MirOS Manual: join(1)

JOIN(1)                      BSD Reference Manual                      JOIN(1)

NAME

     join - relational database operator

SYNOPSIS

     join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field]
          [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2

DESCRIPTION

     The join utility performs an "equality join" on the specified files and
     writes the result to the standard output. The "join field" is the field
     in each file by which the files are compared. The first field in each
     line is used by default. There is one line in the output for each pair of
     lines in file1 and file2 which have identical join fields. Each output
     line consists of the join field, the remaining fields from file1 and then
     the remaining fields from file2.

     The default field separators are tab and space characters. In this case,
     multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator, and leading
     tabs and spaces are ignored. The default output field separator is a sin-
     gle space character.

     Many of the options use file and field numbers. Both file numbers and
     field numbers are 1 based, i.e., the first file on the command line is
     file number 1 and the first field is field number 1.

     The options are as follows:

     -a file_number
             In addition to the default output, produce a line for each un-
             pairable line in file file_number.

     -e string
             Replace empty output fields with string.

     -o list
             Specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each
             line with matching join fields. Each element of list has the form
             "file_number.field", where file_number is a file number and field
             is a field number, or the form "0" (zero), representing the join
             field. The elements of list must be either comma (',') or whi-
             tespace separated. (The latter requires quoting to protect it
             from the shell, or, a simpler approach is to use multiple -o op-
             tions.)

     -t char
             Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and out-
             put. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant.

     -v file_number
             Do not display the default output, but display a line for each
             unpairable line in file file_number. The options -v 1 and -v 2
             may be specified at the same time.

     -1 field
             Join on the field'th field of file 1.

     -2 field
             Join on the field'th field of file 2.

     When the default field delimiter characters are used, the files to be
     joined should be ordered in the collating sequence of sort(1), using the
     -b option, on the fields on which they are to be joined, otherwise join
     may not report all field matches. When the field delimiter characters are
     specified by the -t option, the collating sequence should be the same as
     sort(1) without the -b option.

     If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is "-", the standard input is
     used.

     The join utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

SEE ALSO

     awk(1), comm(1), paste(1), sort(1), uniq(1)

STANDARDS

     The join command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2") compati-
     ble.

     In the absence of the -o option, historical versions of join wrote non-
     matching lines without reordering the fields. The current version writes
     the join field first, followed by the remaining fields.

     For compatibility with historical versions of join, the following options
     are available:

     -a          In addition to the default output, produce a line for each
                 unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2.

     -j1 field   Join on the field'th field of file 1.

     -j2 field   Join on the field'th field of file 2.

     -j field    Join on the field'th field of both file 1 and file 2.

     -o list ...
                 Historical implementations of join permitted multiple argu-
                 ments to the -o option. These arguments were of the form
                 "file_number.field_number" as described for the current -o
                 option. This has obvious difficulties in the presence of
                 files named "1.2".

     These options are available only so historical shell scripts don't re-
     quire modification and should not be used.

HISTORY

     A join utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

MirOS BSD #10-current           April 28, 1995                               1

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