac.id/cpan/
                               http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
                               ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN

     Israel

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                               ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
                               http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/

     Japan
                               ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
                               http://ftp.cpan.jp/
                               ftp://ftp.cpan.jp/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

     Malaysia
                               http://cpan.MyBSD.org.my
                               http://mirror.leafbug.org/pub/CPAN
                               http://ossig.mncc.com.my/mirror/pub/CPAN

     Russian Federation
                               http://cpan.tomsk.ru
                               ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/

     Saudi Arabia
                               ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/

     Singapore
                               http://CPAN.en.com.sg/
                               ftp://cpan.en.com.sg/
                               http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
                               http://cpan.oss.eznetsols.org
                               ftp://ftp.oss.eznetsols.org/cpan

     South Korea
                               http://CPAN.bora.net/
                               ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
                               http://mirror.kr.FreeBSD.org/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/CPAN

     Taiwan
                               ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
                               http://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/
                               ftp://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
                               http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
                               http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/

     Thailand

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                               ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
                               ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/

     Central America

     Costa Rica
                               http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/

     Europe

     Austria
                               http://cpan.inode.at/
                               ftp://cpan.inode.at
                               ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/

     Belgium
                               http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.skynet.be
                               ftp://ftp.cpan.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/

     Bosnia and Herzegovina
                               http://cpan.blic.net/

     Bulgaria
                               http://cpan.online.bg
                               ftp://cpan.online.bg/cpan
                               http://cpan.zadnik.org
                               ftp://ftp.zadnik.org/mirrors/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.lirex.net/
                               ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN

     Croatia
                               http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/

     Czech Republic
                               ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

     Denmark
                               http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
                               ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
                               http://cpan.cybercity.dk
                               http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
                               ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/

     Estonia
                               ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

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     Finland
                               ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
                               http://mirror.eunet.fi/CPAN

     France
                               http://www.enstimac.fr/Perl/CPAN
                               http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
                               http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
                               ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
                               ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               http://fr.cpan.org/
                               ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
                               http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
                               ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
                               http://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
                               ftp://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
                               http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
                               ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/

     Germany
                               ftp://ftp.rub.de/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
                               http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
                               http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.noris.de/
                               ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/

     Greece
                               ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl
                               ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/

     Hungary
                               http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/

     Iceland
                               http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/

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     Ireland
                               http://cpan.indigo.ie/
                               ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
                               http://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
                               http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
                               ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/

     Italy
                               http://cpan.nettuno.it/
                               http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
                               ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
                               http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
                               ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
                               ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
                               http://cpan.flashnet.it/
                               ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/

     Latvia
                               http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/

     Lithuania
                               ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/

     Netherlands
                               ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
                               ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://mirror.vuurwerk.nl/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
                               http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
                               http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/

     Norway
                               ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/

     Poland
                               ftp://ftp.mega.net.pl/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
                               ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/

     Portugal

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                               ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
                               ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.nfsi.pt/pub/CPAN
                               http://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
                               http://cpan.ip.pt/
                               ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
                               http://cpan.telepac.pt/
                               ftp://ftp.telepac.pt/pub/cpan/

     Romania
                               ftp://ftp.bio-net.ro/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.lug.ro/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
                               ftp://ftp.iasi.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
                               http://cpan.ambra.ro/
                               ftp://ftp.ambra.ro/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/

     Russia
                               ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.rinet.ru/
                               ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.corbina.ru/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
                               ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

     Slovakia
                               ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/

     Slovenia
                               ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/

     Spain
                               http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
                               ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.ri.telefonica-data.net/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/

     Sweden
                               http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
                               http://mirror.dataphone.se/CPAN
                               ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

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     Switzerland
                               http://cpan.mirror.solnet.ch/
                               ftp://ftp.solnet.ch/mirror/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
                               ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/

     Turkey
                               http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
                               ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/

     Ukraine
                               http://cpan.org.ua/
                               ftp://cpan.org.ua/
                               ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/
                               http://no-more.kiev.ua/CPAN/
                               ftp://no-more.kiev.ua/pub/CPAN/

     United Kingdom
                               http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
                               ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
                               http://cpan.mirror.anlx.net/
                               ftp://ftp.mirror.anlx.net/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.etla.org/
                               ftp://cpan.etla.org/pub/CPAN
                               ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
                               ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.hambule.co.uk/
                               http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
                               ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/

     North America

     Canada
         Alberta
                                       http://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/
                                       ftp://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/CPAN/

         Manitoba
                                       http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/

         Nova Scotia
                                       ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/

         Ontario
                                       ftp://ftp.nrc.ca/pub/CPAN/

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     Mexico
                               http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
                               ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
                               http://www.cpan.unam.mx/
                               ftp://ftp.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
                               http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/

     United States
         Alabama
                                       http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
                                       ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/

         California
                                       http://cpan.develooper.com/
                                       http://www.cpan.org/
                                       ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://www.mednor.net/ftp/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
                                       ftp://ftp.mednor.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
                                       http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
                                       ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
                                       http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
                                       ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
                                       http://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/
                                       ftp://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.digisle.net/
                                       ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
                                       http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
                                       http://www.uberlan.net/CPAN

         Colorado
                                       ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.four10.com

         Delaware
                                       http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
                                       ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN

         District of Columbia
                                       ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/

         Florida
                                       ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
                                       http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/

         Indiana

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                                       ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.netnitco.net/
                                       ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
                                       http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
                                       ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
                                       http://fx.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
                                       ftp://ftp.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
                                       http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
                                       ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN

         Kentucky
                                       http://cpan.uky.edu/
                                       ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://slugsite.louisville.edu/cpan
                                       ftp://slugsite.louisville.edu/CPAN

         Massachusetts
                                       http://mirrors.towardex.com/CPAN
                                       ftp://mirrors.towardex.com/pub/CPAN
                                       ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

         Michigan
                                       ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/
                                       http://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN
                                       ftp://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN

         Nevada
                                       http://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
                                       ftp://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN

         New Jersey
                                       http://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
                                       ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN

         New York
                                       http://cpan.belfry.net/
                                       http://cpan.erlbaum.net/
                                       ftp://cpan.erlbaum.net/
                                       http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
                                       ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
                                       ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
                                       ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/

         North Carolina
                                       http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
                                       ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
                                       ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/
                                       ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/mirror/CPAN/

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         Oklahoma
                                       ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/

         Oregon
                                       ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN

         Pennsylvania
                                       http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
                                       ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
                                       http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.pair.com/
                                       ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/

         Tennessee
                                       ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/

         Texas
                                       http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
                                       http://www.binarycode.org/cpan
                                       ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN
                                       http://mirrors.theonlinerecordstore.com/CPAN

         Utah
                                       ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/

         Virginia
                                       http://cpan-du.viaverio.com/
                                       ftp://cpan-du.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
                                       ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
                                       http://perl.secsup.org/
                                       ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
                                       http://noc.cvaix.com/mirrors/CPAN/

         Washington
                                       http://cpan.llarian.net/
                                       ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
                                       ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/

         Wisconsin
                                       http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
                                       ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
                                       http://mirror.aphix.com/CPAN
                                       ftp://mirror.aphix.com/pub/CPAN

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     Oceania

     Australia
                               http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.mirrors.ilisys.com.au

     New Zealand
                               ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/

     United States
                               http://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
                               ftp://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/

     South America

     Argentina
                               ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
                               http://www.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
                               ftp://ftp.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan

     Brazil
                               ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
                               ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/
                               http://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
                               ftp://cpan.hostsul.com.br/

     Chile
                               http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
                               ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/

     RSYNC Mirrors

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                           www.linux.org.ar::cpan
                           theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
                           ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
                           rsync.nic.funet.fi::CPAN
                           ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
                           mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
                           rsync://ftp.crihan.fr::CPAN
                           ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
                           ftp.leo.org::CPAN
                           ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
                           rsync://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
                           ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
                           gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
                           ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
                           ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
                           mirror.leafbug.org::CPAN
                           rsync.en.com.sg::CPAN
                           mirror.averse.net::cpan
                           rsync.oss.eznetsols.org
                           ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org::CPAN
                           ftp.solnet.ch::CPAN
                           cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw::CPAN
                           cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
                           rsync://rsync.mirror.anlx.net::CPAN
                           ftp.sedl.org::cpan
                           ibiblio.org::CPAN
                           cpan-du.viaverio.com::CPAN
                           aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu::CPAN
                           archive.progeny.com::CPAN
                           rsync://slugsite.louisville.edu::CPAN
                           mirror.aphix.com::CPAN
                           cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
                           ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
                           mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
                           mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
                           cpan.pair.com::CPAN
                           cpan-sj.viaverio.com::CPAN
                           mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
                           csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN

     For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites, see
     http://www.cpan.org/SITES or ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .

Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
     (The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's
     modules file, available at your nearest CPAN site.)

     Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of
     a package doesn't imply the presence of a class.  A package
     is just a namespace.  A class is a package that provides
     subroutines that can be used as methods.  A method is just a
     subroutine that expects, as its first argument, either the

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     name of a package (for "static" methods), or a reference to
     something (for "virtual" methods).

     A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of
     the same name (sans the .pm), plus an import method in that
     class that can be called to fetch exported symbols.  This
     module may implement some of its methods by loading dynamic
     C or C++ objects, but that should be totally transparent to
     the user of the module.  Likewise, the module might set up
     an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on
     demand, but this is also transparent.  Only the .pm file is
     required to exist.  See perlsub, perltoot, and AutoLoader
     for details about the AUTOLOAD mechanism.

     Guidelines for Module Creation

     +   Do similar modules already exist in some form?

         If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either
         in whole or by inheriting useful features into a new
         class.  If this is not practical try to get together
         with the module authors to work on extending or enhanc-
         ing the functionality of the existing modules. A perfect
         example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing
         with command line options.

         If you are writing a module to expand an already exist-
         ing set of modules, please coordinate with the author of
         the package.  It helps if you follow the same naming
         scheme and module interaction scheme as the original
         author.

     +   Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and
         reuse.

         Try to "use warnings;" (or "use warnings qw(...);").
         Remember that you can add "no warnings qw(...);" to
         individual blocks of code that need less warnings.

         Use blessed references.  Use the two argument form of
         bless to bless into the class name given as the first
         parameter of the constructor, e.g.,:

          sub new {
              my $class = shift;
              return bless {}, $class;
          }

         or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a
         static or a virtual method.

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          sub new {
              my $self  = shift;
              my $class = ref($self) || $self;
              return bless {}, $class;
          }

         Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be
         added later (it's also faster).  Convert functions into
         methods where appropriate.  Split large methods into
         smaller more flexible ones. Inherit methods from other
         modules if appropriate.

         Avoid class name tests like: "die "Invalid" unless ref
         $ref eq 'FOO'". Generally you can delete the "eq 'FOO'"
         part with no harm at all. Let the objects look after
         themselves! Generally, avoid hard-wired class names as
         far as possible.

         Avoid "$r->Class::func()" where using "@ISA=qw(... Class
         ...)" and "$r->func()" would work (see perlbot for more
         details).

         Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions
         won't be a burden to programs that don't use them. Add
         test functions to the module after __END__ either using
         AutoSplit or by saying:

          eval join('',<main::DATA>) || die $@ unless caller();

         Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you
         say "@SUBCLASS::ISA = qw(YOURCLASS);" your applications
         should be able to use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way
         as YOURCLASS.  For example, does your application still
         work if you change:  "$obj = new YOURCLASS;" into: "$obj
         = new SUBCLASS;" ?

         Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It
         makes it difficult for multiple other packages to use
         yours. Keep state information in objects.

         Always use -w.

         Try to "use strict;" (or "use strict qw(...);").
         Remember that you can add "no strict qw(...);" to indi-
         vidual blocks of code that need less strictness.

         Always use -w.

         Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.

         Always use -w.

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     +   Some simple style guidelines

         The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful
         points.

         Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people
         evolve their style over several years as they learn what
         helps them write and maintain good code.  Here's one set
         of assorted suggestions that seem to be widely used by
         experienced developers:

         Use underscores to separate words.  It is generally
         easier to read $var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLik-
         eThis, especially for non-native speakers of English.
         It's also a simple rule that works consistently with
         VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.

         Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl
         informally reserves lowercase module names for 'pragma'
         modules like integer and strict. Other modules normally
         begin with a capital letter and use mixed case with no
         underscores (need to be short and portable).

         You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate
         the scope or nature of a variable. For example:

          $ALL_CAPS_HERE   constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
          $Some_Caps_Here  package-wide global/static
          $no_caps_here    function scope my() or local() variables

         Function and method names seem to work best as all
         lowercase. e.g., "$obj->as_string()".

         You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a
         variable or function should not be used outside the
         package that defined it.

     +   Select what to export.

         Do NOT export method names!

         Do NOT export anything else by default without a good
         reason!

         Exports pollute the namespace of the module user.  If
         you must export try to use @EXPORT_OK in preference to
         @EXPORT and avoid short or common names to reduce the
         risk of name clashes.

         Generally anything not exported is still accessible from
         outside the module using the ModuleName::item_name (or
         "$blessed_ref->method") syntax.  By convention you can

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         use a leading underscore on names to indicate informally
         that they are 'internal' and not for public use.

         (It is actually possible to get private functions by
         saying: "my $subref = sub { ... };  &$subref;".  But
         there's no way to call that directly as a method,
         because a method must have a name in the symbol table.)

         As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object
         oriented then export nothing. If it's just a collection
         of functions then @EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT
         with caution.

     +   Select a name for the module.

         This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and com-
         plete as possible.  Avoid any risk of ambiguity. Always
         try to use two or more whole words.  Generally the name
         should reflect what is special about what the module
         does rather than how it does it.  Please use nested
         module names to group informally or categorize a module.
         There should be a very good reason for a module not to
         have a nested name. Module names should begin with a
         capital letter.

         Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life
         easy for anyone (though having 23 called Sort::Quick is
         only marginally better :-). Imagine someone trying to
         install your module alongside many others. If in any
         doubt ask for suggestions in comp.lang.perl.misc.

         If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes
         it's good practice to use nested classes with a common
         prefix as this will avoid namespace clashes. For exam-
         ple: Xyz::Control, Xyz::View, Xyz::Model etc. Use the
         modules in this list as a naming guide.

         If adding a new module to a set, follow the original
         author's standards for naming modules and the interface
         to methods in those modules.

         If developing modules for private internal or project
         specific use, that will never be released to the public,
         then you should ensure that their names will not clash
         with any future public module. You can do this either by
         using the reserved Local::* category or by using a
         category name that includes an underscore like
         Foo_Corp::*.

         To be portable each component of a module name should be
         limited to 11 characters. If it might be used on MS-DOS
         then try to ensure each is unique in the first 8

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         characters. Nested modules make this easier.

     +   Have you got it right?

         How do you know that you've made the right decisions?
         Have you picked an interface design that will cause
         problems later? Have you picked the most appropriate
         name? Do you have any questions?

         The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful
         suggestions, is to ask someone who knows.
         Comp.lang.perl.misc is read by just about all the people
         who develop modules and it's the best place to ask.

         All you need to do is post a short summary of the
         module, its purpose and interfaces. A few lines on each
         of the main methods is probably enough. (If you post the
         whole module it might be ignored by busy people - gen-
         erally the very people you want to read it!)

         Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the
         module will be ready - just say so in the message. It
         might be worth inviting others to help you, they may be
         able to complete it for you!

     +   README and other Additional Files.

         It's well known that software developers usually fully
         document the software they write. If, however, the world
         is in urgent need of your software and there is not
         enough time to write the full documentation please at
         least provide a README file containing:

         +         A description of the module/package/extension
                   etc.

         +         A copyright notice - see below.

         +         Prerequisites - what else you may need to
                   have.

         +         How to build it - possible changes to
                   Makefile.PL etc.

         +         How to install it.

         +         Recent changes in this release, especially
                   incompatibilities

         +         Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the
                   future.

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         If the README file seems to be getting too large you may
         wish to split out some of the sections into separate
         files: INSTALL, Copying, ToDo etc.

         +   Adding a Copyright Notice.

             How you choose to license your work is a personal
             decision. The general mechanism is to assert your
             Copyright and then make a declaration of how others
             may copy/use/modify your work.

             Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of
             licence: The GNU GPL and The Artistic Licence (see
             the files README, Copying, and Artistic, or perlgpl
             and perlartistic).  Larry has good reasons for NOT
             just using the GNU GPL.

             My personal recommendation, out of respect for
             Larry, Perl, and the Perl community at large is to
             state something simply like:

              Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
              This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
              modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

             This statement should at least appear in the README
             file. You may also wish to include it in a Copying
             file and your source files. Remember to include the
             other words in addition to the Copyright.

         +   Give the module a version/issue/release number.

             To be fully compatible with the Exporter and Mak-
             eMaker modules you should store your module's ver-
             sion number in a non-my package variable called
             $VERSION.  This should be a floating point number
             with at least two digits after the decimal (i.e.,
             hundredths, e.g, "$VERSION = "0.01"").  Don't use a
             "1.3.2" style version. See Exporter for details.

             It may be handy to add a function or method to
             retrieve the number. Use the number in announcements
             and archive file names when releasing the module
             (ModuleName-1.02.tar.Z). See perldoc
             ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.

         +   How to release and distribute a module.

             It's good idea to post an announcement of the avai-
             lability of your module (or the module itself if
             small) to the comp.lang.perl.announce Usenet news-
             group.  This will at least ensure very wide once-off

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             distribution.

             If possible, register the module with CPAN.  You
             should include details of its location in your
             announcement.

             Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long
             descriptive file name that includes the version
             number. Most incoming directories will not be
             readable/listable, i.e., you won't be able to see
             your file after uploading it. Remember to send your
             email notification message as soon as possible after
             uploading else your file may get deleted automati-
             cally. Allow time for the file to be processed
             and/or check the file has been processed before
             announcing its location.

             FTP Archives for Perl Modules:

             Follow the instructions and links on:

                http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
                http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html

             or upload to one of these sites:

                https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
                http://pause.perl.org/pause/

             and notify <modules@perl.org>.

             By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload
             Server to mirror your modules from your ftp or WWW
             site into your own directory on CPAN!

             Please remember to send me an updated entry for the
             Module list!

         +   Take care when changing a released module.

             Always strive to remain compatible with previous
             released versions. Otherwise try to add a mechanism
             to revert to the old behavior if people rely on it.
             Document incompatible changes.

     Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into
     Modules

     +   There is no requirement to convert anything.

         If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts
         should continue to work with no problems. You may need

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         to make some minor changes (like escaping non-array @'s
         in double quoted strings) but there is no need to con-
         vert a .pl file into a Module for just that.

     +   Consider the implications.

         All Perl applications that make use of the script will
         need to be changed (slightly) if the script is converted
         into a module.  Is it worth it unless you plan to make
         other changes at the same time?

     +   Make the most of the opportunity.

         If you are going to convert the script to a module you
         can use the opportunity to redesign the interface.  The
         guidelines for module creation above include many of the
         issues you should consider.

     +   The pl2pm utility will get you started.

         This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters)
         and write corresponding *.pm files. The pl2pm utilities
         does the following:

         +         Adds the standard Module prologue lines

         +         Converts package specifiers from ' to ::

         +         Converts die(...) to croak(...)

         +         Several other minor changes

         Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof.
         The converted code will need careful checking, espe-
         cially any package statements. Don't delete the original
         .pl file till the new .pm one works!

     Guidelines for Reusing Application Code

     +   Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module
         Library.

     +   Many applications contain some Perl code that could be
         reused.

         Help save the world! Share your code in a form that
         makes it easy to reuse.

     +   Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate
         module files.

     +   Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the

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         interfaces.

     +   In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a
         small

         fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules.
         In these cases the application could invoked as:

              % perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
         or
              % perl -mModule::Name ...    (in perl5.002 or higher)

NOTE

     Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its
     modules as you may have been used to in other languages like
     C++, Ada, or Modula-17.  Perl doesn't have an infatuation
     with enforced privacy.  It would prefer that you stayed out
     of its living room because you weren't invited, not because
     it has a shotgun.

     The module and its user have a contract, part of which is
     common law, and part of which is "written".  Part of the
     common law contract is that a module doesn't pollute any
     namespace it wasn't asked to.  The written contract for the
     module (A.K.A. documentation) may make other provisions.
     But then you know when you "use RedefineTheWorld" that
     you're redefining the world and willing to take the conse-
     quences.

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