MirOS Manual: imake(1)


IMAKE(1)            UNIX Programmer's Manual             IMAKE(1)

NAME

     imake - C preprocessor interface to the make utility

SYNOPSIS

     imake [ -Ddefine ] [ -Idir ] [ -Udefine ] [ -Ttemplate ] [
     -f filename ] [ -C filename ] [ -s filename ] [ -e ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION

     Imake is used to generate Makefiles from a template, a set
     of cpp macro functions, and a per-directory input file
     called an Imakefile.  This allows machine dependencies (such
     as compiler options, alternate command names, and special
     make rules) to be kept separate from the descriptions of the
     various items to be built.

OPTIONS

     The following command line options may be passed to imake:

     -Ddefine
             This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typi-
             cally used to set directory-specific variables.  For
             example, the X Window System uses this flag to set
             TOPDIR to the name of the directory containing the
             top of the core distribution and CURDIR to the name
             of the current directory, relative to the top.

     -Idirectory
             This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typi-
             cally used to indicate the directory in which the
             imake template and configuration files may be found.

     -Udefine
             This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typi-
             cally used to unset variables when debugging imake
             configuration files.

     -Ttemplate
             This option specifies the name of the master tem-
             plate file (which is usually located in the direc-
             tory specified with -I) used by cpp. The default is
             Imake.tmpl.

     -f filename
             This option specifies the name of the per-directory
             input file.  The default is Imakefile.

     -C filename
             This option specifies the name of the .c file that
             is constructed in the current directory.  The
             default is Imakefile.c.

     -s filename

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             This option specifies the name of the make descrip-
             tion file to be generated but make should not be
             invoked. If the filename is a dash (-), the output
             is written to stdout.  The default is to generate,
             but not execute, a Makefile.

     -e      This option indicates the imake should execute the
             generated Makefile.  The default is to leave this to
             the user.

     -v      This option indicates that imake should print the
             cpp command line that it is using to generate the
             Makefile.

HOW IT WORKS

     Imake invokes cpp with any -I or -D flags passed on the com-
     mand line and passes the name of a file containing the fol-
     lowing 3 lines:

               #define IMAKE_TEMPLATE "Imake.tmpl"
               #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE <Imakefile>
               #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE

     where Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the -T
     and -f command options, respectively.

     The IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing
     machine-dependent parameters (specified as cpp symbols), a
     site-specific parameters file, a file defining variables, a
     file containing cpp macro functions for generating make
     rules, and finally the Imakefile (specified by
     INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE) in the current directory.  The Imakefile
     uses the macro functions to indicate what targets should be
     built; imake takes care of generating the appropriate rules.

     Imake configuration files contain two types of variables,
     imake variables and make variables.  The imake variables are
     interpreted by cpp when imake is run.  By convention they
     are mixed case.  The make variables are written into the
     Makefile for later interpretation by make. By convention
     make variables are upper case.

     The rules file (usually named Imake.rules in the configura-
     tion directory) contains a variety of cpp macro functions
     that are configured according to the current platform.
     Imake replaces any occurrences of the string ``@@'' with a
     newline to allow macros that generate more than one line of
     make rules. For example, the macro

      #define  program_target(program, objlist)        @@\
      program: objlist                                 @@\
               $(CC)  -o  $@  objlist  $(LDFLAGS)

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     when called with program_target(foo, foo1.o  foo2.o) will
     expand to

      foo:     foo1.o  foo2.o
               $(CC)  -o  $@  foo1.o  foo2.o  $(LDFLAGS)

     Imake also replaces any occurrences of the word ``XCOMM''
     with the character ``#'' to permit placing comments in the
     Makefile without causing ``invalid directive'' errors from
     the preprocessor.

     Some complex imake macros require generated make variables
     local to each invocation of the macro, often because their
     value depends on parameters passed to the macro. Such vari-
     ables can be created by using an imake variable of the form
     XVARdefn, where n is a single digit. A unique make variable
     will be substituted.  Later occurrences of the variable
     XVARusen will be replaced by the variable created by the
     corresponding XVARdefn.

     On systems whose cpp reduces multiple tabs and spaces to a
     single space, imake attempts to put back any necessary tabs
     (make is very picky about the difference between tabs and
     spaces).  For this reason, colons (:) in command lines must
     be preceded by a backslash (\).

USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM

     The X Window System uses imake extensively, for both full
     builds within the source tree and external software.  As
     mentioned above, two special variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR,
     are set to make referencing files using relative path names
     easier.  For example, the following command is generated
     automatically to build the Makefile in the directory lib/X/
     (relative to the top of the sources):

               %  ../.././config/imake  -I../.././config  \
                     -DTOPDIR=../../.   -DCURDIR=./lib/X

     When building X programs outside the source tree, a special
     symbol UseInstalled is defined and TOPDIR and CURDIR are
     omitted.  If the configuration files have been properly
     installed, the script xmkmf(1) may be used.

INPUT FILES

     Here is a summary of the files read by imake as used by X.
     The indentation shows what files include what other files.

         Imake.tmpl                generic variables
             site.def              site-specific, BeforeVendorCF defined
             *.cf                  machine-specific
                 *Lib.rules        shared library rules

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             site.def              site-specific, AfterVendorCF defined
             Imake.rules           rules
             Project.tmpl          X-specific variables
                 *Lib.tmpl         shared library variables
             Imakefile
                 Library.tmpl      library rules
                 Server.tmpl       server rules
                 Threads.tmpl      multi-threaded rules

     Note that site.def gets included twice, once before the *.cf
     file and once after.  Although most site customizations
     should be specified after the *.cf file, some, such as the
     choice of compiler, need to be specified before, because
     other variable settings may depend on them.

     The first time site.def is included, the variable BeforeVen-
     dorCF is defined, and the second time, the variable After-
     VendorCF is defined.  All code in site.def should be inside
     an #ifdef for one of these symbols.

FILES

     Imakefile.c                   temporary input file for cpp
     /tmp/Imf.XXXXXX               temporary Makefile for -s
     /tmp/IIf.XXXXXX               temporary Imakefile if speci-
     fied Imakefile uses # comments
     "/usr/libexec/cpp  -DCSRG_BASED  -DUNIXCPP -D__MirBSD__
     -D__OpenBSD__ -D__unix__ -D__STDC_ISO_10646__=200009L
     -D__WCHAR_MAX__=65535U '-D__WCHAR_TYPE__=short unsigned int'
     '-D__WINT_TYPE__=unsigned int' -D__i386__ -D__i386
     -D__ELF__"default C preprocessor

SEE ALSO

     make(1), xmkmf(1)
     S. I. Feldman, Make - A Program for Maintaining Computer
     Programs

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

     The following environment variables may be set, however
     their use is not recommended as they introduce dependencies
     that are not readily apparent when imake is run:

     IMAKEINCLUDE
          If defined, this specifies a ``-I'' include argument to
          pass to the C preprocessor.  E.g.,
          ``-I/usr/X11/config''.

     IMAKECPP
          If defined, this should be a valid path to a preproces-
          sor program. E.g., ``/usr/local/cpp''. By default,
          imake will use cc -E or "/usr/libexec/cpp  -DCSRG_BASED
          -DUNIXCPP -D__MirBSD__ -D__OpenBSD__ -D__unix__
          -D__STDC_ISO_10646__=200009L -D__WCHAR_MAX__=65535U '-

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          D__WCHAR_TYPE__=short unsigned int' '-
          D__WINT_TYPE__=unsigned int' -D__i386__ -D__i386
          -D__ELF__", depending on the OS specific configuration.

     IMAKEMAKE
          If defined, this should be a valid path to a make pro-
          gram, such as ``/usr/local/make''. By default, imake
          will use whatever make program is found using
          execvp(3). This variable is only used if the ``-e''
          option is specified.

AUTHOR

     Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix and MIT Project Athena; Jim Fulton,
     MIT X Consortium

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