MirOS Manual: perlapi(1)


PERLAPI(1)      Perl Programmers Reference Guide       PERLAPI(1)

NAME

     perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public
     API

DESCRIPTION

     This file contains the documentation of the perl public API
     generated by embed.pl, specifically a listing of functions,
     macros, flags, and variables that may be used by extension
     writers.  The interfaces of any functions that are not
     listed here are subject to change without notice.  For this
     reason, blindly using functions listed in proto.h is to be
     avoided when writing extensions.

     Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced
     with the "PL_" prefix.  Some macros are provided for compa-
     tibility with the older, unadorned names, but this support
     may be disabled in a future release.

     The listing is alphabetical, case insensitive.

"Gimme" Values
     GIMME   A backward-compatible version of "GIMME_V" which can
             only return "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY"; in a void con-
             text, it returns "G_SCALAR". Deprecated.  Use
             "GIMME_V" instead.

                     U32     GIMME

     GIMME_V The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's "wantarray".
             Returns "G_VOID", "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY" for void,
             scalar or list context, respectively.

                     U32     GIMME_V

     G_ARRAY Used to indicate list context.  See "GIMME_V",
             "GIMME" and perlcall.

     G_DISCARD
             Indicates that arguments returned from a callback
             should be discarded.  See perlcall.

     G_EVAL  Used to force a Perl "eval" wrapper around a call-
             back.  See perlcall.

     G_NOARGS
             Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a
             callback.  See perlcall.

     G_SCALAR
             Used to indicate scalar context.  See "GIMME_V",
             "GIMME", and perlcall.

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     G_VOID  Used to indicate void context.  See "GIMME_V" and
             perlcall.

Array Manipulation Functions

     AvFILL  Same as "av_len()".  Deprecated, use "av_len()"
             instead.

                     int     AvFILL(AV* av)

     av_clear
             Clears an array, making it empty.  Does not free the
             memory used by the array itself.

                     void    av_clear(AV* ar)

     av_delete
             Deletes the element indexed by "key" from the array.
             Returns the deleted element. If "flags" equals
             "G_DISCARD", the element is freed and null is
             returned.

                     SV*     av_delete(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 flags)

     av_exists
             Returns true if the element indexed by "key" has
             been initialized.

             This relies on the fact that uninitialized array
             elements are set to &PL_sv_undef.

                     bool    av_exists(AV* ar, I32 key)

     av_extend
             Pre-extend an array.  The "key" is the index to
             which the array should be extended.

                     void    av_extend(AV* ar, I32 key)

     av_fetch
             Returns the SV at the specified index in the array.
             The "key" is the index.  If "lval" is set then the
             fetch will be part of a store.  Check that the
             return value is non-null before dereferencing it to
             a "SV*".

             See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and
             Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to
             use this function on tied arrays.

                     SV**    av_fetch(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 lval)

     av_fill Ensure than an array has a given number of elements,

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             equivalent to Perl's "$#array = $fill;".

                     void    av_fill(AV* ar, I32 fill)

     av_len  Returns the highest index in the array.  Returns -1
             if the array is empty.

                     I32     av_len(AV* ar)

     av_make Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of
             SVs.  The SVs are copied into the array, so they may
             be freed after the call to av_make.  The new AV will
             have a reference count of 1.

                     AV*     av_make(I32 size, SV** svp)

     av_pop  Pops an SV off the end of the array.  Returns
             &PL_sv_undef if the array is empty.

                     SV*     av_pop(AV* ar)

     av_push Pushes an SV onto the end of the array.  The array
             will grow automatically to accommodate the addition.

                     void    av_push(AV* ar, SV* val)

     av_shift
             Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array.

                     SV*     av_shift(AV* ar)

     av_store
             Stores an SV in an array.  The array index is speci-
             fied as "key".  The return value will be NULL if the
             operation failed or if the value did not need to be
             actually stored within the array (as in the case of
             tied arrays). Otherwise it can be dereferenced to
             get the original "SV*".  Note that the caller is
             responsible for suitably incrementing the reference
             count of "val" before the call, and decrementing it
             if the function returned NULL.

             See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and
             Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to
             use this function on tied arrays.

                     SV**    av_store(AV* ar, I32 key, SV* val)

     av_undef
             Undefines the array.  Frees the memory used by the
             array itself.

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                     void    av_undef(AV* ar)

     av_unshift
             Unshift the given number of "undef" values onto the
             beginning of the array.  The array will grow
             automatically to accommodate the addition.  You must
             then use "av_store" to assign values to these new
             elements.

                     void    av_unshift(AV* ar, I32 num)

     get_av  Returns the AV of the specified Perl array.  If
             "create" is set and the Perl variable does not exist
             then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and
             the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     AV*     get_av(const char* name, I32 create)

     newAV   Creates a new AV.  The reference count is set to 1.

                     AV*     newAV()

     sortsv  Sort an array. Here is an example:

                 sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_len(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);

             See lib/sort.pm for details about controlling the
             sorting algorithm.

                     void    sortsv(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp)

Callback Functions

     call_argv
             Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See
             perlcall.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     I32     call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)

     call_method
             Performs a callback to the specified Perl method.
             The blessed object must be on the stack.  See perl-
             call.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     I32     call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)

     call_pv Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See

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             perlcall.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     I32     call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)

     call_sv Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in
             the SV.  See perlcall.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     I32     call_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

     ENTER   Opening bracket on a callback.  See "LEAVE" and
             perlcall.

                             ENTER;

     eval_pv Tells Perl to "eval" the given string and return an
             SV* result.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     SV*     eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)

     eval_sv Tells Perl to "eval" the string in the SV.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     I32     eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

     FREETMPS
             Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See
             "SAVETMPS" and perlcall.

                             FREETMPS;

     LEAVE   Closing bracket on a callback.  See "ENTER" and
             perlcall.

                             LEAVE;

     SAVETMPS
             Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See
             "FREETMPS" and perlcall.

                             SAVETMPS;

Character classes

     isALNUM Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is
             an ASCII alphanumeric character (including under-
             score) or digit.

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                     bool    isALNUM(char ch)

     isALPHA Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is
             an ASCII alphabetic character.

                     bool    isALPHA(char ch)

     isDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is
             an ASCII digit.

                     bool    isDIGIT(char ch)

     isLOWER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is
             a lowercase character.

                     bool    isLOWER(char ch)

     isSPACE Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is
             whitespace.

                     bool    isSPACE(char ch)

     isUPPER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is
             an uppercase character.

                     bool    isUPPER(char ch)

     toLOWER Converts the specified character to lowercase.

                     char    toLOWER(char ch)

     toUPPER Converts the specified character to uppercase.

                     char    toUPPER(char ch)

Cloning an interpreter

     perl_clone
             Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the
             current one.

             perl_clone takes these flags as parameters:

             CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the
             stacks also, without it we only clone the data and
             zero the stacks, with it we copy the stacks and the
             new perl interpreter is ready to run at the exact
             same point as the previous one. The pseudo-fork code
             uses COPY_STACKS while the threads->new doesn't.

             CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE perl_clone keeps a ptr_table
             with the pointer of the old variable as a key and
             the new variable as a value, this allows it to check

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             if something has been cloned and not clone it again
             but rather just use the value and increase the
             refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then
             perl_clone will kill the ptr_table using the func-
             tion "ptr_table_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table =
             NULL;", reason to keep it around is if you want to
             dup some of your own variable who are outside the
             graph perl scans, example of this code is in
             threads.xs create

             CLONEf_CLONE_HOST This is a win32 thing, it is
             ignored on unix, it tells perls win32host code
             (which is c++) to clone itself, this is needed on
             win32 if you want to run two threads at the same
             time, if you just want to do some stuff in a
             separate perl interpreter and then throw it away and
             return to the original one, you don't need to do
             anything.

                     PerlInterpreter*        perl_clone(PerlInterpreter* interp, UV flags)

CV Manipulation Functions

     CvSTASH Returns the stash of the CV.

                     HV*     CvSTASH(CV* cv)

     get_cv  Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine.  If
             "create" is set and the Perl subroutine does not
             exist then it will be declared (which has the same
             effect as saying "sub name;").  If "create" is not
             set and the subroutine does not exist then NULL is
             returned.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     CV*     get_cv(const char* name, I32 create)

Embedding Functions

     cv_undef
             Clear out all the active components of a CV. This
             can happen either by an explicit "undef &foo", or by
             the reference count going to zero. In the former
             case, we keep the CvOUTSIDE pointer, so that any
             anonymous children can still follow the full lexical
             scope chain.

                     void    cv_undef(CV* cv)

     load_module
             Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the
             string part of name. Note that the actual module
             name, not its filename, should be given. Eg,

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             "Foo::Bar" instead of "Foo/Bar.pm".  flags can be
             any of PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, or
             PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS (or 0 for no flags). ver, if
             specified, provides version semantics similar to
             "use Foo::Bar VERSION".  The optional trailing SV*
             arguments can be used to specify arguments to the
             module's import() method, similar to "use Foo::Bar
             VERSION LIST".

                     void    load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)

     nothreadhook
             Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct
             when there are no threads.

                     int     nothreadhook()

     perl_alloc
             Allocates a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                     PerlInterpreter*        perl_alloc()

     perl_construct
             Initializes a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                     void    perl_construct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

     perl_destruct
             Shuts down a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                     int     perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

     perl_free
             Releases a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                     void    perl_free(PerlInterpreter* interp)

     perl_parse
             Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script.
             See perlembed.

                     int     perl_parse(PerlInterpreter* interp, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)

     perl_run
             Tells a Perl interpreter to run.  See perlembed.

                     int     perl_run(PerlInterpreter* interp)

     require_pv
             Tells Perl to "require" the file named by the string
             argument.  It is analogous to the Perl code "eval
             "require '$file'"".  It's even implemented that way;

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             consider using load_module instead.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     void    require_pv(const char* pv)

Functions in file pp_pack.c
     packlist
             The engine implementing pack() Perl function.

                     void    packlist(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist)

     pack_cat
             The engine implementing pack() Perl function. Note:
             parameters next_in_list and flags are not used. This
             call should not be used; use packlist instead.

                     void    pack_cat(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list, U32 flags)

     unpackstring
             The engine implementing unpack() Perl function.
             "unpackstring" puts the extracted list items on the
             stack and returns the number of elements. Issue
             "PUTBACK" before and "SPAGAIN" after the call to
             this function.

                     I32     unpackstring(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strend, U32 flags)

     unpack_str
             The engine implementing unpack() Perl function.
             Note: parameters strbeg, new_s and ocnt are not
             used. This call should not be used, use unpackstring
             instead.

                     I32     unpack_str(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strbeg, char *strend, char **new_s, I32 ocnt, U32 flags)

Global Variables

     PL_modglobal
             "PL_modglobal" is a general purpose, interpreter
             global HV for use by extensions that need to keep
             information on a per-interpreter basis. In a pinch,
             it can also be used as a symbol table for extensions
             to share data among each other.  It is a good idea
             to use keys prefixed by the package name of the
             extension that owns the data.

                     HV*     PL_modglobal

     PL_na   A convenience variable which is typically used with
             "SvPV" when one doesn't care about the length of the
             string.  It is usually more efficient to either
             declare a local variable and use that instead or to

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             use the "SvPV_nolen" macro.

                     STRLEN  PL_na

     PL_sv_no
             This is the "false" SV.  See "PL_sv_yes".  Always
             refer to this as &PL_sv_no.

                     SV      PL_sv_no

     PL_sv_undef
             This is the "undef" SV.  Always refer to this as
             &PL_sv_undef.

                     SV      PL_sv_undef

     PL_sv_yes
             This is the "true" SV.  See "PL_sv_no".  Always
             refer to this as &PL_sv_yes.

                     SV      PL_sv_yes

GV Functions

     GvSV    Return the SV from the GV.

                     SV*     GvSV(GV* gv)

     gv_fetchmeth
             Returns the glob with the given "name" and a defined
             subroutine or "NULL".  The glob lives in the given
             "stash", or in the stashes accessible via @ISA and
             UNIVERSAL::.

             The argument "level" should be either 0 or -1.  If
             "level==0", as a side-effect creates a glob with the
             given "name" in the given "stash" which in the case
             of success contains an alias for the subroutine, and
             sets up caching info for this glob.  Similarly for
             all the searched stashes.

             This function grants "SUPER" token as a postfix of
             the stash name. The GV returned from "gv_fetchmeth"
             may be a method cache entry, which is not visible to
             Perl code.  So when calling "call_sv", you should
             not use the GV directly; instead, you should use the
             method's CV, which can be obtained from the GV with
             the "GvCV" macro.

                     GV*     gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

     gv_fetchmethod
             See gv_fetchmethod_autoload.

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                     GV*     gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)

     gv_fetchmethod_autoload
             Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to
             call to invoke the method on the "stash".  In fact
             in the presence of autoloading this may be the glob
             for "AUTOLOAD".  In this case the corresponding
             variable $AUTOLOAD is already setup.

             The third parameter of "gv_fetchmethod_autoload"
             determines whether AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if
             the given method is not present: non-zero means yes,
             look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no, don't look for
             AUTOLOAD. Calling "gv_fetchmethod" is equivalent to
             calling "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" with a non-zero
             "autoload" parameter.

             These functions grant "SUPER" token as a prefix of
             the method name. Note that if you want to keep the
             returned glob for a long time, you need to check for
             it being "AUTOLOAD", since at the later time the
             call may load a different subroutine due to $AUTO-
             LOAD changing its value. Use the glob created via a
             side effect to do this.

             These functions have the same side-effects and as
             "gv_fetchmeth" with "level==0".  "name" should be
             writable if contains ':' or "' ''". The warning
             against passing the GV returned by "gv_fetchmeth" to
             "call_sv" apply equally to these functions.

                     GV*     gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)

     gv_fetchmeth_autoload
             Same as gv_fetchmeth(), but looks for autoloaded
             subroutines too. Returns a glob for the subroutine.

             For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will
             create a GV even if "level < 0".  For an autoloaded
             subroutine without a stub, GvCV() of the result may
             be zero.

                     GV*     gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

     gv_stashpv
             Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified pack-
             age.  "name" should be a valid UTF-8 string and must
             be null-terminated.  If "create" is set then the
             package will be created if it does not already
             exist.  If "create" is not set and the package does
             not exist then NULL is returned.

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                     HV*     gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 create)

     gv_stashpvn
             Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified pack-
             age.  "name" should be a valid UTF-8 string.  The
             "namelen" parameter indicates the length of the
             "name", in bytes.  If "create" is set then the pack-
             age will be created if it does not already exist.
             If "create" is not set and the package does not
             exist then NULL is returned.

                     HV*     gv_stashpvn(const char* name, U32 namelen, I32 create)

     gv_stashsv
             Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified pack-
             age, which must be a valid UTF-8 string.  See
             "gv_stashpv".

                     HV*     gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 create)

Handy Values

     Nullav  Null AV pointer.

     Nullch  Null character pointer.

     Nullcv  Null CV pointer.

     Nullhv  Null HV pointer.

     Nullsv  Null SV pointer.

Hash Manipulation Functions

     get_hv  Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash.  If
             "create" is set and the Perl variable does not exist
             then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and
             the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     HV*     get_hv(const char* name, I32 create)

     HEf_SVKEY
             This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries
             and magic structures, specifies the structure con-
             tains an "SV*" pointer where a "char*" pointer is to
             be expected. (For information only--not to be used).

     HeHASH  Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.

                     U32     HeHASH(HE* he)

     HeKEY   Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of

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             the hash entry. The pointer may be either "char*" or
             "SV*", depending on the value of "HeKLEN()".  Can be
             assigned to.  The "HePV()" or "HeSVKEY()" macros are
             usually preferable for finding the value of a key.

                     void*   HeKEY(HE* he)

     HeKLEN  If this is negative, and amounts to "HEf_SVKEY", it
             indicates the entry holds an "SV*" key.  Otherwise,
             holds the actual length of the key.  Can be assigned
             to. The "HePV()" macro is usually preferable for
             finding key lengths.

                     STRLEN  HeKLEN(HE* he)

     HePV    Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a "char*"
             value, doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly
             "SV*" keys.  The length of the string is placed in
             "len" (this is a macro, so do not use &len).  If you
             do not care about what the length of the key is, you
             may use the global variable "PL_na", though this is
             rather less efficient than using a local variable.
             Remember though, that hash keys in perl are free to
             contain embedded nulls, so using "strlen()" or simi-
             lar is not a good way to find the length of hash
             keys. This is very similar to the "SvPV()" macro
             described elsewhere in this document.

                     char*   HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)

     HeSVKEY Returns the key as an "SV*", or "Nullsv" if the hash
             entry does not contain an "SV*" key.

                     SV*     HeSVKEY(HE* he)

     HeSVKEY_force
             Returns the key as an "SV*".  Will create and return
             a temporary mortal "SV*" if the hash entry contains
             only a "char*" key.

                     SV*     HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)

     HeSVKEY_set
             Sets the key to a given "SV*", taking care to set
             the appropriate flags to indicate the presence of an
             "SV*" key, and returns the same "SV*".

                     SV*     HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)

     HeVAL   Returns the value slot (type "SV*") stored in the
             hash entry.

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                     SV*     HeVAL(HE* he)

     HvNAME  Returns the package name of a stash.  See "SvSTASH",
             "CvSTASH".

                     char*   HvNAME(HV* stash)

     hv_clear
             Clears a hash, making it empty.

                     void    hv_clear(HV* tb)

     hv_clear_placeholders
             Clears any placeholders from a hash.  If a res-
             tricted hash has any of its keys marked as readonly
             and the key is subsequently deleted, the key is not
             actually deleted but is marked by assigning it a
             value of &PL_sv_placeholder.  This tags it so it
             will be ignored by future operations such as iterat-
             ing over the hash, but will still allow the hash to
             have a value reassigned to the key at some future
             point.  This function clears any such placeholder
             keys from the hash. See Hash::Util::lock_keys() for
             an example of its use.

                     void    hv_clear_placeholders(HV* hb)

     hv_delete
             Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV
             is removed from the hash and returned to the caller.
             The "klen" is the length of the key. The "flags"
             value will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD
             then NULL will be returned.

                     SV*     hv_delete(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 flags)

     hv_delete_ent
             Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV
             is removed from the hash and returned to the caller.
             The "flags" value will normally be zero; if set to
             G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned.  "hash" can be
             a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it
             to be computed.

                     SV*     hv_delete_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash)

     hv_exists
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified
             hash key exists.  The "klen" is the length of the
             key.

                     bool    hv_exists(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen)

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     hv_exists_ent
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified
             hash key exists. "hash" can be a valid precomputed
             hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.

                     bool    hv_exists_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash)

     hv_fetch
             Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified
             key in the hash.  The "klen" is the length of the
             key.  If "lval" is set then the fetch will be part
             of a store.  Check that the return value is non-null
             before dereferencing it to an "SV*".

             See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and
             Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to
             use this function on tied hashes.

                     SV**    hv_fetch(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 lval)

     hv_fetch_ent
             Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the
             specified key in the hash. "hash" must be a valid
             precomputed hash number for the given "key", or 0 if
             you want the function to compute it.  IF "lval" is
             set then the fetch will be part of a store.  Make
             sure the return value is non-null before accessing
             it.  The return value when "tb" is a tied hash is a
             pointer to a static location, so be sure to make a
             copy of the structure if you need to store it some-
             where.

             See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and
             Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to
             use this function on tied hashes.

                     HE*     hv_fetch_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash)

     hv_iterinit
             Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table.
             Returns the number of keys in the hash (i.e. the
             same as "HvKEYS(tb)").  The return value is
             currently only meaningful for hashes without tie
             magic.

             NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, "hv_iterinit" used to
             return the number of hash buckets that happen to be
             in use.  If you still need that esoteric value, you
             can get it through the macro "HvFILL(tb)".

                     I32     hv_iterinit(HV* tb)

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     hv_iterkey
             Returns the key from the current position of the
             hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit".

                     char*   hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)

     hv_iterkeysv
             Returns the key as an "SV*" from the current posi-
             tion of the hash iterator.  The return value will
             always be a mortal copy of the key.  Also see
             "hv_iterinit".

                     SV*     hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)

     hv_iternext
             Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See
             "hv_iterinit".

             You may call "hv_delete" or "hv_delete_ent" on the
             hash entry that the iterator currently points to,
             without losing your place or invalidating your
             iterator.  Note that in this case the current entry
             is deleted from the hash with your iterator holding
             the last reference to it.  Your iterator is flagged
             to free the entry on the next call to "hv_iternext",
             so you must not discard your iterator immediately
             else the entry will leak - call "hv_iternext" to
             trigger the resource deallocation.

                     HE*     hv_iternext(HV* tb)

     hv_iternextsv
             Performs an "hv_iternext", "hv_iterkey", and
             "hv_iterval" in one operation.

                     SV*     hv_iternextsv(HV* hv, char** key, I32* retlen)

     hv_iternext_flags
             Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See
             "hv_iterinit" and "hv_iternext". The "flags" value
             will normally be zero; if
             HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is set the placeholders
             keys (for restricted hashes) will be returned in
             addition to normal keys. By default placeholders are
             automatically skipped over. Currently a placeholder
             is implemented with a value that is
             &Perl_sv_placeholder. Note that the implementation
             of placeholders and restricted hashes may change,
             and the implementation currently is insufficiently
             abstracted for any change to be tidy.

             NOTE: this function is experimental and may change

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             or be removed without notice.

                     HE*     hv_iternext_flags(HV* tb, I32 flags)

     hv_iterval
             Returns the value from the current position of the
             hash iterator.  See "hv_iterkey".

                     SV*     hv_iterval(HV* tb, HE* entry)

     hv_magic
             Adds magic to a hash.  See "sv_magic".

                     void    hv_magic(HV* hv, GV* gv, int how)

     hv_scalar
             Evaluates the hash in scalar context and returns the
             result. Handles magic when the hash is tied.

                     SV*     hv_scalar(HV* hv)

     hv_store
             Stores an SV in a hash.  The hash key is specified
             as "key" and "klen" is the length of the key.  The
             "hash" parameter is the precomputed hash value; if
             it is zero then Perl will compute it.  The return
             value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the
             value did not need to be actually stored within the
             hash (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise it
             can be dereferenced to get the original "SV*".  Note
             that the caller is responsible for suitably incre-
             menting the reference count of "val" before the
             call, and decrementing it if the function returned
             NULL.  Effectively a successful hv_store takes own-
             ership of one reference to "val".  This is usually
             what you want; a newly created SV has a reference
             count of one, so if all your code does is create SVs
             then store them in a hash, hv_store will own the
             only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn't
             need to do anything further to tidy up.  hv_store is
             not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does
             not create a temporary SV for the key, so if your
             key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store
             in preference to hv_store_ent.

             See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and
             Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to
             use this function on tied hashes.

                     SV**    hv_store(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash)

     hv_store_ent

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             Stores "val" in a hash.  The hash key is specified
             as "key".  The "hash" parameter is the precomputed
             hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it.
             The return value is the new hash entry so created.
             It will be NULL if the operation failed or if the
             value did not need to be actually stored within the
             hash (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise the
             contents of the return value can be accessed using
             the "He?" macros described here.  Note that the
             caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the
             reference count of "val" before the call, and decre-
             menting it if the function returned NULL.  Effec-
             tively a successful hv_store_ent takes ownership of
             one reference to "val".  This is usually what you
             want; a newly created SV has a reference count of
             one, so if all your code does is create SVs then
             store them in a hash, hv_store will own the only
             reference to the new SV, and your code doesn't need
             to do anything further to tidy up.  Note that
             hv_store_ent only reads the "key"; unlike "val" it
             does not take ownership of it, so maintaining the
             correct reference count on "key" is entirely the
             caller's responsibility.  hv_store is not imple-
             mented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not
             create a temporary SV for the key, so if your key
             data is not already in SV form then use hv_store in
             preference to hv_store_ent.

             See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and
             Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to
             use this function on tied hashes.

                     HE*     hv_store_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash)

     hv_undef
             Undefines the hash.

                     void    hv_undef(HV* tb)

     newHV   Creates a new HV.  The reference count is set to 1.

                     HV*     newHV()

Magical Functions

     mg_clear
             Clear something magical that the SV represents.  See
             "sv_magic".

                     int     mg_clear(SV* sv)

     mg_copy Copies the magic from one SV to another.  See
             "sv_magic".

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                     int     mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, I32 klen)

     mg_find Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV.
             See "sv_magic".

                     MAGIC*  mg_find(SV* sv, int type)

     mg_free Free any magic storage used by the SV.  See
             "sv_magic".

                     int     mg_free(SV* sv)

     mg_get  Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV.
             See "sv_magic".

                     int     mg_get(SV* sv)

     mg_length
             Report on the SV's length.  See "sv_magic".

                     U32     mg_length(SV* sv)

     mg_magical
             Turns on the magical status of an SV.  See
             "sv_magic".

                     void    mg_magical(SV* sv)

     mg_set  Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV.  See
             "sv_magic".

                     int     mg_set(SV* sv)

     SvGETMAGIC
             Invokes "mg_get" on an SV if it has 'get' magic.
             This macro evaluates its argument more than once.

                     void    SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)

     SvLOCK  Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained
             on sv if a suitable module has been loaded.

                     void    SvLOCK(SV* sv)

     SvSETMAGIC
             Invokes "mg_set" on an SV if it has 'set' magic.
             This macro evaluates its argument more than once.

                     void    SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)

     SvSetMagicSV
             Like "SvSetSV", but does any set magic required

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             afterwards.

                     void    SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

     SvSetMagicSV_nosteal
             Like "SvSetSV_nosteal", but does any set magic
             required afterwards.

                     void    SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     SvSetSV Calls "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv.  May
             evaluate arguments more than once.

                     void    SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

     SvSetSV_nosteal
             Calls a non-destructive version of "sv_setsv" if dsv
             is not the same as ssv. May evaluate arguments more
             than once.

                     void    SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     SvSHARE Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a
             suitable module has been loaded.

                     void    SvSHARE(SV* sv)

     SvUNLOCK
             Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable
             module has been loaded.

                     void    SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)

Memory Management

     Copy    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memcpy" func-
             tion.  The "src" is the source, "dest" is the desti-
             nation, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type"
             is the type.  May fail on overlapping copies.  See
             also "Move".

                     void    Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

     CopyD   Like "Copy" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging
             compilers to tail-call optimise.

                     void *  CopyD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

     Move    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memmove" func-
             tion.  The "src" is the source, "dest" is the desti-
             nation, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type"
             is the type.  Can do overlapping moves.  See also
             "Copy".

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                     void    Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

     MoveD   Like "Move" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging
             compilers to tail-call optimise.

                     void *  MoveD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

     Newx    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" func-
             tion.

                     void    Newx(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

     Newxc   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" func-
             tion, with cast.

                     void    Newxc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

     Newxz   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" func-
             tion.  The allocated memory is zeroed with "mem-
             zero".

             In 5.9.3, we removed the 1st parameter, a debug aid,
             from the api.  It was used to uniquely identify each
             usage of these allocation functions, but was deemed
             unnecessary with the availability of better memory
             tracking tools, valgrind for example.

                     void    Newxz(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

     Poison  Fill up memory with a pattern (byte 0xAB over and
             over again) that hopefully catches attempts to
             access uninitialized memory.

                     void    Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)

     Renew   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" func-
             tion.

                     void    Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

     Renewc  The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" func-
             tion, with cast.

                     void    Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

     Safefree
             The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "free" func-
             tion.

                     void    Safefree(void* ptr)

     savepv  Perl's version of "strdup()". Returns a pointer to a

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             newly allocated string which is a duplicate of "pv".
             The size of the string is determined by "strlen()".
             The memory allocated for the new string can be freed
             with the "Safefree()" function.

                     char*   savepv(const char* pv)

     savepvn Perl's version of what "strndup()" would be if it
             existed. Returns a pointer to a newly allocated
             string which is a duplicate of the first "len" bytes
             from "pv". The memory allocated for the new string
             can be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

                     char*   savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)

     savesharedpv
             A version of "savepv()" which allocates the dupli-
             cate string in memory which is shared between
             threads.

                     char*   savesharedpv(const char* pv)

     savesvpv
             A version of "savepv()"/"savepvn()" which gets the
             string to duplicate from the passed in SV using
             "SvPV()"

                     char*   savesvpv(SV* sv)

     StructCopy
             This is an architecture-independent macro to copy
             one structure to another.

                     void    StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)

     Zero    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memzero" func-
             tion.  The "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is
             the number of items, and "type" is the type.

                     void    Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)

     ZeroD   Like "Zero" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging
             compilers to tail-call optimise.

                     void *  ZeroD(void* dest, int nitems, type)

Miscellaneous Functions

     fbm_compile
             Analyses the string in order to make fast searches
             on it using fbm_instr() -- the Boyer-Moore algo-
             rithm.

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                     void    fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)

     fbm_instr
             Returns the location of the SV in the string delim-
             ited by "str" and "strend".  It returns "Nullch" if
             the string can't be found.  The "sv" does not have
             to be fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as
             fast then.

                     char*   fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlesv, U32 flags)

     form    Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conven-
             tional (non-SV) arguments and returns the formatted
             string.

                 (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)

             can be used any place a string (char *) is required:

                 char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);

             Uses a single private buffer so if you want to for-
             mat several strings you must explicitly copy the
             earlier strings away (and free the copies when you
             are done).

                     char*   form(const char* pat, ...)

     getcwd_sv
             Fill the sv with current working directory

                     int     getcwd_sv(SV* sv)

     strEQ   Test two strings to see if they are equal.  Returns
             true or false.

                     bool    strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)

     strGE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is
             greater than or equal to the second, "s2".  Returns
             true or false.

                     bool    strGE(char* s1, char* s2)

     strGT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is
             greater than the second, "s2".  Returns true or
             false.

                     bool    strGT(char* s1, char* s2)

     strLE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less
             than or equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true or

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             false.

                     bool    strLE(char* s1, char* s2)

     strLT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less
             than the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

                     bool    strLT(char* s1, char* s2)

     strNE   Test two strings to see if they are different.
             Returns true or false.

                     bool    strNE(char* s1, char* s2)

     strnEQ  Test two strings to see if they are equal.  The
             "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes to
             compare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
             "strncmp").

                     bool    strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

     strnNE  Test two strings to see if they are different.  The
             "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes to
             compare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
             "strncmp").

                     bool    strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

     sv_nolocking
             Dummy routine which "locks" an SV when there is no
             locking module present. Exists to avoid test for a
             NULL function pointer and because it could poten-
             tially warn under some level of strict-ness.

                     void    sv_nolocking(SV *)

     sv_nosharing
             Dummy routine which "shares" an SV when there is no
             sharing module present. Exists to avoid test for a
             NULL function pointer and because it could poten-
             tially warn under some level of strict-ness.

                     void    sv_nosharing(SV *)

     sv_nounlocking
             Dummy routine which "unlocks" an SV when there is no
             locking module present. Exists to avoid test for a
             NULL function pointer and because it could poten-
             tially warn under some level of strict-ness.

                     void    sv_nounlocking(SV *)

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Numeric functions

     grok_bin
             converts a string representing a binary number to
             numeric form.

             On entry start and *len give the string to scan,
             *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be
             NULL or a pointer to an NV. The scan stops at the
             end of the string, or the first invalid character.
             Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set in *flags,
             encountering an invalid character will also trigger
             a warning. On return *len is set to the length of
             the scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

             If the value is <= "UV_MAX" it is returned as a UV,
             the output flags are clear, and nothing is written
             to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_bin"
             returns UV_MAX, sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX"
             in the output flags, and writes the value to *result
             (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

             The binary number may optionally be prefixed with
             "0b" or "b" unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is
             set in *flags on entry. If
             "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then
             the binary number may use '_' characters to separate
             digits.

                     UV      grok_bin(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

     grok_hex
             converts a string representing a hex number to
             numeric form.

             On entry start and *len give the string to scan,
             *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be
             NULL or a pointer to an NV. The scan stops at the
             end of the string, or the first invalid character.
             Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set in *flags,
             encountering an invalid character will also trigger
             a warning. On return *len is set to the length of
             the scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

             If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV,
             the output flags are clear, and nothing is written
             to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_hex"
             returns UV_MAX, sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX"
             in the output flags, and writes the value to *result
             (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

             The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0x"
             or "x" unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set in

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             *flags on entry. If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is
             set in *flags then the hex number may use '_' char-
             acters to separate digits.

                     UV      grok_hex(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

     grok_number
             Recognise (or not) a number.  The type of the number
             is returned (0 if unrecognised), otherwise it is a
             bit-ORed combination of IS_NUMBER_IN_UV,
             IS_NUMBER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX, IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT,
             IS_NUMBER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY, IS_NUMBER_NAN
             (defined in perl.h).

             If the value of the number can fit an in UV, it is
             returned in the *valuep IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set
             to indicate that *valuep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
             will never be set unless *valuep is valid, but
             *valuep may have been assigned to during processing
             even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return. If
             valuep is NULL, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the
             same cases as when valuep is non-NULL, but no actual
             assignment (or SEGV) will occur.

             IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
             if trailing decimals were seen (in which case
             *valuep gives the true value truncated to an
             integer), and IS_NUMBER_NEG if the number is nega-
             tive (in which case *valuep holds the absolute
             value).  IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation
             was used or the number is larger than a UV.

                     int     grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len, UV *valuep)

     grok_numeric_radix
             Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator
             (radix).

                     bool    grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp, const char *send)

     grok_oct
             converts a string representing an octal number to
             numeric form.

             On entry start and *len give the string to scan,
             *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be
             NULL or a pointer to an NV. The scan stops at the
             end of the string, or the first invalid character.
             Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set in *flags,
             encountering an invalid character will also trigger
             a warning. On return *len is set to the length of
             the scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

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             If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV,
             the output flags are clear, and nothing is written
             to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_oct"
             returns UV_MAX, sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX"
             in the output flags, and writes the value to *result
             (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

             If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags
             then the octal number may use '_' characters to
             separate digits.

                     UV      grok_oct(char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)

     scan_bin
             For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_bin" instead.

                     NV      scan_bin(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

     scan_hex
             For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_hex" instead.

                     NV      scan_hex(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

     scan_oct
             For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_oct" instead.

                     NV      scan_oct(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

Optree Manipulation Functions

     cv_const_sv
             If "cv" is a constant sub eligible for inlining.
             returns the constant value returned by the sub.
             Otherwise, returns NULL.

             Constant subs can be created with "newCONSTSUB" or
             as described in "Constant Functions" in perlsub.

                     SV*     cv_const_sv(CV* cv)

     newCONSTSUB
             Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl "sub FOO
             () { 123 }" which is eligible for inlining at
             compile-time.

                     CV*     newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, char* name, SV* sv)

     newXS   Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.

Pad Data Structures

     pad_sv  Get the value at offset po in the current pad. Use
             macro PAD_SV instead of calling this function
             directly.

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                     SV*     pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)

Stack Manipulation Macros

     dMARK   Declare a stack marker variable, "mark", for the
             XSUB.  See "MARK" and "dORIGMARK".

                             dMARK;

     dORIGMARK
             Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB.  See
             "ORIGMARK".

                             dORIGMARK;

     dSP     Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for
             the XSUB, available via the "SP" macro.  See "SP".

                             dSP;

     EXTEND  Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's
             return values. Once used, guarantees that there is
             room for at least "nitems" to be pushed onto the
             stack.

                     void    EXTEND(SP, int nitems)

     MARK    Stack marker variable for the XSUB.  See "dMARK".

     mPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack.  The stack must have
             room for this element. Handles 'set' magic.  Does
             not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHi", "mXPUSHi" and
             "XPUSHi".

                     void    mPUSHi(IV iv)

     mPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have
             room for this element. Handles 'set' magic.  Does
             not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHn", "mXPUSHn" and
             "XPUSHn".

                     void    mPUSHn(NV nv)

     mPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have
             room for this element. The "len" indicates the
             length of the string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does
             not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHp", "mXPUSHp" and
             "XPUSHp".

                     void    mPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

     mPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack
             must have room for this element.  Handles 'set'

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             magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHu",
             "mXPUSHu" and "XPUSHu".

                     void    mPUSHu(UV uv)

     mXPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack
             if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use
             "TARG".  See also "XPUSHi", "mPUSHi" and "PUSHi".

                     void    mXPUSHi(IV iv)

     mXPUSHn Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if
             necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use
             "TARG".  See also "XPUSHn", "mPUSHn" and "PUSHn".

                     void    mXPUSHn(NV nv)

     mXPUSHp Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if
             necessary.  The "len" indicates the length of the
             string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".
             See also "XPUSHp", "mPUSHp" and "PUSHp".

                     void    mXPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

     mXPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending
             the stack if necessary. Handles 'set' magic.  Does
             not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHu", "mPUSHu" and
             "PUSHu".

                     void    mXPUSHu(UV uv)

     ORIGMARK
             The original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "dORIG-
             MARK".

     POPi    Pops an integer off the stack.

                     IV      POPi

     POPl    Pops a long off the stack.

                     long    POPl

     POPn    Pops a double off the stack.

                     NV      POPn

     POPp    Pops a string off the stack. Deprecated. New code
             should use POPpx.

                     char*   POPp

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     POPpbytex
             Pops a string off the stack which must consist of
             bytes i.e. characters < 256.

                     char*   POPpbytex

     POPpx   Pops a string off the stack.

                     char*   POPpx

     POPs    Pops an SV off the stack.

                     SV*     POPs

     PUSHi   Push an integer onto the stack.  The stack must have
             room for this element. Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
             "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called
             to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
             macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHi"
             instead.  See also "XPUSHi" and "mXPUSHi".

                     void    PUSHi(IV iv)

     PUSHMARK
             Opening bracket for arguments on a callback.  See
             "PUTBACK" and perlcall.

                     void    PUSHMARK(SP)

     PUSHmortal
             Push a new mortal SV onto the stack.  The stack must
             have room for this element.  Does not handle 'set'
             magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHs",
             "XPUSHmortal" and "XPUSHs".

                     void    PUSHmortal()

     PUSHn   Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have
             room for this element. Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
             "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called
             to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
             macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHn"
             instead.  See also "XPUSHn" and "mXPUSHn".

                     void    PUSHn(NV nv)

     PUSHp   Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have
             room for this element. The "len" indicates the
             length of the string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
             "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called
             to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
             macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHp"

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             instead.  See also "XPUSHp" and "mXPUSHp".

                     void    PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

     PUSHs   Push an SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room
             for this element. Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does
             not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHmortal", "XPUSHs" and
             "XPUSHmortal".

                     void    PUSHs(SV* sv)

     PUSHu   Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack
             must have room for this element.  Handles 'set'
             magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG"
             should be called to declare it.  Do not call multi-
             ple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from
             XSUB's - see "mPUSHu" instead.  See also "XPUSHu"
             and "mXPUSHu".

                     void    PUSHu(UV uv)

     PUTBACK Closing bracket for XSUB arguments.  This is usually
             handled by "xsubpp". See "PUSHMARK" and perlcall for
             other uses.

                             PUTBACK;

     SP      Stack pointer.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".
             See "dSP" and "SPAGAIN".

     SPAGAIN Refetch the stack pointer.  Used after a callback.
             See perlcall.

                             SPAGAIN;

     XPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack
             if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so
             "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare
             it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to
             return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHi" instead.
             See also "PUSHi" and "mPUSHi".

                     void    XPUSHi(IV iv)

     XPUSHmortal
             Push a new mortal SV onto the stack, extending the
             stack if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.
             Does not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHs", "PUSHmor-
             tal" and "PUSHs".

                     void    XPUSHmortal()

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     XPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if
             necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so
             "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare
             it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to
             return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHn" instead.
             See also "PUSHn" and "mPUSHn".

                     void    XPUSHn(NV nv)

     XPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if
             necessary.  The "len" indicates the length of the
             string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so
             "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare
             it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to
             return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHp" instead.
             See also "PUSHp" and "mPUSHp".

                     void    XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

     XPUSHs  Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if
             necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not
             use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHmortal", "PUSHs" and
             "PUSHmortal".

                     void    XPUSHs(SV* sv)

     XPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending
             the stack if necessary. Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
             "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called
             to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
             macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHu"
             instead.  See also "PUSHu" and "mPUSHu".

                     void    XPUSHu(UV uv)

     XSRETURN
             Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the
             stack.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".

                     void    XSRETURN(int nitems)

     XSRETURN_EMPTY
             Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.

                             XSRETURN_EMPTY;

     XSRETURN_IV
             Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
             "XST_mIV".

                     void    XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)

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     XSRETURN_NO
             Return &PL_sv_no from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
             "XST_mNO".

                             XSRETURN_NO;

     XSRETURN_NV
             Return a double from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
             "XST_mNV".

                     void    XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)

     XSRETURN_PV
             Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately.
             Uses "XST_mPV".

                     void    XSRETURN_PV(char* str)

     XSRETURN_UNDEF
             Return &PL_sv_undef from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
             "XST_mUNDEF".

                             XSRETURN_UNDEF;

     XSRETURN_UV
             Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
             "XST_mUV".

                     void    XSRETURN_UV(IV uv)

     XSRETURN_YES
             Return &PL_sv_yes from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
             "XST_mYES".

                             XSRETURN_YES;

     XST_mIV Place an integer into the specified position "pos"
             on the stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal
             SV.

                     void    XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)

     XST_mNO Place &PL_sv_no into the specified position "pos" on
             the stack.

                     void    XST_mNO(int pos)

     XST_mNV Place a double into the specified position "pos" on
             the stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

                     void    XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)

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     XST_mPV Place a copy of a string into the specified position
             "pos" on the stack. The value is stored in a new
             mortal SV.

                     void    XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)

     XST_mUNDEF
             Place &PL_sv_undef into the specified position "pos"
             on the stack.

                     void    XST_mUNDEF(int pos)

     XST_mYES
             Place &PL_sv_yes into the specified position "pos"
             on the stack.

                     void    XST_mYES(int pos)

SV Flags

     svtype  An enum of flags for Perl types.  These are found in
             the file sv.h in the "svtype" enum.  Test these
             flags with the "SvTYPE" macro.

     SVt_IV  Integer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

     SVt_NV  Double type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

     SVt_PV  Pointer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

     SVt_PVAV
             Type flag for arrays.  See "svtype".

     SVt_PVCV
             Type flag for code refs.  See "svtype".

     SVt_PVHV
             Type flag for hashes.  See "svtype".

     SVt_PVMG
             Type flag for blessed scalars.  See "svtype".

SV Manipulation Functions

     get_sv  Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar.  If
             "create" is set and the Perl variable does not exist
             then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and
             the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

             NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                     SV*     get_sv(const char* name, I32 create)

     looks_like_number

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             Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or
             is a number). "Inf" and "Infinity" are treated as
             numbers (so will not issue a non-numeric warning),
             even if your atof() doesn't grok them.

                     I32     looks_like_number(SV* sv)

     newRV_inc
             Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference
             count for the original SV is incremented.

                     SV*     newRV_inc(SV* sv)

     newRV_noinc
             Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference
             count for the original SV is not incremented.

                     SV*     newRV_noinc(SV *sv)

     NEWSV   Creates a new SV.  A non-zero "len" parameter indi-
             cates the number of bytes of preallocated string
             space the SV should have.  An extra byte for a tail-
             ing NUL is also reserved.  (SvPOK is not set for the
             SV even if string space is allocated.)  The refer-
             ence count for the new SV is set to 1. "id" is an
             integer id between 0 and 1299 (used to identify
             leaks).

                     SV*     NEWSV(int id, STRLEN len)

     newSV   Create a new null SV, or if len > 0, create a new
             empty SVt_PV type SV with an initial PV allocation
             of len+1. Normally accessed via the "NEWSV" macro.

                     SV*     newSV(STRLEN len)

     newSVhek
             Creates a new SV from the hash key structure.  It
             will generate scalars that point to the shared
             string table where possible. Returns a new (unde-
             fined) SV if the hek is NULL.

                     SV*     newSVhek(const HEK *hek)

     newSViv Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it.  The
             reference count for the SV is set to 1.

                     SV*     newSViv(IV i)

     newSVnv Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value
             into it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1.

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                     SV*     newSVnv(NV n)

     newSVpv Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The
             reference count for the SV is set to 1.  If "len" is
             zero, Perl will compute the length using strlen().
             For efficiency, consider using "newSVpvn" instead.

                     SV*     newSVpv(const char* s, STRLEN len)

     newSVpvf
             Creates a new SV and initializes it with the string
             formatted like "sprintf".

                     SV*     newSVpvf(const char* pat, ...)

     newSVpvn
             Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The
             reference count for the SV is set to 1.  Note that
             if "len" is zero, Perl will create a zero length
             string.  You are responsible for ensuring that the
             source string is at least "len" bytes long.  If the
             "s" argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined.

                     SV*     newSVpvn(const char* s, STRLEN len)

     newSVpvn_share
             Creates a new SV with its SvPVX_const pointing to a
             shared string in the string table. If the string
             does not already exist in the table, it is created
             first.  Turns on READONLY and FAKE.  The string's
             hash is stored in the UV slot of the SV; if the
             "hash" parameter is non-zero, that value is used;
             otherwise the hash is computed.  The idea here is
             that as the string table is used for shared hash
             keys these strings will have SvPVX_const == HeKEY
             and hash lookup will avoid string compare.

                     SV*     newSVpvn_share(const char* s, I32 len, U32 hash)

     newSVrv Creates a new SV for the RV, "rv", to point to.  If
             "rv" is not an RV then it will be upgraded to one.
             If "classname" is non-null then the new SV will be
             blessed in the specified package.  The new SV is
             returned and its reference count is 1.

                     SV*     newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname)

     newSVsv Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the
             original SV. (Uses "sv_setsv").

                     SV*     newSVsv(SV* old)

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     newSVuv Creates a new SV and copies an unsigned integer into
             it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1.

                     SV*     newSVuv(UV u)

     SvCUR   Returns the length of the string which is in the SV.
             See "SvLEN".

                     STRLEN  SvCUR(SV* sv)

     SvCUR_set
             Set the current length of the string which is in the
             SV.  See "SvCUR" and "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvEND   Returns a pointer to the last character in the
             string which is in the SV. See "SvCUR".  Access the
             character as *(SvEND(sv)).

                     char*   SvEND(SV* sv)

     SvGROW  Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it
             has room for the indicated number of bytes (remember
             to reserve space for an extra trailing NUL charac-
             ter).  Calls "sv_grow" to perform the expansion if
             necessary. Returns a pointer to the character
             buffer.

                     char *  SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvIOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             an integer.

                     bool    SvIOK(SV* sv)

     SvIOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             an integer.  Checks the private setting.  Use
             "SvIOK".

                     bool    SvIOKp(SV* sv)

     SvIOK_notUV
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             a signed integer.

                     bool    SvIOK_notUV(SV* sv)

     SvIOK_off
             Unsets the IV status of an SV.

                     void    SvIOK_off(SV* sv)

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     SvIOK_on
             Tells an SV that it is an integer.

                     void    SvIOK_on(SV* sv)

     SvIOK_only
             Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all
             other OK bits.

                     void    SvIOK_only(SV* sv)

     SvIOK_only_UV
             Tells and SV that it is an unsigned integer and dis-
             ables all other OK bits.

                     void    SvIOK_only_UV(SV* sv)

     SvIOK_UV
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             an unsigned integer.

                     bool    SvIOK_UV(SV* sv)

     SvIsCOW Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is
             Copy-On-Write. (either shared hash key scalars, or
             full Copy On Write scalars if 5.9.0 is configured
             for COW)

                     bool    SvIsCOW(SV* sv)

     SvIsCOW_shared_hash
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is
             Copy-On-Write shared hash key scalar.

                     bool    SvIsCOW_shared_hash(SV* sv)

     SvIV    Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it.
             See  "SvIVx" for a version which guarantees to
             evaluate sv only once.

                     IV      SvIV(SV* sv)

     SvIVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's IV slot, without
             checks or conversions. Only use when you are sure
             SvIOK is true. See also "SvIV()".

                     IV      SvIVX(SV* sv)

     SvIVx   Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it.
             Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use the more
             efficient "SvIV" otherwise.

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                     IV      SvIVx(SV* sv)

     SvIV_set
             Set the value of the IV pointer in sv to val.  It is
             possible to perform the same function of this macro
             with an lvalue assignment to "SvIVX". With future
             Perls, however, it will be more efficient to use
             "SvIV_set" instead of the lvalue assignment to
             "SvIVX".

                     void    SvIV_set(SV* sv, IV val)

     SvLEN   Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV, not
             including any part attributable to "SvOOK".  See
             "SvCUR".

                     STRLEN  SvLEN(SV* sv)

     SvLEN_set
             Set the actual length of the string which is in the
             SV.  See "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvLEN_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvMAGIC_set
             Set the value of the MAGIC pointer in sv to val.
             See "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvMAGIC_set(SV* sv, MAGIC* val)

     SvNIOK  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             a number, integer or double.

                     bool    SvNIOK(SV* sv)

     SvNIOKp Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             a number, integer or double.  Checks the private
             setting.  Use "SvNIOK".

                     bool    SvNIOKp(SV* sv)

     SvNIOK_off
             Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.

                     void    SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)

     SvNOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             a double.

                     bool    SvNOK(SV* sv)

     SvNOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains

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             a double.  Checks the private setting.  Use "SvNOK".

                     bool    SvNOKp(SV* sv)

     SvNOK_off
             Unsets the NV status of an SV.

                     void    SvNOK_off(SV* sv)

     SvNOK_on
             Tells an SV that it is a double.

                     void    SvNOK_on(SV* sv)

     SvNOK_only
             Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all
             other OK bits.

                     void    SvNOK_only(SV* sv)

     SvNV    Coerce the given SV to a double and return it. See
             "SvNVx" for a version which guarantees to evaluate
             sv only once.

                     NV      SvNV(SV* sv)

     SvNVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's NV slot, without
             checks or conversions. Only use when you are sure
             SvNOK is true. See also "SvNV()".

                     NV      SvNVX(SV* sv)

     SvNVx   Coerces the given SV to a double and returns it.
             Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use the more
             efficient "SvNV" otherwise.

                     NV      SvNVx(SV* sv)

     SvNV_set
             Set the value of the NV pointer in sv to val.  See
             "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvNV_set(SV* sv, NV val)

     SvOK    Returns a boolean indicating whether the value is an
             SV. It also tells whether the value is defined or
             not.

                     bool    SvOK(SV* sv)

     SvOOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SvIVX is a
             valid offset value for the SvPVX.  This hack is used

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             internally to speed up removal of characters from
             the beginning of a SvPV.  When SvOOK is true, then
             the start of the allocated string buffer is really
             (SvPVX - SvIVX).

                     bool    SvOOK(SV* sv)

     SvPOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             a character string.

                     bool    SvPOK(SV* sv)

     SvPOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             a character string. Checks the private setting.  Use
             "SvPOK".

                     bool    SvPOKp(SV* sv)

     SvPOK_off
             Unsets the PV status of an SV.

                     void    SvPOK_off(SV* sv)

     SvPOK_on
             Tells an SV that it is a string.

                     void    SvPOK_on(SV* sv)

     SvPOK_only
             Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all
             other OK bits. Will also turn off the UTF-8 status.

                     void    SvPOK_only(SV* sv)

     SvPOK_only_UTF8
             Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all
             other OK bits, and leaves the UTF-8 status as it
             was.

                     void    SvPOK_only_UTF8(SV* sv)

     SvPV    Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a
             stringified form of the SV if the SV does not con-
             tain a string.  The SV may cache the stringified
             version becoming "SvPOK".  Handles 'get' magic. See
             also "SvPVx" for a version which guarantees to
             evaluate sv only once.

                     char*   SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVbyte
             Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation

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             first if necessary.

                     char*   SvPVbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVbytex
             Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation
             first if necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only
             once; use the more efficient "SvPVbyte" otherwise.

                     char*   SvPVbytex(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVbytex_force
             Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte represen-
             tation first if necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv
             only once; use the more efficient "SvPVbyte_force"
             otherwise.

                     char*   SvPVbytex_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVbyte_force
             Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte represen-
             tation first if necessary.

                     char*   SvPVbyte_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVbyte_nolen
             Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to byte represen-
             tation first if necessary.

                     char*   SvPVbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

     SvPVutf8
             Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if neces-
             sary.

                     char*   SvPVutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVutf8x
             Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if neces-
             sary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the
             more efficient "SvPVutf8" otherwise.

                     char*   SvPVutf8x(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVutf8x_force
             Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if
             necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use
             the more efficient "SvPVutf8_force" otherwise.

                     char*   SvPVutf8x_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVutf8_force

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             Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if
             necessary.

                     char*   SvPVutf8_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPVutf8_nolen
             Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to utf8 first if
             necessary.

                     char*   SvPVutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

     SvPVX   Returns a pointer to the physical string in the SV.
             The SV must contain a string.

                     char*   SvPVX(SV* sv)

     SvPVx   A version of "SvPV" which guarantees to evaluate sv
             only once.

                     char*   SvPVx(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPV_force
             Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing
             just a string ("SvPOK_only").  You want force if you
             are going to update the "SvPVX" directly.

                     char*   SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPV_force_nomg
             Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing
             just a string ("SvPOK_only").  You want force if you
             are going to update the "SvPVX" directly. Doesn't
             process magic.

                     char*   SvPV_force_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

     SvPV_nolen
             Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a
             stringified form of the SV if the SV does not con-
             tain a string.  The SV may cache the stringified
             form becoming "SvPOK".  Handles 'get' magic.

                     char*   SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)

     SvPV_set
             Set the value of the PV pointer in sv to val.  See
             "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvPV_set(SV* sv, char* val)

     SvREFCNT
             Returns the value of the object's reference count.

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                     U32     SvREFCNT(SV* sv)

     SvREFCNT_dec
             Decrements the reference count of the given SV.

                     void    SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)

     SvREFCNT_inc
             Increments the reference count of the given SV.

                     SV*     SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)

     SvROK   Tests if the SV is an RV.

                     bool    SvROK(SV* sv)

     SvROK_off
             Unsets the RV status of an SV.

                     void    SvROK_off(SV* sv)

     SvROK_on
             Tells an SV that it is an RV.

                     void    SvROK_on(SV* sv)

     SvRV    Dereferences an RV to return the SV.

                     SV*     SvRV(SV* sv)

     SvRV_set
             Set the value of the RV pointer in sv to val.  See
             "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvRV_set(SV* sv, SV* val)

     SvSTASH Returns the stash of the SV.

                     HV*     SvSTASH(SV* sv)

     SvSTASH_set
             Set the value of the STASH pointer in sv to val.
             See "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvSTASH_set(SV* sv, STASH* val)

     SvTAINT Taints an SV if tainting is enabled.

                     void    SvTAINT(SV* sv)

     SvTAINTED
             Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if

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             it is, FALSE if not.

                     bool    SvTAINTED(SV* sv)

     SvTAINTED_off
             Untaints an SV. Be very careful with this routine,
             as it short-circuits some of Perl's fundamental
             security features. XS module authors should not use
             this function unless they fully understand all the
             implications of unconditionally untainting the
             value. Untainting should be done in the standard
             perl fashion, via a carefully crafted regexp, rather
             than directly untainting variables.

                     void    SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)

     SvTAINTED_on
             Marks an SV as tainted if tainting is enabled.

                     void    SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)

     SvTRUE  Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would
             evaluate the SV as true or false, defined or unde-
             fined.  Does not handle 'get' magic.

                     bool    SvTRUE(SV* sv)

     SvTYPE  Returns the type of the SV.  See "svtype".

                     svtype  SvTYPE(SV* sv)

     SvUOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             an unsigned integer.

                     void    SvUOK(SV* sv)

     SvUPGRADE
             Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Uses
             "sv_upgrade" to perform the upgrade if necessary.
             See "svtype".

                     void    SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)

     SvUTF8  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains
             UTF-8 encoded data.

                     bool    SvUTF8(SV* sv)

     SvUTF8_off
             Unsets the UTF-8 status of an SV.

                     void    SvUTF8_off(SV *sv)

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     SvUTF8_on
             Turn on the UTF-8 status of an SV (the data is not
             changed, just the flag). Do not use frivolously.

                     void    SvUTF8_on(SV *sv)

     SvUV    Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and
             returns it.  See "SvUVx" for a version which guaran-
             tees to evaluate sv only once.

                     UV      SvUV(SV* sv)

     SvUVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's UV slot, without
             checks or conversions. Only use when you are sure
             SvIOK is true. See also "SvUV()".

                     UV      SvUVX(SV* sv)

     SvUVx   Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and
             returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use
             the more efficient "SvUV" otherwise.

                     UV      SvUVx(SV* sv)

     SvUV_set
             Set the value of the UV pointer in sv to val.  See
             "SvIV_set".

                     void    SvUV_set(SV* sv, UV val)

     sv_2bool
             This function is only called on magical items, and
             is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent.

                     bool    sv_2bool(SV* sv)

     sv_2cv  Using various gambits, try to get a CV from an SV;
             in addition, try if possible to set *st and *gvp to
             the stash and GV associated with it.

                     CV*     sv_2cv(SV* sv, HV** st, GV** gvp, I32 lref)

     sv_2io  Using various gambits, try to get an IO from an SV:
             the IO slot if its a GV; or the recursive result if
             we're an RV; or the IO slot of the symbol named
             after the PV if we're a string.

                     IO*     sv_2io(SV* sv)

     sv_2iv  Return the integer value of an SV, doing any neces-
             sary string conversion, magic etc. Normally used via
             the "SvIV(sv)" and "SvIVx(sv)" macros.

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                     IV      sv_2iv(SV* sv)

     sv_2mortal
             Marks an existing SV as mortal.  The SV will be des-
             troyed "soon", either by an explicit call to
             FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as
             statement boundaries.  SvTEMP() is turned on which
             means that the SV's string buffer can be "stolen" if
             this SV is copied. See also "sv_newmortal" and
             "sv_mortalcopy".

                     SV*     sv_2mortal(SV* sv)

     sv_2nv  Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary
             string or integer conversion, magic etc. Normally
             used via the "SvNV(sv)" and "SvNVx(sv)" macros.

                     NV      sv_2nv(SV* sv)

     sv_2pvbyte
             Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation
             of the SV, and set *lp to its length.  May cause the
             SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

             Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte" macro.

                     char*   sv_2pvbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

     sv_2pvbyte_nolen
             Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation
             of the SV. May cause the SV to be downgraded from
             UTF-8 as a side-effect.

             Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte_nolen" macro.

                     char*   sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

     sv_2pvutf8
             Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation
             of the SV, and set *lp to its length.  May cause the
             SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

             Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8" macro.

                     char*   sv_2pvutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

     sv_2pvutf8_nolen
             Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation
             of the SV. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8
             as a side-effect.

             Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro.

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                     char*   sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

     sv_2pv_flags
             Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and
             sets *lp to its length. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC,
             does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string if
             necessary. Normally invoked via the "SvPV_flags"
             macro. "sv_2pv()" and "sv_2pv_nomg" usually end up
             here too.

                     char*   sv_2pv_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

     sv_2pv_nolen
             Like "sv_2pv()", but doesn't return the length too.
             You should usually use the macro wrapper
             "SvPV_nolen(sv)" instead.
                  char*     sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)

     sv_2uv  Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing
             any necessary string conversion, magic etc. Normally
             used via the "SvUV(sv)" and "SvUVx(sv)" macros.

                     UV      sv_2uv(SV* sv)

     sv_backoff
             Remove any string offset. You should normally use
             the "SvOOK_off" macro wrapper instead.

                     int     sv_backoff(SV* sv)

     sv_bless
             Blesses an SV into a specified package.  The SV must
             be an RV.  The package must be designated by its
             stash (see "gv_stashpv()").  The reference count of
             the SV is unaffected.

                     SV*     sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash)

     sv_catpv
             Concatenates the string onto the end of the string
             which is in the SV. If the SV has the UTF-8 status
             set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8.
             Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See
             "sv_catpv_mg".

                     void    sv_catpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

     sv_catpvf
             Processes its arguments like "sprintf" and appends
             the formatted output to an SV.  If the appended data
             contains "wide" characters (including, but not lim-
             ited to, SVs with a UTF-8 PV formatted with %s, and

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             characters >255 formatted with %c), the original SV
             might get upgraded to UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic,
             but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catpvf_mg". If the
             original SV was UTF-8, the pattern should be valid
             UTF-8; if the original SV was bytes, the pattern
             should be too.

                     void    sv_catpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

     sv_catpvf_mg
             Like "sv_catpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_catpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

     sv_catpvn
             Concatenates the string onto the end of the string
             which is in the SV.  The "len" indicates number of
             bytes to copy.  If the SV has the UTF-8 status set,
             then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8. Han-
             dles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See
             "sv_catpvn_mg".

                     void    sv_catpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_catpvn_flags
             Concatenates the string onto the end of the string
             which is in the SV.  The "len" indicates number of
             bytes to copy.  If the SV has the UTF-8 status set,
             then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8. If
             "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on
             "dsv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_catpvn" and
             "sv_catpvn_nomg" are implemented in terms of this
             function.

                     void    sv_catpvn_flags(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len, I32 flags)

     sv_catpvn_mg
             Like "sv_catpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_catpvn_nomg
             Like "sv_catpvn" but doesn't process magic.

                     void    sv_catpvn_nomg(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_catpv_mg
             Like "sv_catpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_catpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

     sv_catsv

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             Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end
             of the string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not
             "ssv".  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.
             See "sv_catsv_mg".

                     void    sv_catsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     sv_catsv_flags
             Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end
             of the string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not
             "ssv".  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will
             "mg_get" on the SVs if appropriate, else not.
             "sv_catsv" and "sv_catsv_nomg" are implemented in
             terms of this function.

                     void    sv_catsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

     sv_catsv_mg
             Like "sv_catsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_catsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

     sv_catsv_nomg
             Like "sv_catsv" but doesn't process magic.

                     void    sv_catsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     sv_chop Efficient removal of characters from the beginning
             of the string buffer. SvPOK(sv) must be true and the
             "ptr" must be a pointer to somewhere inside the
             string buffer.  The "ptr" becomes the first charac-
             ter of the adjusted string. Uses the "OOK hack".
             Beware: after this function returns, "ptr" and
             SvPVX_const(sv) may no longer refer to the same
             chunk of data.

                     void    sv_chop(SV* sv, char* ptr)

     sv_clear
             Clear an SV: call any destructors, free up any
             memory used by the body, and free the body itself.
             The SV's head is not freed, although its type is set
             to all 1's so that it won't inadvertently be assumed
             to be live during global destruction etc. This func-
             tion should only be called when REFCNT is zero. Most
             of the time you'll want to call "sv_free()" (or its
             macro wrapper "SvREFCNT_dec") instead.

                     void    sv_clear(SV* sv)

     sv_cmp  Compares the strings in two SVs.  Returns -1, 0, or
             1 indicating whether the string in "sv1" is less

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             than, equal to, or greater than the string in "sv2".
             Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get magic,
             and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.
             See also "sv_cmp_locale".

                     I32     sv_cmp(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

     sv_cmp_locale
             Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware
             manner. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get
             magic, and will coerce its args to strings if neces-
             sary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".  See also "sv_cmp".

                     I32     sv_cmp_locale(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

     sv_collxfrm
             Add Collate Transform magic to an SV if it doesn't
             already have it.

             Any scalar variable may carry PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm
             magic that contains the scalar data of the variable,
             but transformed to such a format that a normal
             memory comparison can be used to compare the data
             according to the locale settings.

                     char*   sv_collxfrm(SV* sv, STRLEN* nxp)

     sv_copypv
             Copies a stringified representation of the source SV
             into the destination SV.  Automatically performs any
             necessary mg_get and coercion of numeric values into
             strings.  Guaranteed to preserve UTF-8 flag even
             from overloaded objects.  Similar in nature to
             sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV
             instead of just the string.  Mostly uses
             sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that would
             lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.

                     void    sv_copypv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     sv_dec  Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string
             to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles 'get'
             magic.

                     void    sv_dec(SV* sv)

     sv_derived_from
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is
             derived from the specified class.  This is the func-
             tion that implements "UNIVERSAL::isa".  It works for
             class names as well as for objects.

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                     bool    sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name)

     sv_eq   Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in
             the two SVs are identical. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes'
             aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args
             to strings if necessary.

                     I32     sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

     sv_force_normal
             Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is
             a shared string, make a private copy; if we're a
             ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to an
             xpvmg. See also "sv_force_normal_flags".

                     void    sv_force_normal(SV *sv)

     sv_force_normal_flags
             Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is
             a shared string, make a private copy; if we're a
             ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to an
             xpvmg. The "flags" parameter gets passed to
             "sv_unref_flags()" when unrefing. "sv_force_normal"
             calls this function with flags set to 0.

                     void    sv_force_normal_flags(SV *sv, U32 flags)

     sv_free Decrement an SV's reference count, and if it drops
             to zero, call "sv_clear" to invoke destructors and
             free up any memory used by the body; finally, deal-
             locate the SV's head itself. Normally called via a
             wrapper macro "SvREFCNT_dec".

                     void    sv_free(SV* sv)

     sv_gets Get a line from the filehandle and store it into the
             SV, optionally appending to the currently-stored
             string.

                     char*   sv_gets(SV* sv, PerlIO* fp, I32 append)

     sv_grow Expands the character buffer in the SV.  If neces-
             sary, uses "sv_unref" and upgrades the SV to
             "SVt_PV".  Returns a pointer to the character
             buffer. Use the "SvGROW" wrapper instead.

                     char*   sv_grow(SV* sv, STRLEN newlen)

     sv_inc  Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string
             to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles 'get'
             magic.

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                     void    sv_inc(SV* sv)

     sv_insert
             Inserts a string at the specified offset/length
             within the SV. Similar to the Perl substr() func-
             tion.

                     void    sv_insert(SV* bigsv, STRLEN offset, STRLEN len, char* little, STRLEN littlelen)

     sv_isa  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is
             blessed into the specified class.  This does not
             check for subtypes; use "sv_derived_from" to verify
             an inheritance relationship.

                     int     sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name)

     sv_isobject
             Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV
             pointing to a blessed object.  If the SV is not an
             RV, or if the object is not blessed, then this will
             return false.

                     int     sv_isobject(SV* sv)

     sv_iv   A private implementation of the "SvIVx" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     IV      sv_iv(SV* sv)

     sv_len  Returns the length of the string in the SV. Handles
             magic and type coercion.  See also "SvCUR", which
             gives raw access to the xpv_cur slot.

                     STRLEN  sv_len(SV* sv)

     sv_len_utf8
             Returns the number of characters in the string in an
             SV, counting wide UTF-8 bytes as a single character.
             Handles magic and type coercion.

                     STRLEN  sv_len_utf8(SV* sv)

     sv_magic
             Adds magic to an SV. First upgrades "sv" to type
             "SVt_PVMG" if necessary, then adds a new magic item
             of type "how" to the head of the magic list.

             See "sv_magicext" (which "sv_magic" now calls) for a
             description of the handling of the "name" and "nam-
             len" arguments.

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             You need to use "sv_magicext" to add magic to
             SvREADONLY SVs and also to add more than one
             instance of the same 'how'.

                     void    sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen)

     sv_magicext
             Adds magic to an SV, upgrading it if necessary.
             Applies the supplied vtable and returns a pointer to
             the magic added.

             Note that "sv_magicext" will allow things that
             "sv_magic" will not. In particular, you can add
             magic to SvREADONLY SVs, and add more than one
             instance of the same 'how'.

             If "namlen" is greater than zero then a "savepvn"
             copy of "name" is stored, if "namlen" is zero then
             "name" is stored as-is and - as another special case
             - if "(name && namlen == HEf_SVKEY)" then "name" is
             assumed to contain an "SV*" and is stored as-is with
             its REFCNT incremented.

             (This is now used as a subroutine by "sv_magic".)

                     MAGIC * sv_magicext(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, MGVTBL *vtbl, const char* name, I32 namlen)

     sv_mortalcopy
             Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV
             (using "sv_setsv"). The new SV is marked as mortal.
             It will be destroyed "soon", either by an explicit
             call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places
             such as statement boundaries.  See also
             "sv_newmortal" and "sv_2mortal".

                     SV*     sv_mortalcopy(SV* oldsv)

     sv_newmortal
             Creates a new null SV which is mortal.  The refer-
             ence count of the SV is set to 1. It will be des-
             troyed "soon", either by an explicit call to
             FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as
             statement boundaries. See also "sv_mortalcopy" and
             "sv_2mortal".

                     SV*     sv_newmortal()

     sv_newref
             Increment an SV's reference count. Use the
             "SvREFCNT_inc()" wrapper instead.

                     SV*     sv_newref(SV* sv)

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     sv_nv   A private implementation of the "SvNVx" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     NV      sv_nv(SV* sv)

     sv_pos_b2u
             Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a
             count of bytes from the start of the string, to a
             count of the equivalent number of UTF-8 chars. Han-
             dles magic and type coercion.

                     void    sv_pos_b2u(SV* sv, I32* offsetp)

     sv_pos_u2b
             Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a
             count of UTF-8 chars from the start of the string,
             to a count of the equivalent number of bytes; if
             lenp is non-zero, it does the same to lenp, but this
             time starting from the offset, rather than from the
             start of the string. Handles magic and type coer-
             cion.

                     void    sv_pos_u2b(SV* sv, I32* offsetp, I32* lenp)

     sv_pv   Use the "SvPV_nolen" macro instead

                     char*   sv_pv(SV *sv)

     sv_pvbyte
             Use "SvPVbyte_nolen" instead.

                     char*   sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)

     sv_pvbyten
             A private implementation of the "SvPVbyte" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     char*   sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

     sv_pvbyten_force
             A private implementation of the "SvPVbytex_force"
             macro for compilers which can't cope with complex
             macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     char*   sv_pvbyten_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

     sv_pvn  A private implementation of the "SvPV" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

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                     char*   sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

     sv_pvn_force
             Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow. A
             private implementation of the "SvPV_force" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     char*   sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

     sv_pvn_force_flags
             Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow. If
             "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on
             "sv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_pvn_force" and
             "sv_pvn_force_nomg" are implemented in terms of this
             function. You normally want to use the various
             wrapper macros instead: see "SvPV_force" and
             "SvPV_force_nomg"

                     char*   sv_pvn_force_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

     sv_pvutf8
             Use the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro instead

                     char*   sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)

     sv_pvutf8n
             A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     char*   sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

     sv_pvutf8n_force
             A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8_force"
             macro for compilers which can't cope with complex
             macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     char*   sv_pvutf8n_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

     sv_reftype
             Returns a string describing what the SV is a refer-
             ence to.

                     char*   sv_reftype(SV* sv, int ob)

     sv_replace
             Make the first argument a copy of the second, then
             delete the original. The target SV physically takes
             over ownership of the body of the source SV and
             inherits its flags; however, the target keeps any
             magic it owns, and any magic in the source is

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             discarded. Note that this is a rather specialist SV
             copying operation; most of the time you'll want to
             use "sv_setsv" or one of its many macro front-ends.

                     void    sv_replace(SV* sv, SV* nsv)

     sv_report_used
             Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debug-
             ging aid).

                     void    sv_report_used()

     sv_reset
             Underlying implementation for the "reset" Perl func-
             tion. Note that the perl-level function is vaguely
             deprecated.

                     void    sv_reset(char* s, HV* stash)

     sv_rvweaken
             Weaken a reference: set the "SvWEAKREF" flag on this
             RV; give the referred-to SV "PERL_MAGIC_backref"
             magic if it hasn't already; and push a back-
             reference to this RV onto the array of backrefer-
             ences associated with that magic.

                     SV*     sv_rvweaken(SV *sv)

     sv_setiv
             Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first
             if necessary. Does not handle 'set' magic.  See also
             "sv_setiv_mg".

                     void    sv_setiv(SV* sv, IV num)

     sv_setiv_mg
             Like "sv_setiv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setiv_mg(SV *sv, IV i)

     sv_setnv
             Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first
             if necessary. Does not handle 'set' magic.  See also
             "sv_setnv_mg".

                     void    sv_setnv(SV* sv, NV num)

     sv_setnv_mg
             Like "sv_setnv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setnv_mg(SV *sv, NV num)

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     sv_setpv
             Copies a string into an SV.  The string must be
             null-terminated.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
             "sv_setpv_mg".

                     void    sv_setpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

     sv_setpvf
             Works like "sv_catpvf" but copies the text into the
             SV instead of appending it.  Does not handle 'set'
             magic.  See "sv_setpvf_mg".

                     void    sv_setpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

     sv_setpvf_mg
             Like "sv_setpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

     sv_setpviv
             Copies an integer into the given SV, also updating
             its string value. Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
             "sv_setpviv_mg".

                     void    sv_setpviv(SV* sv, IV num)

     sv_setpviv_mg
             Like "sv_setpviv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setpviv_mg(SV *sv, IV iv)

     sv_setpvn
             Copies a string into an SV.  The "len" parameter
             indicates the number of bytes to be copied.  If the
             "ptr" argument is NULL the SV will become undefined.
             Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpvn_mg".

                     void    sv_setpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_setpvn_mg
             Like "sv_setpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_setpv_mg
             Like "sv_setpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

     sv_setref_iv
             Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing
             the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an

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             RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new
             SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package
             for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to
             avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a refer-
             ence count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

                     SV*     sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv)

     sv_setref_nv
             Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing
             the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an
             RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new
             SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package
             for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to
             avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a refer-
             ence count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

                     SV*     sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV nv)

     sv_setref_pv
             Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing
             the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an
             RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new
             SV.  If the "pv" argument is NULL then "PL_sv_undef"
             will be placed into the SV.  The "classname" argu-
             ment indicates the package for the blessing.  Set
             "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The
             new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV
             will be returned.

             Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV,
             CV, because those objects will become corrupted by
             the pointer copy process.

             Note that "sv_setref_pvn" copies the string while
             this copies the pointer.

                     SV*     sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, void* pv)

     sv_setref_pvn
             Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing
             the SV.  The length of the string must be specified
             with "n".  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an
             RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new
             SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package
             for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to
             avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a refer-
             ence count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

             Note that "sv_setref_pv" copies the pointer while
             this copies the string.

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                     SV*     sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, char* pv, STRLEN n)

     sv_setref_uv
             Copies an unsigned integer into a new SV, optionally
             blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded
             to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the
             new SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the
             package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to
             "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will
             have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be
             returned.

                     SV*     sv_setref_uv(SV* rv, const char* classname, UV uv)

     sv_setsv
             Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the
             destination SV "dsv".  The source SV may be des-
             troyed if it is mortal, so don't use this function
             if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle
             'set' magic. Loosely speaking, it performs a
             copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of
             the destination.

             You probably want to use one of the assortment of
             wrappers, such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal",
             "SvSetMagicSV" and "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

                     void    sv_setsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     sv_setsv_flags
             Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the
             destination SV "dsv".  The source SV may be des-
             troyed if it is mortal, so don't use this function
             if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle
             'set' magic. Loosely speaking, it performs a
             copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of
             the destination. If the "flags" parameter has the
             "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "ssv" if
             appropriate, else not. If the "flags" parameter has
             the "NOSTEAL" bit set then the buffers of temps will
             not be stolen. <sv_setsv> and "sv_setsv_nomg" are
             implemented in terms of this function.

             You probably want to use one of the assortment of
             wrappers, such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal",
             "SvSetMagicSV" and "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

             This is the primary function for copying scalars,
             and most other copy-ish functions and macros use
             this underneath.

                     void    sv_setsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

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     sv_setsv_mg
             Like "sv_setsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

     sv_setsv_nomg
             Like "sv_setsv" but doesn't process magic.

                     void    sv_setsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

     sv_setuv
             Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV,
             upgrading first if necessary. Does not handle 'set'
             magic.  See also "sv_setuv_mg".

                     void    sv_setuv(SV* sv, UV num)

     sv_setuv_mg
             Like "sv_setuv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_setuv_mg(SV *sv, UV u)

     sv_taint
             Taint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_on" instead.
                  void sv_taint(SV* sv)

     sv_tainted
             Test an SV for taintedness. Use "SvTAINTED" instead.
                  bool sv_tainted(SV* sv)

     sv_true Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl's
             rules. Use the "SvTRUE" macro instead, which may
             call "sv_true()" or may instead use an in-line ver-
             sion.

                     I32     sv_true(SV *sv)

     sv_unmagic
             Removes all magic of type "type" from an SV.

                     int     sv_unmagic(SV* sv, int type)

     sv_unref
             Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the
             reference count of whatever was being referenced by
             the RV.  This can almost be thought of as a reversal
             of "newSVrv".  This is "sv_unref_flags" with the
             "flag" being zero.  See "SvROK_off".

                     void    sv_unref(SV* sv)

     sv_unref_flags

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             Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the
             reference count of whatever was being referenced by
             the RV.  This can almost be thought of as a reversal
             of "newSVrv".  The "cflags" argument can contain
             "SV_IMMEDIATE_UNREF" to force the reference count to
             be decremented (otherwise the decrementing is condi-
             tional on the reference count being different from
             one or the reference being a readonly SV). See
             "SvROK_off".

                     void    sv_unref_flags(SV* sv, U32 flags)

     sv_untaint
             Untaint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_off" instead.
                  void sv_untaint(SV* sv)

     sv_upgrade
             Upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Generally
             adds a new body type to the SV, then copies across
             as much information as possible from the old body.
             You generally want to use the "SvUPGRADE" macro
             wrapper. See also "svtype".

                     bool    sv_upgrade(SV* sv, U32 mt)

     sv_usepvn
             Tells an SV to use "ptr" to find its string value.
             Normally the string is stored inside the SV but
             sv_usepvn allows the SV to use an outside string.
             The "ptr" should point to memory that was allocated
             by "malloc".  The string length, "len", must be sup-
             plied.  This function will realloc the memory
             pointed to by "ptr", so that pointer should not be
             freed or used by the programmer after giving it to
             sv_usepvn.  Does not handle 'set' magic. See
             "sv_usepvn_mg".

                     void    sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_usepvn_mg
             Like "sv_usepvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

                     void    sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)

     sv_utf8_decode
             If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
             and contains a multiple-byte character, the "SvUTF8"
             flag is turned on so that it looks like a character.
             If the PV contains only single-byte characters, the
             "SvUTF8" flag stays being off. Scans PV for validity
             and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.

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             NOTE: this function is experimental and may change
             or be removed without notice.

                     bool    sv_utf8_decode(SV *sv)

     sv_utf8_downgrade
             Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters
             to bytes. If the PV contains a character beyond
             byte, this conversion will fail; in this case,
             either returns false or, if "fail_ok" is not true,
             croaks.

             This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte
             encoding interface: use the Encode extension for
             that.

             NOTE: this function is experimental and may change
             or be removed without notice.

                     bool    sv_utf8_downgrade(SV *sv, bool fail_ok)

     sv_utf8_encode
             Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns
             the "SvUTF8" flag off so that it looks like octets
             again.

                     void    sv_utf8_encode(SV *sv)

     sv_utf8_upgrade
             Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
             Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
             Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity
             checks even if all the bytes have hibit clear.

             This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to
             Unicode interface: use the Encode extension for
             that.

                     STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade(SV *sv)

     sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
             Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
             Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
             Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity
             checks even if all the bytes have hibit clear. If
             "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on
             "sv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_utf8_upgrade" and
             "sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg" are implemented in terms of
             this function.

             This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to
             Unicode interface: use the Encode extension for

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             that.

                     STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)

     sv_uv   A private implementation of the "SvUVx" macro for
             compilers which can't cope with complex macro
             expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                     UV      sv_uv(SV* sv)

     sv_vcatpvf
             Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends
             the formatted output to an SV.  Does not handle
             'set' magic.  See "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

             Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf".

                     void    sv_vcatpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

     sv_vcatpvfn
             Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends
             the formatted output to an SV.  Uses an array of SVs
             if the C style variable argument list is missing
             (NULL).  When running with taint checks enabled,
             indicates via "maybe_tainted" if results are
             untrustworthy (often due to the use of locales).

             XXX Except that it maybe_tainted is never assigned
             to.

             Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vcatpvf"
             and "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

                     void    sv_vcatpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

     sv_vcatpvf_mg
             Like "sv_vcatpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

             Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf_mg".

                     void    sv_vcatpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

     sv_vsetpvf
             Works like "sv_vcatpvf" but copies the text into the
             SV instead of appending it.  Does not handle 'set'
             magic.  See "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

             Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf".

                     void    sv_vsetpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

     sv_vsetpvfn

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             Works like "sv_vcatpvfn" but copies the text into
             the SV instead of appending it.

             Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vsetpvf"
             and "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

                     void    sv_vsetpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

     sv_vsetpvf_mg
             Like "sv_vsetpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

             Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf_mg".

                     void    sv_vsetpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

Unicode Support

     bytes_from_utf8
             Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8
             into byte encoding. Unlike "utf8_to_bytes" but like
             "bytes_to_utf8", returns a pointer to the newly-
             created string, and updates "len" to contain the new
             length.  Returns the original string if no conver-
             sion occurs, "len" is unchanged. Do nothing if
             "is_utf8" points to 0. Sets "is_utf8" to 0 if "s" is
             converted or contains all 7bit characters.

             NOTE: this function is experimental and may change
             or be removed without notice.

                     U8*     bytes_from_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)

     bytes_to_utf8
             Converts a string "s" of length "len" from ASCII
             into UTF-8 encoding. Returns a pointer to the
             newly-created string, and sets "len" to reflect the
             new length.

             If you want to convert to UTF-8 from other encodings
             than ASCII, see sv_recode_to_utf8().

             NOTE: this function is experimental and may change
             or be removed without notice.

                     U8*     bytes_to_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

     ibcmp_utf8
             Return true if the strings s1 and s2 differ
             case-insensitively, false if not (if they are equal
             case-insensitively).  If u1 is true, the string s1
             is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.  If u2 is
             true, the string s2 is assumed to be in
             UTF-8-encoded Unicode.  If u1 or u2 are false, the

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             respective string is assumed to be in native 8-bit
             encoding.

             If the pe1 and pe2 are non-NULL, the scanning
             pointers will be copied in there (they will point at
             the beginning of the next character). If the
             pointers behind pe1 or pe2 are non-NULL, they are
             the end pointers beyond which scanning will not con-
             tinue under any circumstances.  If the byte lengths
             l1 and l2 are non-zero, s1+l1 and s2+l2 will be used
             as goal end pointers that will also stop the scan,
             and which qualify towards defining a successful
             match: all the scans that define an explicit length
             must reach their goal pointers for a match to
             succeed).

             For case-insensitiveness, the "casefolding" of
             Unicode is used instead of upper/lowercasing both
             the characters, see
             http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/ (Case
             Mappings).

                     I32     ibcmp_utf8(const char* a, char **pe1, UV l1, bool u1, const char* b, char **pe2, UV l2, bool u2)

     is_utf8_char
             Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a
             valid UTF-8 character.  Note that an INVARIANT (i.e.
             ASCII) character is a valid UTF-8 character.  The
             actual number of bytes in the UTF-8 character will
             be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.

                     STRLEN  is_utf8_char(U8 *p)

     is_utf8_string
             Returns true if first "len" bytes of the given
             string form a valid UTF-8 string, false otherwise.
             Note that 'a valid UTF-8 string' does not mean 'a
             string that contains code points above 0x7F encoded
             in UTF-8' because a valid ASCII string is a valid
             UTF-8 string.

             See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and
             is_utf8_string_loc().

                     bool    is_utf8_string(U8 *s, STRLEN len)

     is_utf8_string_loc
             Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the
             failure (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the
             location s+len (in the case of "utf8ness success")
             in the "ep".

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             See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and
             is_utf8_string().

                     bool    is_utf8_string_loc(U8 *s, STRLEN len, U8 **p)

     is_utf8_string_loclen
             Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the
             failure (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the
             location s+len (in the case of "utf8ness success")
             in the "ep", and the number of UTF-8 encoded charac-
             ters in the "el".

             See also is_utf8_string_loc() and is_utf8_string().

                     bool    is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)

     pv_uni_display
             Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the
             string spv, length len, the displayable version
             being at most pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest
             is truncated and "..." will be appended).

             The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set
             to display isPRINT()able characters as themselves,
             UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH to display the \\[nrfta\\] as
             the backslashed versions (like '\n')
             (UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over
             UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT for \\). UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its
             alias UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX) have both
             UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT turned
             on.

             The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

                     char*   pv_uni_display(SV *dsv, U8 *spv, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

     sv_cat_decode
             The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, the
             PV of the ssv is assumed to be octets in that encod-
             ing and decoding the input starts from the position
             which (PV + *offset) pointed to.  The dsv will be
             concatenated the decoded UTF-8 string from ssv.
             Decoding will terminate when the string tstr appears
             in decoding output or the input ends on the PV of
             the ssv. The value which the offset points will be
             modified to the last input position on the ssv.

             Returns TRUE if the terminator was found, else
             returns FALSE.

                     bool    sv_cat_decode(SV* dsv, SV *encoding, SV *ssv, int *offset, char* tstr, int tlen)

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     sv_recode_to_utf8
             The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, on
             entry the PV of the sv is assumed to be octets in
             that encoding, and the sv will be converted into
             Unicode (and UTF-8).

             If the sv already is UTF-8 (or if it is not POK), or
             if the encoding is not a reference, nothing is done
             to the sv.  If the encoding is not an "Encode::XS"
             Encoding object, bad things will happen. (See
             lib/encoding.pm and Encode).

             The PV of the sv is returned.

                     char*   sv_recode_to_utf8(SV* sv, SV *encoding)

     sv_uni_display
             Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the
             scalar sv, the displayable version being at most
             pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated
             and "..." will be appended).

             The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().

             The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

                     char*   sv_uni_display(SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

     to_utf8_case
             The "p" contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string
             encoding the character that is being converted.

             The "ustrp" is a pointer to the character buffer to
             put the conversion result to.  The "lenp" is a
             pointer to the length of the result.

             The "swashp" is a pointer to the swash to use.

             Both the special and normal mappings are stored
             lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl, and loaded by SWASHGET, using
             lib/utf8_heavy.pl.  The special (usually, but not
             always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.

             The "special" is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower",
             which means the hash %utf8::ToSpecLower.  The access
             to the hash is through Perl_to_utf8_case().

             The "normal" is a string like "ToLower" which means
             the swash %utf8::ToLower.

                     UV      to_utf8_case(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, SV **swashp, char *normal, char *special)

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     to_utf8_fold
             Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its
             foldcase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp
             and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the
             ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1
             bytes since the foldcase version may be longer than
             the original character (up to three characters).

             The first character of the foldcased version is
             returned (but note, as explained above, that there
             may be more.)

                     UV      to_utf8_fold(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

     to_utf8_lower
             Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its
             lowercase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp
             and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the
             ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1
             bytes since the lowercase version may be longer than
             the original character.

             The first character of the lowercased version is
             returned (but note, as explained above, that there
             may be more.)

                     UV      to_utf8_lower(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

     to_utf8_title
             Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its
             titlecase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp
             and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the
             ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1
             bytes since the titlecase version may be longer than
             the original character.

             The first character of the titlecased version is
             returned (but note, as explained above, that there
             may be more.)

                     UV      to_utf8_title(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

     to_utf8_upper
             Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its
             uppercase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp
             and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the
             ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1
             bytes since the uppercase version may be longer than
             the original character.

             The first character of the uppercased version is
             returned (but note, as explained above, that there

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             may be more.)

                     UV      to_utf8_upper(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

     utf8n_to_uvchr
             Returns the native character value of the first
             character in the string "s" which is assumed to be
             in UTF-8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the
             length, in bytes, of that character.

             Allows length and flags to be passed to low level
             routine.

                     UV      utf8n_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

     utf8n_to_uvuni
             Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine. Returns the
             unicode code point value of the first character in
             the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8
             encoding and no longer than "curlen"; "retlen" will
             be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

             If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 charac-
             ter, the behaviour is dependent on the value of
             "flags": if it contains UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, it is
             assumed that the caller will raise a warning, and
             this function will silently just set "retlen" to
             "-1" and return zero.  If the "flags" does not con-
             tain UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, warnings about malformations
             will be given, "retlen" will be set to the expected
             length of the UTF-8 character in bytes, and zero
             will be returned.

             The "flags" can also contain various flags to allow
             deviations from the strict UTF-8 encoding (see
             utf8.h).

             Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr() rather than
             call this directly.

                     UV      utf8n_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

     utf8_distance
             Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the
             UTF-8 pointers "a" and "b".

             WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers
             point inside the same UTF-8 buffer.

                     IV      utf8_distance(U8 *a, U8 *b)

     utf8_hop

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             Return the UTF-8 pointer "s" displaced by "off"
             characters, either forward or backward.

             WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know*
             "off" is within the UTF-8 data pointed to by "s"
             *and* that on entry "s" is aligned on the first byte
             of character or just after the last byte of a char-
             acter.

                     U8*     utf8_hop(U8 *s, I32 off)

     utf8_length
             Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string
             "s" in characters. Stops at "e" (inclusive).  If "e
             < s" or if the scan would end up past "e", croaks.

                     STRLEN  utf8_length(U8* s, U8 *e)

     utf8_to_bytes
             Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8
             into byte encoding. Unlike "bytes_to_utf8", this
             over-writes the original string, and updates len to
             contain the new length. Returns zero on failure,
             setting "len" to -1.

             NOTE: this function is experimental and may change
             or be removed without notice.

                     U8*     utf8_to_bytes(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

     utf8_to_uvchr
             Returns the native character value of the first
             character in the string "s" which is assumed to be
             in UTF-8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the
             length, in bytes, of that character.

             If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 charac-
             ter, zero is returned and retlen is set, if possi-
             ble, to -1.

                     UV      utf8_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

     utf8_to_uvuni
             Returns the Unicode code point of the first charac-
             ter in the string "s" which is assumed to be in
             UTF-8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length,
             in bytes, of that character.

             This function should only be used when returned UV
             is considered an index into the Unicode semantic
             tables (e.g. swashes).

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             If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 charac-
             ter, zero is returned and retlen is set, if possi-
             ble, to -1.

                     UV      utf8_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

     uvchr_to_utf8
             Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Native
             codepoint "uv" to the end of the string "d"; "d"
             should be have at least "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes
             available. The return value is the pointer to the
             byte after the end of the new character. In other
             words,

                 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);

             is the recommended wide native character-aware way
             of saying

                 *(d++) = uv;

                     U8*     uvchr_to_utf8(U8 *d, UV uv)

     uvuni_to_utf8_flags
             Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Unicode
             codepoint "uv" to the end of the string "d"; "d"
             should be have at least "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes
             available. The return value is the pointer to the
             byte after the end of the new character. In other
             words,

                 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);

             or, in most cases,

                 d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);

             (which is equivalent to)

                 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);

             is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying

                 *(d++) = uv;

                     U8*     uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)

Variables created by "xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions

     ax      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the
             stack base offset, used by the "ST", "XSprePUSH" and
             "XSRETURN" macros.  The "dMARK" macro must be called

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             prior to setup the "MARK" variable.

                     I32     ax

     CLASS   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the
             class name for a C++ XS constructor.  This is always
             a "char*".  See "THIS".

                     char*   CLASS

     dAX     Sets up the "ax" variable. This is usually handled
             automatically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

                             dAX;

     dAXMARK Sets up the "ax" variable and stack marker variable
             "mark". This is usually handled automatically by
             "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

                             dAXMARK;

     dITEMS  Sets up the "items" variable. This is usually han-
             dled automatically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

                             dITEMS;

     dXSARGS Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling
             dSP and dMARK. Sets up the "ax" and "items" vari-
             ables by calling "dAX" and "dITEMS". This is usually
             handled automatically by "xsubpp".

                             dXSARGS;

     dXSI32  Sets up the "ix" variable for an XSUB which has
             aliases.  This is usually handled automatically by
             "xsubpp".

                             dXSI32;

     items   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the
             number of items on the stack.  See "Variable-length
             Parameter Lists" in perlxs.

                     I32     items

     ix      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate
             which of an XSUB's aliases was used to invoke it.
             See "The ALIAS: Keyword" in perlxs.

                     I32     ix

     newXSproto

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             Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.
             Adds Perl prototypes to the subs.

     RETVAL  Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to hold the
             return value for an XSUB. This is always the proper
             type for the XSUB. See "The RETVAL Variable" in
             perlxs.

                     (whatever)      RETVAL

     ST      Used to access elements on the XSUB's stack.

                     SV*     ST(int ix)

     THIS    Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to designate the
             object in a C++ XSUB.  This is always the proper
             type for the C++ object.  See "CLASS" and "Using XS
             With C++" in perlxs.

                     (whatever)      THIS

     XS      Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list.
             This is handled by "xsubpp".

     XS_VERSION
             The version identifier for an XS module.  This is
             usually handled automatically by
             "ExtUtils::MakeMaker".  See "XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK".

     XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK
             Macro to verify that a PM module's $VERSION variable
             matches the XS module's "XS_VERSION" variable.  This
             is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp".  See
             "The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword" in perlxs.

                             XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;

Warning and Dieing

     croak   This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "die"
             function. Normally call this function the same way
             you call the C "printf" function.  Calling "croak"
             returns control directly to Perl, sidestepping the
             normal C order of execution. See "warn".

             If you want to throw an exception object, assign the
             object to $@ and then pass "Nullch" to croak():

                errsv = get_sv("@", TRUE);
                sv_setsv(errsv, exception_object);
                croak(Nullch);

                     void    croak(const char* pat, ...)

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     warn    This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "warn"
             function.  Call this function the same way you call
             the C "printf" function.  See "croak".

                     void    warn(const char* pat, ...)

AUTHORS

     Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto
     <okamoto@corp.hp.com>.  It is now maintained as part of Perl
     itself.

     With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Mal-
     colm Beattie, Andreas Koenig, Paul Hudson, Ilya Zakharevich,
     Paul Marquess, Neil Bowers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spider
     Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer, Stephen McCamant, and Gurusamy
     Sarathy.

     API Listing originally by Dean Roehrich <roehrich@cray.com>.

     Updated to be autogenerated from comments in the source by
     Benjamin Stuhl.

SEE ALSO

     perlguts(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlintern(1)

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