MirOS Manual: atobm(1), bitmap(1), bmtoa(1)


BITMAP(1)           UNIX Programmer's Manual            BITMAP(1)

NAME

     bitmap, bmtoa, atobm - bitmap editor and converter utilities
     for the X Window System

SYNOPSIS

     bitmap [ -options ... ] [ filename ] [ basename ]

     bmtoa [ -chars ... ] [ filename ]

     atobm [ -chars cc ] [ -name variable ] [ -xhot number ] [
     -yhot number ] [ filename ]

DESCRIPTION

     The bitmap program is a rudimentary tool for creating or
     editing rectangular images made up of 1's and 0's.  Bitmaps
     are used in X for defining clipping regions, cursor shapes,
     icon shapes, and tile and stipple patterns.

     The bmtoa and atobm filters convert bitmap files (FILE FOR-
     MAT) to and from ASCII strings.  They are most commonly used
     to quickly print out bitmaps and to generate versions for
     including in text.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS

     Bitmap supports the standard X Toolkit command line argu-
     ments (see X(1)).  The following additional arguments are
     supported as well.

     -size WIDTHxHEIGHT
         Specifies size of the grid in squares.

     -sw dimension
         Specifies the width of squares in pixels.

     -sh dimension
         Specifies the height of squares in pixels.

     -gt dimension
         Grid tolerance.  If the square dimensions fall below the
         specified value, grid will be automatically turned off.

     -grid, +grid
         Turns on or off the grid lines.

     -axes, +axes
         Turns on or off the major axes.

     -dashed, +dashed
         Turns on or off dashing for the frame and grid lines.

     -stippled, +stippled
         Turns on or off stippling of highlighted squares.

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     -proportional, +proportional
         Turns proportional mode on or off.  If proportional mode
         is on, square width is equal to square height.  If pro-
         portional mode is off, bitmap will use the smaller
         square dimension, if they were initially different.

     -dashes filename
         Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for dash-
         ing.

     -stipple filename
         Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for
         highlighting.

     -hl color
         Specifies the color used for highlighting.

     -fr color
         Specifies the color used for the frame and grid lines.

     filename
         Specifies the bitmap to be initially loaded into the
         program. If the file does not exist, bitmap will assume
         it is a new file.

     basename
         Specifies the basename to be used in the C code output
         file. If it is different than the basename in the work-
         ing file, bitmap will change it when saving the file.

     Bmtoa accepts the following option:

     -chars cc
         This option specifies the pair of characters to use in
         the string version of the bitmap.  The first character
         is used for 0 bits and the second character is used for
         1 bits.  The default is to use dashes (-) for 0's and
         sharp signs (#) for 1's.

     Atobm accepts the following options:

     -chars cc
         This option specifies the pair of characters to use when
         converting string bitmaps into arrays of numbers.  The
         first character represents a 0 bit and the second char-
         acter represents a 1 bit.  The default is to use dashes
         (-) for 0's and sharp signs (#) for 1's.

     -name variable
         This option specifies the variable name to be used when
         writing out the bitmap file.  The default is to use the
         basename of the filename command line argument or leave

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         it blank if the standard input is read.

     -xhot number
         This option specifies the X coordinate of the hotspot.
         Only positive values are allowed.  By default, no
         hotspot information is included.

     -yhot number
         This option specifies the Y coordinate of the hotspot.
         Only positive values are allowed.  By default, no
         hotspot information is included.

USAGE

     Bitmap displays grid in which each square represents a sin-
     gle bit in the picture being edited.  Actual size of the
     bitmap image, as it would appear normaly and inverted, can
     be obtained by pressing Meta-I key.  You are free to move
     the image popup out of the way to continue editing.  Press-
     ing the left mouse button in the popup window or Meta-I
     again will remove the real size bitmap image.

     If the bitmap is to be used for defining a cursor, one of
     the squares in the images may be designated as the hot spot.
     This determines where the cursor is actually pointing.  For
     cursors with sharp tips (such as arrows or fingers), this is
     usually at the end of the tip; for symmetric cursors (such
     as crosses or bullseyes), this is usually at the center.

     Bitmaps are stored as small C code fragments suitable for
     including in applications.  They provide an array of bits as
     well as symbolic constants giving the width, height, and hot
     spot (if specified) that may be used in creating cursors,
     icons, and tiles.

EDITING

     To edit a bitmap image simply click on one of the buttons
     with drawing commands (Point, Curve, Line, Rectangle, etc.)
     and move the pointer into the bitmap grid  window.  Press
     one of the buttons on your mouse and the appropriate action
     will take place.  You can either set, clear or invert the
     gird squares.  Setting a grid square corresponds to setting
     a bit in the bitmap image to 1.  Clearing a grid square
     corresponds to setting a bit in the bitmap image to 0.
     Inverting a grid square corresponds to changing a bit in the
     bitmap image from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0, depending what its pre-
     vious state was. The default behavior of mouse buttons is as
     specified below.

               MouseButton1        Set
               MouseButton2        Invert
               MouseButton3        Clear
               MouseButton4        Clear

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               MouseButton5        Clear

     This default behavior can be changed by setting the button
     function resources.  An example is provided below.

               bitmap*button1Function: Set
               bitmap*button2Function: Clear
               bitmap*button3Function: Invert
               etc.

     The button function applies to all drawing commands, includ-
     ing copying, moving and pasting, flood filling and setting
     the hot spot.

DRAWING COMMANDS

     Here is the list of drawing commands accessible through the
     buttons at the left side of the application's window.  Some
     commands can be aborted by pressing A inside the bitmap win-
     dow, allowing the user to select different guiding points
     where applicable.

     Clear
         This command clears all bits in the bitmap image.  The
         grid squares will be set to the background color.
         Pressing C inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Set This command sets all bits in the bitmap image.  The
         grid squares will be set to the foreground color.
         Pressing S inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Invert
         This command inverts all bits in the bitmap image.  The
         grid squares will be inverted appropriately.  Pressing I
         inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Mark
         This command is used to mark an area of the grid by
         dragging out a rectangular shape in the highlighting
         color.  Once the area is marked, it can be operated on
         by a number of commands (see Up, Down, Left, Right,
         Rotate, Flip, Cut, etc.)  Only one marked area can be
         present at any time.  If you attempt to mark another
         area, the old mark will vanish.  The same effect can be
         achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton1 and dragging out
         a rectangle in the grid window. Pressing Shift-
         MouseButton2 will mark the entire grid area.

     Unmark
         This command will cause the marked area to vanish.  The
         same effect can be achieved by pressing Shift-
         MouseButton3.

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     Copy
         This command is used to copy an area of the grid from
         one location to another.  If there is no marked grid
         area displayed, Copy behaves just like Mark described
         above.  Once there is a marked grid area displayed in
         the highlighting color, this command has two alternative
         behaviors.  If you click a mouse button inside the
         marked area, you will be able to drag the rectangle that
         represents the marked area to the desired location.
         After you release the mouse button, the area will be
         copied.  If you click outside the marked area, Copy will
         assume that you wish to mark a different region of the
         bitmap image, thus it will behave like Mark again.

     Move
         This command is used to move an area of the grid from
         one location to another.  Its behavior resembles the
         behavior of Copy command, except that the marked area
         will be moved instead of copied.

     Flip Horizontally
         This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to
         the horizontal axes. If a marked area of the grid is
         highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked
         area.  Pressing H inside the bitmap window has the same
         effect.

     Up  This command moves the bitmap image one pixel up. If a
         marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate
         only inside the marked area.  Pressing UpArrow inside
         the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Flip Vertically
         This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to
         the vertical axes. If a marked area of the grid is
         highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked
         area.  Pressing V inside the bitmap window has the same
         effect.

     Left
         This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the
         left. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it
         will operate only inside the marked area.  Pressing Lef-
         tArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Fold
         This command will fold the bitmap image so that the
         opposite corners become adjacent.  This is useful when
         creating bitmap images for tiling.  Pressing F inside
         the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Right

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         This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the
         right. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it
         will operate only inside the marked area.  Pressing
         RightArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Rotate Left
         This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the
         left (counter clockwise.) If a marked area of the grid
         is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked
         area.  Pressing L inside the bitmap window has the same
         effect.

     Down
         This command moves the bitmap image one pixel down. If a
         marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate
         only inside the marked area.  Pressing DownArrow inside
         the bitmap window has the same effect.

     Rotate Right
         This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the
         right (clockwise.) If a marked area of the grid is
         highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked
         area.  Pressing R inside the bitmap window has the same
         effect.

     Point
         This command will change the grid squares underneath the
         mouse pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down.
         If you drag the mouse button continuously, the line may
         not be continuous, depending on the speed of your system
         and frequency of mouse motion events.

     Curve
         This command will change the grid squares underneath the
         mouse pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down.
         If you drag the mouse button continuously, it will make
         sure that the line is continuous.  If your system is
         slow or bitmap receives very few mouse motion events, it
         might behave quite strangely.

     Line
         This command will change the gird squares in a line
         between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in
         the grid window, bitmap will highlight the line from the
         square where the mouse button was initially pressed to
         the square where the mouse pointer is located.  By
         releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to
         take effect, and the highlighted line will disappear.

     Rectangle
         This command will change the gird squares in a rectangle
         between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in

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         the grid window, bitmap will highlight the rectangle
         from the square where the mouse button was initially
         pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is
         located.  By releasing the mouse button you will cause
         the change to take effect, and the highlighted rectangle
         will disappear.

     Filled Rectangle
         This command is identical to Rectangle, except at the
         end the rectangle will be filled rather than outlined.

     Circle
         This command will change the gird squares in a circle
         between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in
         the grid window, bitmap will highlight the circle from
         the square where the mouse button was initially pressed
         to the square where the mouse pointer is located.  By
         releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to
         take effect, and the highlighted circle will disappear.

     Filled Circle
         This command is identical to Circle, except at the end
         the circle will be filled rather than outlined.

     Flood Fill
         This command will flood fill the connected area under-
         neath the mouse pointer when you click on the desired
         square.  Diagonally adjacent squares are not considered
         to be connected.

     Set Hot Spot
         This command designates one square in the grid as the
         hot spot if this bitmap image is to be used for defining
         a cursor.  Pressing a mouse button in the desired square
         will cause a diamond shape to be displayed.

     Clear Hot Spot
         This command removes any designated hot spot from the
         bitmap image.

     Undo
         This command will undo the last executed command.  It
         has depth one, that is, pressing Undo after Undo will
         undo itself.

FILE MENU

     The File menu commands can be accessed by pressing the File
     button and selecting the appropriate menu entry, or by
     pressing Ctrl key with another key.  These commands deal
     with files and global bitmap parameters, such as size,
     basename, filename etc.

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     New This command will clear the editing area and prompt for
         the name of the new file to be edited.  It will not load
         in the new file.

     Load
         This command is used to load a new bitmap file into the
         bitmap editor. If the current image has not been saved,
         user will be asked whether to save or ignore the
         changes.  The editor can edit only one file at a time.
         If you need interactive editing, run a number of editors
         and use cut and paste mechanism as described below.

     Insert
         This command is used to insert a bitmap file into the
         image being currently edited.  After being prompted for
         the filename, click inside the grid window and drag the
         outlined rectangle to the location where you want to
         insert the new file.

     Save
         This command will save the bitmap image.  It will not
         prompt for the filename unless it is said to be <none>.
         If you leave the filename undesignated or -, the output
         will be piped to stdout.

     Save As
         This command will save the bitmap image after prompting
         for a new filename.  It should be used if you want to
         change the filename.

     Resize
         This command is used to resize the editing area to the
         new number of pixels.  The size should be entered in the
         WIDTHxHEIGHT format.  The information in the image being
         edited will not be lost unless the new size is smaller
         that the current image size. The editor was not designed
         to edit huge files.

     Rescale
         This command is used to rescale the editing area to the
         new width and height.  The size should be entered in the
         WIDTHxHEIGHT format.  It will not do antialiasing and
         information will be lost if you rescale to the smaller
         sizes.  Feel free to add you own algorithms for better
         rescaling.

     Filename
         This command is used to change the filename without
         changing the basename nor saving the file.  If you
         specify - for a filename, the output will be piped to
         stdout.

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     Basename
         This command is used to change the basename, if a dif-
         ferent one from the specified filename is desired.

     Quit
         This command will terminate the bitmap application.  If
         the file was not saved, user will be prompted and asked
         whether to save the image or not.  This command is pre-
         ferred over killing the process.

EDIT MENU

     The Edit menu commands can be accessed by pressing the Edit
     button and selecting the appropriate menu entry, or by
     pressing Meta key with another key.  These commands deal
     with editing facilities such as grid, axes, zooming, cut and
     paste, etc.

     Image
         This command will display the image being edited and its
         inverse in its actual size in a separate window.  The
         window can be moved away to continue with editing.
         Pressing the left mouse button in the image window will
         cause it to disappear from the screen.

     Grid
         This command controls the grid in the editing area.  If
         the grid spacing is below the value specified by grid-
         Tolerance resource (8 by default), the grid will be
         automatically turned off.  It can be enforced by expli-
         citly activating this command.

     Dashed
         This command controls the stipple for drawing the grid
         lines.  The stipple specified by dashes resource can be
         turned on or off by activating this command.

     Axes
         This command controls the highlighting of the main axes
         of the image being edited.  The actual lines are not
         part of the image.  They are provided to aid user when
         constructing symmetrical images, or whenever having the
         main axes highlighted helps your editing.

     Stippled
         This command controls the stippling of the highlighted
         areas of the bitmap image.  The stipple specified by
         stipple resource can be turned on or off by activating
         this command.

     Proportional
         This command controls the proportional mode.  If the
         proportional mode is on, width and height of all image

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         squares are forced to be equal, regardless of the pro-
         portions of the bitmap window.

     Zoom
         This command controls the zoom mode.  If there is a
         marked area of the image already displayed, bitmap will
         automatically zoom into it.  Otherwise, user will have
         to highlight an area to be edited in the zoom mode and
         bitmap will automatically switch into it.  One can use
         all the editing commands and other utilities in the zoom
         mode.  When you zoom out, undo command will undo the
         whole zoom session.

     Cut This commands cuts the contents of the highlighted image
         area into the internal cut and paste buffer.

     Copy
         This command copies the contents of the highlighted
         image area into the internal cut and paste buffer.

     Paste
         This command will check if there are any other bitmap
         applications with a highlighted image area, or if there
         is something in the internal cut and paste buffer and
         copy it to the image.  To place the copied image, click
         in the editing window and drag the outlined image to the
         position where you want to place i, and then release the
         button.

CUT AND PASTE

     Bitmap supports two cut and paste mechanisms; the internal
     cut and paste and the global X selection cut and paste.  The
     internal cut and paste is used when executing copy and move
     drawing commands and also cut and copy commands from the
     edit menu.  The global X selection cut and paste is used
     whenever there is a highlighted area of a bitmap image
     displayed anywhere on the screen.  To copy a part of image
     from another bitmap editor simply highlight the desired area
     by using the Mark command or pressing the shift key and
     dragging the area with the left mouse button.  When the
     selected area becomes highlighted, any other applications
     (such as xterm, etc.) that use primary selection will dis-
     card their selection values and unhighlight the appropriate
     information.  Now, use the Paste command for the Edit menu
     or control mouse button to copy the selected part of image
     into another (or the same) bitmap application.  If you
     attempt to do this without a visible highlighted image area,
     the bitmap will fall back to the internal cut and paste
     buffer and paste whatever was there stored at the moment.

WIDGETS

     Below is the widget structure of the bitmap application.

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     Indentation indicates hierarchical structure.  The widget
     class name is given first, followed by the widget instance
     name.  All widgets except the bitmap widget are from the
     standard Athena widget set.

          Bitmap bitmap
               TransientShell image
                    Box box
                         Label normalImage
                         Label invertedImage
               TransientShell input
                    Dialog dialog
                         Command okay
                         Command cancel
               TransientShell error
                    Dialog dialog
                         Command abort
                         Command retry
               TransientShell qsave
                    Dialog dialog
                         Command yes
                         Command no
                         Command cancel
               Paned parent
                    Form formy
                         MenuButton fileButton
                         SimpleMenu fileMenu
                              SmeBSB  new
                              SmeBSB  load
                              SmeBSB  insert
                              SmeBSB  save
                              SmeBSB  saveAs
                              SmeBSB  resize
                              SmeBSB  rescale
                              SmeBSB  filename
                              SmeBSB  basename
                              SmeLine line
                              SmeBSB  quit
                         MenuButton editButton
                         SimpleMenu editMenu
                              SmeBSB  image
                              SmeBSB  grid
                              SmeBSB  dashed
                              SmeBSB  axes
                              SmeBSB  stippled
                              SmeBSB  proportional
                              SmeBSB  zoom
                              SmeLine line
                              SmeBSB  cut
                              SmeBSB  copy
                              SmeBSB  paste
                         Label status

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                    Pane pane
                         Bitmap bitmap
                         Form form
                              Command clear
                              Command set
                              Command invert
                              Toggle  mark
                              Command unmark
                              Toggle  copy
                              Toggle  move
                              Command flipHoriz
                              Command up
                              Command flipVert
                              Command left
                              Command fold
                              Command right
                              Command rotateLeft
                              Command down
                              Command rotateRight
                              Toggle  point
                              Toggle  curve
                              Toggle  line
                              Toggle  rectangle
                              Toggle  filledRectangle
                              Toggle  circle
                              Toggle  filledCircle
                              Toggle  floodFill
                              Toggle  setHotSpot
                              Command clearHotSpot
                              Command undo

COLORS

     If you would like bitmap to be viewable in color, include
     the following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you
     read with xrdb:

     *customization:                 -color

     This will cause bitmap to pick up the colors in the app-
     defaults color customization file:

         /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/Bitmap-color

BITMAP WIDGET

     Bitmap widget is a stand-alone widget for editing raster
     images.  It is not designed to edit large images, although
     it may be used in that purpose as well.  It can be freely
     incorporated with other applications and used as a standard
     editing tool.  The following are the resources provided by
     the bitmap widget.

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     Bitmap Widget

     Header file         Bitmap.h
     Class               bitmapWidgetClass
     Class Name          Bitmap
     Superclass          Bitmap

     All the Simple Widget resources plus ...

     Name            Class           Type            Default Value

     foreground      Foreground      Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
     highlight       Highlight       Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
     framing         Framing         Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
     gridTolerance   GridTolerance   Dimension       8
     size            Size            String          32x32
     dashed          Dashed          Boolean         True
     grid            Grid            Boolean         True
     stippled        Stippled        Boolean         True
     proportional    Proportional    Boolean         True
     axes            Axes            Boolean         False
     squareWidth     SquareWidth     Dimension       16
     squareHeight    SquareHeight    Dimension       16
     margin          Margin          Dimension       16
     xHot            XHot            Position        NotSet (-1)
     yHot            YHot            Position        NotSet (-1)
     button1Function Button1Function DrawingFunction Set
     button2Function Button2Function DrawingFunction Invert
     button3Function Button3Function DrawingFunction Clear
     button4Function Button4Function DrawingFunction Invert
     button5Function Button5Function DrawingFunction Invert
     filename        Filename        String          None ("")
     basename        Basename        String          None ("")

AUTHOR

     Davor Matic, MIT X Consortium

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