# MirOS Manual: cvs(1)


CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)


## NAME

     cvs - Concurrent Versions System


## SYNOPSIS

     cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]


## NOTE

     This manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.
It is auto-generated from an appendix of the CVS manual. For
more in-depth documentation, please consult the Cederqvist
manual (via the cvs(GNU) and cvsclient(GNU) links in the
MirBSD online (HTML) manual pages, the infocvs command or
page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in
the same.


## CVS commands

     Guide to CVS commands

This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs com-
mands, and describes some commands in detail (others are
described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands,
see node Invoking CVS in the CVS manual).


## Structure

     Overall structure of CVS commands

The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [
command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These
are described below.

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cvs_command

One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the com-
mands have aliases that can be used instead; those aliases
are noted in the reference manual for that command.  There
are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command:
cvs -H elicits a list of available commands, and cvs -v
displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There is unfortunately some confusion between cvs_options
and command_options. When given as a cvs_option, some
options only affect some of the commands.  When given as a
command_option it may have a different meaning, and be
accepted by more commands.  In other words, do not take
the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the docu-


## Exit status

     CVSs exit status

cvs can indicate to the calling environment whether it suc-
ceeded or failed by setting its exit status. The exact way
of testing the exit status will vary from one operating sys-
tem to another.  For example in a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs com- mands. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 2 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the default output of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con- text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the users ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesnt have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify glo- bal options (see node Global options in the CVS manual). For example the following line in .cvsrc MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 3 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6.  ## Global options  The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot directory with each invocation. Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration file for each specified root, which can be useful when configuring write proxies, See node Password authentication server in the CVS manual & node Write proxies in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con- nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentica- tion does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. The cvs client and server store temporary files in a MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 4 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) temporary directory. The path to this temporary directory is set via, in order of precedence: + The argument to the global -T option. + The value set for TmpDir in the config file (server only - see node config in the CVS manual). + The contents of the$TMPDIR environment variable
(%TMPDIR% on Windows - see node Environment variables in
the CVS manual).

+   /tmp

Temporary directories should always be specified as an
absolute pathname. When running a CVS client, -T affects
only the local process; specifying -T for the client has
no effect on the server and vice versa.

-d cvs_root_directory

Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of
the repository.  Overrides the setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable. See node Repository in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables. For more information, see node Committing your changes in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 5 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -g Forges group-writable permissions on files in the working copy. This option is typically used when you have multiple users sharing a single checked out source tree, allowing them to operate their shells with a less dangerous umask at the expense of cvs security. To use this feature, create a directory to hold the checked-out source tree, set it to a private group, and set up the directory such that files created under it inherit the gid of the direc- tory. On BSD systems, this occurs automatically. On SYSV systems and GNU/Linux, the sgid bit must be set on the directory for this. The users who are to share the checked out tree must be placed in that group which owns the directory. Note that the sharing of a single checked-out source tree is very different from giving several users access to a common cvs repository. Access to a common cvs repository already maintains shared group-write permissions and does not require this option. Due to the security implications, setting this option glo- bally in your .cvsrc file is strongly discouraged; if you must, ensure all source checkouts are "firewalled" within a private group or a private mode 0700 directory. This option is a MidnightBSD extension merged into MirBSD cvs. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you dont specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -R Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a cd-rom repository. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 6 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Same effect as if the CVSREADONLYFS environment variable is set. Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational mes- sages, such as reports of recursion through subdirec- tories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD environment variable is set (see node Environment
variables in the CVS manual).  The default is to make
working files writable, unless watches are on (see node
Watches in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node Variables in the CVS
manual).

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-t

Trace program execution; display messages showing the
steps of cvs activity.  Particularly useful with -n to
explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting
of the $CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD is set or -r is
given.

-x

Encrypt all communication between the client and the
server.  Only has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this
writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con-
nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated in the CVS manual)
or a Kerberos connection (see node Kerberos authenticated
in the CVS manual). Enabling encryption implies that mes-
sage traffic is also authenticated.  Encryption support is
not available by default; it must be enabled using a spe-
cial configure option, --enable-encryption, when you build
cvs.

-z level

Request compression level for network traffic. cvs inter-
prets level identically to the gzip program. Valid levels
are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low speed, high
compression), or 0 to disable compression (the default).
Data sent to the server will be compressed at the
requested level and the client will request the server use

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the same compression level for data returned.  The server
will use the closest level allowed by the server adminis-
trator to compress returned data.  This option only has an
effect when passed to the cvs client.


## Common options

     Common command options

This section describes the command_options that are avail-
able across several cvs commands.  These options are always
given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands support
all of these options; each option is only supported for com-
mands where it makes sense. However, when a command has one
of these options you can almost always count on the same
behavior of the option as in other commands.  (Other command
options, which are listed with the individual commands, may
have different behavior from one cvs command to the other).

Note: the history command is an exception; it supports many
options that conflict even with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.
date_spec is a single argument, a date description speci-
fying a date in the past.

The specification is sticky when you use it to make a
private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a
working file using -D, cvs records the date you specified,
so that further updates in the same directory will use the
node Sticky tags in the CVS manual).

-D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,
history, ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands.
(The history command uses this option in a slightly dif-
ferent way; see node history options in the CVS manual).

For a complete description of the date formats accepted by
cvs, see node Date input formats in the CVS manual.

Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your
shell doesnt interpret spaces as argument separators.  A
command using the -D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 9 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revi- sion of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those com- mands. See node commit options in the CVS manual, and node Removing files in the CVS manual. -k kflag Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb. See node Keyword substitution in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag specification is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout or update com- mand, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands on the same files until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, export, import, rdiff, and update commands. WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb indication for a binary file. This could some- times corrupt binary files. See node Merging and keywords in the CVS manual, for more. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 10 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node modules in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag com- mands. -P Prune empty directories. See node Removing directories in the CVS manual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is the default for all cvs commands, with the exception of ls & rls. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 11 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watch- ers. -r tag -r tag[:date] Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument for the commands which accept it) instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository (also known as the tip of the MAIN branch, also known as trunk; the name of a branch refers to its tip; this version of cvs introduces .bhead, but only for the diff command, for the same), and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more informa- tion on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in node Tags in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in node Branching and merging in the CVS manual. When tag is the name of a branch, some com- mands accept the optional date argument to specify the revision as of the given date on the branch. When a com- mand expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. As a MirOS cvs extension, specifying BASE as the date por- tion of the argument yields the base revision of the branch specified by the tag portion of the argument, i.e. the revision on the parent branch the tag branch split off, or, where both branches were the same. This option has not received very much testing, beware! Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 12 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Note: this is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r tag is available with the commit and history commands. -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pat- tern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update.  ## admin  Administration + Requires: repository, working directory. + Changes: repository. + Synonym: rcs This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities. Some of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some of the ques- tionable options are likely to disappear in the future. This command does work recursively, so extreme care should be used. On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs admin commands, except for those specified using the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file. Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user. See node config in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions. The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any sys- tem running the non-client/server cvs. To disallow cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it. On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 13 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1)  ## admin options  Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some even make it impos- sible to use cvs until you undo the effect! -Aoldfile Might not work together with cvs. Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the rcs file. -alogins Might not work together with cvs. Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access list of the rcs file. -b[rev] Set the default branch to rev. In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (see node Sticky tags in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on. There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendors version when using vendor branches (see node Reverting local changes in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -b and its argument. -cstring Sets the comment leader to string. The comment leader is not used by current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7. There- fore, you can almost surely not worry about it. See node Keyword substitution in the CVS manual. -e[logins] Might not work together with cvs. Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file. If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list. There can be no space between -e and its argument. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 14 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal. This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs. -i Useless with cvs. This creates and initializes a new rcs file, without depositing a revision. With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node Adding files in the CVS manual). -ksubst Set the default keyword substitution to subst. See node Keyword substitution in the CVS manual. Giving an expli- cit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default. -l[rev] Lock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omit- ted, lock the latest revision on the default branch. There can be no space between -l and its argument. This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file at a time). See the comments in that file for details (and see the README file in that direc- tory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of con- trib). According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default). -L Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for chec- kin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 15 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -mrev:msg Replace the log message of revision rev with msg. -Nname[:[rev]] Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name. For use with magic branches, see node Magic branch numbers in the CVS manual. -nname[:[rev]] Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revi- sion rev. It is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead. Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associated with another number. If rev is sym- bolic, it is expanded before association. A rev consist- ing of a branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch. A : with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revision of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$ which associates name with the revision numbers
extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding work-
ing files.

-orange

Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you
know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warn-
ings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

If you are short on disc this option might help you. But
think twice before using it-there is no way short of res-
toring the latest backup to undo this command! If you
delete different revisions than you planned, either due to
carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no
opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment
on a copy of the repository first.

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Specify range in one of the following ways:

rev1::rev2

Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that
cvs only stores the differences associated with going
from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For example,
after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revi-
sion 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but
not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and
1.4.  Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have
no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions
to remove.

::rev

Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch
containing rev and rev itself.  The branchpoint and rev
are left intact.  For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes
revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in
between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.

rev::

Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch
containing rev.  Revision rev is left intact but the

rev

Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is
equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4.

rev1:rev2

Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on
the same branch.  One will not be able to retrieve rev1
or rev2 or any of the revisions in between.  For exam-
ple, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely
useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and includ-
ing, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are files
that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file
will have the same numerical revision number assigned to
the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So not only will it be
impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to
be restored from the tapes!  In most cases you want to

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:rev

Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch con-
taining rev up to and including rev.

rev:

Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev
itself, to the end of the branch containing rev.

None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or
locks.

If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic
names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then
cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions.  If
you really want to delete both the symbolic names and
the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs
tag -d, then run cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the
non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but
leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revi-
sions.  This behavior is preserved for compatibility
with previous versions of cvs, but because it isnt very
useful, in the future it may change to be like the ::
case.

Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be speci-
fied symbolically if it is a branch. See node Magic
branch numbers in the CVS manual, for an explanation.

Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the
revision you outdate.  Strange things will happen if he
starts to edit it and tries to check it back in.  For
this reason, this option is not a good way to take back
a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus
change instead (see node Merging two revisions in the
CVS manual).

-q

Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

-sstate[:rev]

Useful with cvs.  Set the state attribute of the revision
rev to state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the
latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume

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the latest revision on the default branch.  Any identifier
is acceptable for state.  A useful set of states is Exp
(for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for
released).  By default, the state of a new revision is set
to Exp when it is created.  The state is visible in the
output from cvs log (see node log in the CVS manual), and
in the $Log$ and $State$ keywords (see node Keyword sub-
stitution in the CVS manual).  Note that cvs uses the dead
state for its own purposes (see node Attic in the CVS
manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use com-
removing in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.

-t[file]

Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from the contents
of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing
text.  The file pathname may not begin with -.  The
descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log
(see node log in the CVS manual). There can be no space
between -t and its argument.

If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input,
terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by
itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible;
see -I.

-t-string

Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string
into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can
be no space between -t and its argument.

-U

Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that
the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin.
For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the dis-
cussion under the -l option above.

-u[rev]

See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this
option with cvs.  Unlock the revision with number rev.  If

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a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that
branch.  If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by
the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may
unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit
notification (see node Getting Notified in the CVS
manual). There can be no space between -u and its argu-
ment.

-Vn

In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an
rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but
it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an
error.

-xsuffixes

In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way
of specifying the names of the rcs files.  However, cvs
has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in
,v, so this option has never done anything useful.


## annotate

     What revision modified each line of a file?

+ Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

+ Requires: repository.

+ Changes: nothing.

For each file in files, print the head revision of the
trunk, together with information on the last modification
for each line.  If backwards annotation is requested, show
the first modification after the specified revision.
(Backwards annotation currently appears to be broken.)


## annotate options

     These standard options are supported by annotate (see node
Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
of them):

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-b

Backwards, show when a line was removed. Currently appears
to be broken.

-l

Local directory only, no recursion.

-R

Process directories recursively.

-f

-F

Annotate binary files.

-r tag[:date]

Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date
is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
branch tag as it existed on date.  See node Common options
in the CVS manual.

-D date

Annotate file as of specified date.


## annotate example

     For example:

$cvs annotate ssfile Annotations for ssfile MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 21 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) *************** 1.1 (mary 27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1 1.2 (joe 28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2 The file ssfile currently contains two lines. The ssfile line 1 line was checked in by mary on March 27. Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile line 1 line. This report doesnt tell you any- thing about lines which have been deleted or replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff in the CVS manual). The options to cvs annotate are listed in node Invoking CVS in the CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to annotate. The options are described in more detail there and in node Common options in the CVS manual.  ## checkout  Check out sources for editing + Synopsis: checkout [options] modules... + Requires: repository. + Changes: working directory. + Synonyms: co, get Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by modules. You must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your working directory. The modules are either symbolic names for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repository. The symbolic names are defined in the modules file. See node modules in the CVS manual. Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recur- sively create directories and populate them with the appropriate source files. You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 22 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Note that checkout is used to create directories. The top-level directory created is always added to the direc- tory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified module. In the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q global option). The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs (see node Global options in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node Environment variables in the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for that file (see node Watches in the CVS manual). Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a prior checkout is also permitted. This is simi- lar to specifying the -d option to the update command in the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will appear in your work area. However, checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a direc- tory name. Also to use checkout this way it must be run from the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so before you run checkout to update an existing directory, dont forget to change your directory to the top level directory. For the output produced by the checkout command see node update output in the CVS manual.  ## checkout options  These standard options are supported by checkout (see node Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -f Only useful with the -D or -r flags. If no matching revi- sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 23 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See node Keyword substitution in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See node Invoking CVS in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in the modules file; see node modules in the CVS manual). -P Prune empty directories. See node Moving directories in the CVS manual. -p Pipe files to the standard output. -R Checkout directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 24 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also, see node Common options in the CVS manual. In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout: -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See node Sticky tags in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -c Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your working directory. -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. In general, using this flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout command without the -d flag. There is an important exception, however. It is very con- venient when checking out a single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesnt contain empty intermedi- ate directories. In this case only, cvs tries to shor- ten pathnames to avoid those empty directories. For example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside. Similarly, given a module bar which has subdirectory baz wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside. Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior. Given the same module definitions above, cvs co -N -d dir foo will create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 25 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -j tag With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j option to the revision speci- fied with the second j option, into the working directory. With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revi- sion to the revision specified with the -j option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the com- mon ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option. In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier. See node Branching and merging in the CVS manual. -N Only useful together with -d dir. With this option, cvs will not shorten module paths in your working directory when you check out a single module. See the -d flag for examples and a discussion. -s Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status string. See node modules in the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module status.  ## checkout examples  Get a copy of the module tc:$ cvs checkout tc

Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

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$cvs commit -r 1.8 file The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l). To force cvs to commit a new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.  ## commit examples  Committing to a branch You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the -r option. To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag commands (see node Branching and merging in the CVS manual). Then, either checkout or update can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. From that point on, all commit changes made within these working sources will be automati- cally added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way. For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 29 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:$ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cd product_module
[[ hack away ]]
$cvs commit This works automatically since the -r option is sticky. Creating the branch after editing Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week. If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new branch. Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution. The scenario might look like: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs update -r EXPR1$ cvs commit

The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on
all files.  Note that your changes to the files will never
be removed by the update command.  The commit will automati-
cally commit to the correct branch, because the -r is
sticky.  You could also do like this:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs commit -r EXPR1

but then, only those files that were changed by you will
have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit

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without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may
accidentally end up on the main trunk.

To work with you on the experimental change, others would
simply do

cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module  ## diff  Show differences between revisions + Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...] + Requires: working directory, repository. + Changes: nothing. The diff command is used to compare different revisions of files. The default action is to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any differences that are found. If any file names are given, only those files are com- pared. If any directories are given, all files under them will be compared. The exit status for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details see node Exit status in the CVS manual.  ## diff options  These standard options are supported by diff (see node Com- mon options in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. See -r for how this affects the comparison. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 31 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See node Keyword substitution in the CVS manual. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Compare with revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. Zero, one or two -r options can be present. With no -r option, the working file will be compared with the revision it was based on. With one -r, that revision will be compared to your current working file. With two -r options those two revi- sions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome in any way). One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above. The following options specify the format of the output. They have the same meaning as in GNU diff. Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name pre- ceded by --. -lines Show lines (an integer) lines of context. This option does not specify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u. This option is obsolete. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 32 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -a Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text. -b Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. -B Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --binary Read and write data in binary mode. --brief Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences. -c Use the context output format. -C lines --context[=lines] Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 33 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) --changed-group-format=format Use format to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then-else format. See node Line group formats in the CVS manual. -d Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -e --ed Make output that is a valid ed script. --expand-tabs Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -f Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -F regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differ- ences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp. --forward-ed Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 34 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) changes in the order they appear in the file. -H Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --horizon-lines=lines Do not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix. -i Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent. -I regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ifdef=name Make merged if-then-else output using name. --ignore-all-space Ignore white space when comparing lines. --ignore-blank-lines Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --ignore-case MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 35 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same. --ignore-matching-lines=regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ignore-space-change Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. --initial-tab Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. -L label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --label=label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --left-column Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format. --line-format=format Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 36 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) format. See node Line formats in the CVS manual. --minimal Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -n Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. -N --new-file In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present but empty in the other directory. --new-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. See node Line group formats in the CVS manual. --new-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. See node Line formats in the CVS manual. --old-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. See node Line group formats in the CVS manual. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 37 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) --old-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. See node Line formats in the CVS manual. -p Show which C function each change is in. --rcs Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. --report-identical-files -s Report when two files are the same. --show-c-function Show which C function each change is in. --show-function-line=regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differ- ences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp. --side-by-side Use the side by side output format. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 38 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) --speed-large-files Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --suppress-common-lines Do not print common lines in side by side format. -t Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -T Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. --text Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be text. -u Use the unified output format. --unchanged-group-format=format Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else format. See node Line group formats in the CVS manual. --unchanged-line-format=format MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 39 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else format. See node Line formats in the CVS manual. -U lines --unified[=lines] Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. -w Ignore white space when comparing lines. -W columns --width=columns Use an output width of columns in side by side format. -y Use the side by side output format.  ## Line group formats  Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that allow if-then-else input, including pro- gramming languages and text formatting languages. A line group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines. For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 40 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines. cvs diff \ --old-group-format=\begin{em} %<\end{em} \ --new-group-format=\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} \ myfile The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group formats. cvs diff \ --old-group-format=\begin{em} %<\end{em} \ --new-group-format=\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} \ --unchanged-group-format=%= \ --changed-group-format=\begin{em} %<\end{em} \begin{bf} %>\end{bf} \ myfile Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff list- ing with headers containing line numbers in a plain English style. cvs diff \ --unchanged-group-format= \ --old-group-format=-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df: %< \ --new-group-format=-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de: %> \ MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 41 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) --changed-group-format=-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df: %<-------- to: %> \ myfile To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below. You can specify up to four line group for- mats, one for each kind of line group. You should quote format, because it typically contains shell metacharacters. --old-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file. The default old group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --new-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file. The default new group format is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --changed-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files. The default changed group format is the concatena- tion of the old and new group formats. --unchanged-group-format=format These line groups contain lines common to both files. The default unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is. In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 42 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) %< stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the old line format (see node Line formats in the CVS manual). %> stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the new line format. %= stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line format. %% stands for %. %cC where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c: stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else for- mat, which a colon would normally terminate. %c\O where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c\0 stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the following letters, stands for ns value formatted MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 43 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) with F. e The line number of the line just before the group in the old file. f The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1. l The line number of the last line in the group in the old file. m The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1. n The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1. E, F, L, M, N Likewise, for lines in the new file. The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexade- cimal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively. After the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field width; and a period fol- lowed by an optional integer specifying the minimum number of digits. For example, %5dN prints the number of new lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d". (A=B?T:E) MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 44 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) If A equals B then T else E. A and B are each either a decimal constant or a single letter interpreted as above. This format spec is equivalent to T if As value equals Bs; otherwise it is equivalent to E. For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines other- wise.  ## Line formats  Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part of a line group in if-then-else format. For example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change indicator to the left of the text. The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a space for unchanged lines. The formats contain newline characters where newlines are desired on output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format=-%l \ --new-line-format=|%l \ --unchanged-line-format= %l \ myfile To specify a line format, use one of the following options. You should quote format, since it often contains shell meta- characters. --old-line-format=format formats lines just from the first file. --new-line-format=format formats lines just from the second file. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 45 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) --unchanged-line-format=format formats lines common to both files. --line-format=format formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously. In a line format, ordinary characters represent them- selves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. %l stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if any). This format ignores whether the line is incomplete. %L stands for the contents of the line, including its trail- ing newline (if any). If a line is incomplete, this for- mat preserves its incompleteness. %% stands for %. %cC where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c: stands for a colon. %c\O where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c\0 stands for a null character. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 46 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Fn where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted with F. For example, %.5dn prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d". See node Line group formats in the CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications. The default line format is %l followed by a newline char- acter. If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option. Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different formats. For example, the follow- ing command uses a format similar to diffs normal format. You can tailor this command to get fine control over diffs output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format=< %l \ --new-line-format=> %l \ --old-group-format=%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE %< \ --new-group-format=%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %> \ --changed-group-format=%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %<- %> \ --unchanged-group-format= \ myfile  ## diff examples  The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and 1.19 of backend.c. Due to the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend on keyword substitution are ignored. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 47 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of
files tagged RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that
branch, the following can be used:

$cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1 A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:$ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the fol-
write the ChangeLog entry.  All local modifications that
have not yet been committed will be printed.

$cvs diff -u | less  ## export  Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout + Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k subst] [-d dir] module... + Requires: repository. + Changes: current directory. This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source for module without the cvs administrative directories. For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-site. This com- mand requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D or MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 48 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty direc- tories). One often would like to use -kv with cvs export. This causes any keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information. But be aware that doesnt handle an export containing binary files correctly. Also be aware that after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident command (which is part of the rcs suite-see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings. If you want to be able to use ident you must not use -kv.  ## export options  These standard options are supported by export (see node Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program. -R Export directories recursively. This is on by default. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 49 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -r tag[:date] Export the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See node Common options in the CVS manual. In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also supported: -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. See node checkout options in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag. -k subst Set keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes in the CVS manual). -N Only useful together with -d dir. See node checkout options in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.  ## history  Show status of files and users + Synopsis: history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...] + Requires: the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

+ Changes: nothing.

cvs can keep a history log that tracks each use of most
cvs commands.  You can use history to display this infor-
mation in various formats.

To enable logging, the LogHistory config option must be

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set to some value other than the empty string and the his-
tory file specified by the HistoryLogPath option must be
writable by all users who may run the cvs executable (see
node config in the CVS manual).

To enable the history command, logging must be enabled as
above and the HistorySearchPath config option (see node
config in the CVS manual) must be set to specify some
number of the history logs created thereby and these files
must be readable by each user who might run the history
command.

Creating a repository via the cvs init command will enable
logging of all possible events to a single history log
file ($CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history) with read and write per- missions for all users (see node Creating a repository in the CVS manual). Note: history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that con- flict with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options in the CVS manual).  ## history options  Several options (shown above as -report) control what kind of report is generated: -c Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified). -e Everything (all record types). Equivalent to specifying -x with all record types. Of course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a script which can only handle certain record types, youll want to specify -x. -m module Report on a particular module. (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on the command line.) MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 51 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -o Report on checked-out modules. This is the default report type. -T Report on all tags. -x type Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs history. The types are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in combination. Certain commands have a single record type: F release O checkout E export T rtag One of five record types may result from an update: C A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging). G A merge was necessary and it succeeded. U MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 52 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) A working file was copied from the repository. P A working file was patched to match the repository. W The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the repository). One of three record types results from commit: A A file was added for the first time. M A file was modified. R A file was removed. The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report without requiring option arguments: -a Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing history). -l Show last modification only. -w Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where history is executing. The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument: MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 53 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -b str Show data back to a record containing the string str in either the module name, the file name, or the repository path. -D date Show data since date. This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date. -f file Show data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on the same command line). This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line. -n module Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the same command line). -p repository Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several -p options on the same command line). -r rev Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears in individual rcs files. Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag. -t tag Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file. This differs from the -r flag above in that it reads only the history file, not the rcs files, and is MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 54 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) much faster. -u name Show records for user name. -z timezone Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC.  ## import  Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches + Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag... + Requires: Repository, source distribution directory. + Changes: repository. Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository directory. You can use this command both for initial creation of a repository, and for whole- sale updates to the module from the outside source. See node Tracking sources in the CVS manual, for a discussion on this subject. The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the cvs root directory for reposi- tories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it. When you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of development; use checkout -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to do. If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsig- nore in the CVS manual), it does not import it and prints I followed by the filename (see node import output in the CVS manual, for a complete description of the output). If the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file
whose names match the specifications in that file will be

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treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be
performed on the file/directory before being imported.
See node Wrappers in the CVS manual.

The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by
default 1.1.1.  Updates are leaves of this branch; for
example, files from the first imported collection of
source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first
imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on.

At least three arguments are required. repository is
needed to identify the collection of source.  vendortag is
a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You must
also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify
the files at the leaves created each time you execute
import.  The releasetag should be new, not previously
existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the
imported release,

Note that import does not change the directory in which
you invoke it.  In particular, it does not set up that
directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to work
with the sources import them first and then check them out
into a different directory (see node Getting the source in
the CVS manual).


## import options

     This standard option is supported by import (see node Common
options in the CVS manual, for a complete description):

-m message

editor.

There are the following additional special options.

-b branch

See node Multiple vendor branches in the CVS manual.

-k subst

Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting
will apply to all files created during the import, but not

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to any files that previously existed in the repository.
See node Substitution modes in the CVS manual, for a list
of valid -k settings.

-I name

Specify file names that should be ignored during import.
You can use this option repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any
files at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I
!.

name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
can specify in the .cvsignore file. See node cvsignore in
the CVS manual.

-W spec

Specify file names that should be filtered during import.
You can use this option repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
can specify in the .cvswrappers file. See node Wrappers in
the CVS manual.

-X

Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files
so that new files do not immediately appear on the main
trunk.

Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if
they were deleted on the main trunk, by taking the follow-
ing steps for each file in addition to those normally
taken on import: creating a new revision on the main trunk
indicating that the new file is dead, resetting the new
files default branch, and placing the file in the Attic
(see node Attic in the CVS manual) directory.

Use of this option can be forced on a repository-wide
basis by setting the ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly
option in CVSROOT/config (see node config in the CVS
manual).


## import output

     import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line

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for each file, preceded by one character indicating the
status of the file:

U file

The file already exists in the repository and has not been
locally modified; a new revision has been created (if
necessary).

N file

The file is a new file which has been added to the reposi-
tory.

C file

The file already exists in the repository but has been
locally modified; you will have to merge the changes.

I file

The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore in the CVS
manual).

L file

The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic
links. People periodically suggest that this behavior
should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it
should be changed to, it is not apparent. (Various options
in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links
on checkout, update, etc.; see node modules in the CVS
manual.)


## import examples

     See node Tracking sources in the CVS manual, and node From
files in the CVS manual.


## log


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+ Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

+ Requires: repository, working directory.

+ Changes: nothing.

rcs utility rlog.  Although this is no longer true in the
current sources, this history determines the format of the
output and the options, which are not quite in the style
of the other cvs commands.

The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head
revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic
names (tags) and some other things.  For each revision,
the revision number, the date, the author, the number of
lines added/deleted, the commitid and the log message are
printed.  All dates are displayed in local time at the
client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment variable, which can be set to govern how log displays dates. Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options in the CVS manual).  ## log options  By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revi- sion selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 59 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common options in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 60 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 61 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See node admin options in the CVS manual for more information. MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 62 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the users login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r.  ## log examples  Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone. To do this you can set your$TZ environment vari-
able before invoking cvs:

$TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

(If you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would
need to prefix the examples above with env.)

ls & rls
+ ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

+ Requires: repository for rls, repository & working direc-
tory for ls.

+ Changes: nothing.

+ Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist
are synonyms for rls.

The ls and rls commands are used to list files and direc-
tories in the repository.

By default ls lists the files and directories that belong
in your working directory, what would be there after an
update.

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By default rls lists the files and directories on the tip
of the trunk in the topmost directory of the repository.

Both commands accept an optional list of file and direc-
tory names, relative to the working directory for ls and
the topmost directory of the repository for rls.  Neither
is recursive by default.

ls & rls options
These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

-d

Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

-e

Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to
remain easily parsable by automation.

-l

Display all details.

-P

Dont list contents of empty directories when recursing.

-R

List recursively.

-r tag[:date]

Show files specified by tag or, when date is specified and
tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it
existed on date.  See node Common options in the CVS
manual.

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-D date

Show files from date.


## rls examples

       $cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: . CVSROOT first-dir$ cvs rls CVSROOT
cvs rls: Listing module: CVSROOT
checkoutlist
commitinfo
config
cvswrappers
modules
notify
rcsinfo
taginfo
verifymsg


## rdiff

     patch format diffs between releases

+ rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r
tag2[:date2] | -D date2] modules...

+ Requires: repository.

+ Changes: nothing.

+ Synonym: patch

Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two
releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program
to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release.
(This is one of the few cvs commands that operates
directly from the repository, and doesnt require a prior

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checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output
device.

You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any
combination of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one
revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects
differences between that revision or date and the current
head revisions in the rcs file.

Note that if the software release affected is contained in
more than one directory, then it may be necessary to
specify the -p option to the patch command when patching
the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files
that are located in other directories.


## rdiff options

     These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node Com-
mon options in the CVS manual, for a complete description of
them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent
revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See node Keyword
substitution in the CVS manual.

-l

Local; dont descend subdirectories.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by

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default.

-r tag

Use the revision specified by tag, or when date is speci-
fied and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch
tag as it existed on date.  See node Common options in the
CVS manual.

In addition to the above, these options are available:

-c

Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

-s

Create a summary change report instead of a patch.  The
summary includes information about files that were changed
or added between the releases.  It is sent to the standard
output device.  This is useful for finding out, for exam-
ple, which files have changed between two dates or revi-
sions.

-t

A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard
output device.  This is most useful for seeing what the
last change to a file was.

-u

Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember
that old versions of the patch program cant handle the
unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the
net you should probably not use -u.

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-V vn

Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs ver-
sion vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5).
Note that this option is no longer accepted.  cvs will
always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.


## rdiff examples

     Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an
update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler.  You have
no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be
fixed with a command such as this:

$cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \$$Mail -s The patches you asked for foo@example.net Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix for bug fixes. R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago. Now, you want to see how much development has been done on the branch. This command can be used:$ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to
1.52.2.6
File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2


## release

     Indicate that a Module is no longer in use

+ release [-d] directories...

+ Requires: Working directory.

+ Changes: Working directory, history log.

This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs
checkout.  Since cvs doesnt lock files, it isnt strictly

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necessary to use this command.  You can always simply
delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk
losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no
trace in the cvs history file (see node history file in
the CVS manual) that youve abandoned your checkout.

Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command
checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you
are executing it from immediately above a cvs working
directory; and that the repository recorded for your files
is the same as the repository defined in the module data-
base.

If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a
record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally
abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.


## release options

     The release command supports one command option:

-d

Delete your working copy of the file if the release
succeeds.  If this flag is not given your files will

WARNING:  The release command deletes all directories and
files recursively.  This has the very serious side-effect
that any directory that you have created inside your
checked-out sources, and not added to the repository
manual) will be silently deleted-even if it is non-empty!


## release output

     Before release releases your sources it will print a
one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date.

U file

P file

There exists a newer revision of this file in the reposi-
tory, and you have not modified your local copy of the

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file (U and P mean the same thing).

A file

sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository.
If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be
lost.

R file

The file has been removed from your private copy of the
sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository,
since you have not yet committed the removal.  See node
commit in the CVS manual.

M file

The file is modified in your working directory.  There
might also be a newer revision inside the repository.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond
to anything in the source repository, and is not in the
list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
the -I option, and see node cvsignore in the CVS manual).
If you remove your working sources, this file will be
lost.


## release examples

     Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy
of the files.

$cd .. # You must stand immediately above the # sources when you issue cvs release.$ cvs release -d tc
You have [0] altered files in this repository.
Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory
tc: y
$MirOS BSD #10-current Printed 4.7.2014 70 CVS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual CVS(1) server & pserver Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout + pserver [-c path] server [-c path] + Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout + Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working direc- tory. The cvs server and pserver commands are used to provide repository access to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin & stdout. Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via ssh (see node Remote repo- sitories in the CVS manual). server expects that the client has already been authenti- cated somehow, typically via ssh, and pserver attempts to authenticate the client itself. Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands: -c path Load configuration from path rather than the default loca- tion$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config (see node config in the CVS
manual).  path must be /etc/cvs.conf or prefixed by
/etc/cvs/.  This option is supported beginning with cvs
release 1.12.13.


## suck

     Download RCS ,v file raw

+ suck module/path

+ Requires: repository

Locates the file module/path,v or module/pa/Attic/th,v and

Output consists of the real pathname of the comma-v file,

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relative to the CVS repository, followed by a newline and
the binary file content immediately thereafter.


## update

     Bring work tree in sync with repository

+ update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag]
[-r tag[:date] | -D date] [-W spec] files...

+ Requires: repository, working directory.

+ Changes: working directory.

After youve run checkout to create your private copy of
source from the common repository, other developers will
continue changing the central source.  From time to time,
when it is convenient in your development process, you can
use the update command from within your working directory
to reconcile your work with any revisions applied to the
source repository since your last checkout or update.
Without the -C option, update will also merge any differ-
ences between the local copy of files and their base revi-
sions into any destination revisions specified with -r,
-D, or -A.


## update options

     These standard options are available with update (see node
Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date. This
option is sticky, and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in

-f

Only useful with the -D or -r flags.  If no matching revi-
sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead
of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

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Process keywords according to kflag.  See node Keyword
substitution in the CVS manual. This option is sticky;
future updates of this file in this working directory will
use the same kflag.  The status command can be viewed to
see the sticky options.  See node Invoking CVS in the CVS

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.  See node
Recursive behavior in the CVS manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See node Moving directories in
the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update directories recursively (default).  See node Recur-
sive behavior in the CVS manual.

-r tag[:date]

Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when date is
specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
branch tag as it existed on date.  This option is sticky,
and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in the CVS manual,
Common options in the CVS manual.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See node

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sticky tags/dates.

-C

Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from
the repository (the modified file is saved in

-d

Create any directories that exist in the repository if
theyre missing from the working directory.  Normally,
update acts only on directories and files that were

This is useful for updating directories that were created
in the repository since the initial checkout; but it has
an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliberately avoided
certain directories in the repository when you created
your working directory (either through use of a module
name or by listing explicitly the files and directories
you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d
will create those directories, which may not be what you
want.

-I name

Ignore files whose names match name (in your working
directory) during the update.  You can specify -I more
than once on the command line to specify several files to
ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all.  See
node cvsignore in the CVS manual, for other ways to make
cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify file names that should be filtered during update.
You can use this option repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
can specify in the .cvswrappers file. See node Wrappers in
the CVS manual.

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-jrevision

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision
specified with the first -j option to the revision speci-
fied with the second j option, into the working directory.

With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revi-
sion to the revision specified with the -j option, into
the working directory.  The ancestor revision is the com-
mon ancestor of the revision which the working directory
is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option.

Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j
branchname to merge changes from a branch will often not
remove files which were removed on the branch. See node
Merging adds and removals in the CVS manual, for more.

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date
specification which, when used with branches, can limit
the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An
optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the
tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See node Branching and merging in the CVS manual.


## update output

     update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by
printing a line for each file, preceded by one character
indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repo-
sitory.  This is done for any file that exists in the
repository but not in your working directory, and for
files that you havent changed but are not the most recent
versions available in the repository.

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an
entire file.  This accomplishes the same thing as U using
less bandwidth.

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A file

sources, and will be added to the source repository when
you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you
that the file needs to be committed.

R file

The file has been removed from your private copy of the
sources, and will be removed from the source repository
when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to
you that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

M can indicate one of two states for a file youre working
on: either there were no modifications to the same file in
the repository, so that your file remains as you last saw
it; or there were modifications in the repository as well
as in your copy, but they were merged successfully,
without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs will print some messages if it merges your work, and a
backup copy of your working file (as it looked before you
ran update) will be made.  The exact name of that file is
printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes
to file with changes from the source repository.  file
(the copy in your working directory) is now the result of
attempting to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy
name is the revision that your modified file started from.
Resolve the conflict as described in node Conflicts exam-
ple in the CVS manual. (Note that some systems automati-
cally purge files that begin with .# if they have not been
accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy of
your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)
Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.

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? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond
to anything in the source repository, and is not in the
list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
the -I option, and see node cvsignore in the CVS manual).


## AUTHORS

     Dick Grune
Original author of the cvs shell script version posted
to comp.sources.unix in the volume6 release of
December, 1986. Credited with much of the cvs conflict
resolution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder and designer of the cvs program itself in April,
1989, based on the original work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and ven-
dor branch support and author of the checkin(1) shell
script (the ancestor of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.


     The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management
with CVS by Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system,
you may be able to get it with the info CVS command or it
may be available as cvs.pdf (Portable Document Format),
cvs.ps (PostScript), cvs.texinfo (Texinfo source), or
cvs.html.

related to CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/

ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1),
rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

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