MirOS Manual: as(1)


AS(1)                 GNU Development Tools                 AS(1)

NAME

     AS - the portable GNU assembler.

SYNOPSIS

     as [-a[cdhlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D]
      [--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs]
      [--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J]
      [-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM]
      [--listing-lhs-width2=NUM] [--listing-rhs-width=NUM]
      [--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o
      objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics]
      [-v] [-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn]
      [--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z] [--target-help]
      [target-options] [--|files ...]

     Target Alpha options:
        [-mcpu]
        [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
        [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
        [-F] [-32addr]

     Target ARC options:
        [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
        [-EB|-EL]

     Target ARM options:
        [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]]
        [-march=architecture[+extension...]]
        [-mfpu=floating-point-format]
        [-mfloat-abi=abi]
        [-meabi=ver]
        [-mthumb]
        [-EB|-EL]
        [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
         -mapcs-reentrant]
        [-mthumb-interwork] [-k]

     Target CRIS options:
        [--underscore | --no-underscore]
        [--pic] [-N]
        [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]
        [--march=v0_v10 | --march=v10 | --march=v32 |
     --march=common_v10_v32]

     Target D10V options:
        [-O]

     Target D30V options:
        [-O|-n|-N]

     Target i386 options:
        [--32|--64] [-n]

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     Target i960 options:
        [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|
         -AKC|-AMC]
        [-b] [-no-relax]

     Target IA-64 options:
        [-mconstant-gp|-mauto-pic]
        [-milp32|-milp64|-mlp64|-mp64]
        [-mle|mbe]
        [-mtune=itanium1|-mtune=itanium2]
        [-munwind-check=warning|-munwind-check=error]
        [-mhint.b=ok|-mhint.b=warning|-mhint.b=error]
        [-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug]

     Target IP2K options:
        [-mip2022|-mip2022ext]

     Target M32R options:
        [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
        --W[n]p]

     Target M680X0 options:
        [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]

     Target M68HC11 options:
        [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12]
        [-mshort|-mlong]
        [-mshort-double|-mlong-double]
        [--force-long-branchs] [--short-branchs]
        [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax]
        [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example]

     Target MCORE options:
        [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
        [-mcpu=[210|340]]

     Target MIPS options:
        [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
        [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
        [-non_shared] [-xgot]
        [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
        [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
        [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
        [-mips64] [-mips64r2]
        [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
        [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
        [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
        [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
        [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
        [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
        [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
        [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr]

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AS(1)                 GNU Development Tools                 AS(1)

     Target MMIX options:
        [--fixed-special-register-names] [--globalize-symbols]
        [--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
        [--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
        [--linker-allocated-gregs]

     Target PDP11 options:
        [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
        [-mextension|-mno-extension]
        [-mcpu] [-mmachine]

     Target picoJava options:
        [-mb|-me]

     Target PowerPC options:
        [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|
         -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke|
         -mbooke32|-mbooke64]
        [-mcom|-many|-maltivec] [-memb]
        [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
        [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib]
        [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian]
        [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]

     Target SPARC options:
        [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
         -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
        [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
        [-32|-64]

     Target TIC54X options:
      [-mcpu=54[123589]|-mcpu=54[56]lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf]
      [-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]

     Target Xtensa options:
      [--[no-]text-section-literals] [--[no-]absolute-literals]
      [--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls]
      [--[no-]transform]
      [--rename-section oldname=newname]

DESCRIPTION

     GNU as is really a family of assemblers. If you use (or have
     used) the GNU assembler on one architecture, you should find
     a fairly similar environment when you use it on another
     architecture.  Each version has much in common with the oth-
     ers, including object file formats, most assembler direc-
     tives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.

     as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C
     compiler "gcc" for use by the linker "ld".  Nevertheless,
     we've tried to make as assemble correctly everything that
     other assemblers for the same machine would assemble. Any

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     exceptions are documented explicitly. This doesn't mean as
     always uses the same syntax as another assembler for the
     same architecture; for example, we know of several incompa-
     tible versions of 680x0 assembly language syntax.

     Each time you run as it assembles exactly one source pro-
     gram.  The source program is made up of one or more files.
     (The standard input is also a file.)

     You give as a command line that has zero or more input file
     names.  The input files are read (from left file name to
     right).  A command line argument (in any position) that has
     no special meaning is taken to be an input file name.

     If you give as no file names it attempts to read one input
     file from the as standard input, which is normally your ter-
     minal.  You may have to type ctl-D to tell as there is no
     more program to assemble.

     Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input
     file in your command line.

     If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object
     file.

     as may write warnings and error messages to the standard
     error file (usually your terminal).  This should not happen
     when  a compiler runs as automatically.  Warnings report an
     assumption made so that as could keep assembling a flawed
     program; errors report a grave problem that stops the assem-
     bly.

     If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use
     the -Wa option to pass arguments through to the assembler.
     The assembler arguments must be separated from each other
     (and the -Wa) by commas.  For example:

             gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c

     This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a list-
     ing to standard output with high-level and assembly source)
     and -L (retain local symbols in the symbol table).

     Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since
     many compiler command-line options are automatically passed
     to the assembler by the compiler. (You can call the GNU com-
     piler driver with the -v option to see precisely what
     options it passes to each compilation pass, including the
     assembler.)

OPTIONS

     -a[cdhlmns]

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         Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:

         -ac omit false conditionals

         -ad omit debugging directives

         -ah include high-level source

         -al include assembly

         -am include macro expansions

         -an omit forms processing

         -as include symbols

         =file
             set the name of the listing file

         You may combine these options; for example, use -aln for
         assembly listing without forms processing.  The =file
         option, if used, must be the last one.  By itself, -a
         defaults to -ahls.

     --alternate
         Begin in alternate macro mode, see
         @ref{Altmacro,,".altmacro"}.

     -D  Ignored.  This option is accepted for script compatibil-
         ity with calls to other assemblers.

     --defsym sym=value
         Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the
         input file. value must be an integer constant.  As in C,
         a leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value, and a lead-
         ing 0 indicates an octal value.

     -f  ``fast''---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing
         (assume source is compiler output).

     -g
     --gen-debug
         Generate debugging information for each assembler source
         line using whichever debug format is preferred by the
         target.  This currently means either STABS, ECOFF or
         DWARF2.

     --gstabs
         Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler
         line.  This may help debugging assembler code, if the
         debugger can handle it.

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     --gstabs+
         Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler
         line, with GNU extensions that probably only gdb can
         handle, and that could make other debuggers crash or
         refuse to read your program.  This may help debugging
         assembler code.  Currently the only GNU extension is the
         location of the current working directory at assembling
         time.

     --gdwarf-2
         Generate DWARF2 debugging information for each assembler
         line.  This may help debugging assembler code, if the
         debugger can handle it.  Note---this option is only sup-
         ported by some targets, not all of them.

     --help
         Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

     --target-help
         Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.

     -I dir
         Add directory dir to the search list for ".include"
         directives.

     -J  Don't warn about signed overflow.

     -K  Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long
         displacements.

     -L
     --keep-locals
         Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols.  On tradi-
         tional a.out systems these start with L, but different
         systems have different local label prefixes.

     --listing-lhs-width=number
         Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data
         column for an assembler listing to number.

     --listing-lhs-width2=number
         Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data
         column for continuation lines in an assembler listing to
         number.

     --listing-rhs-width=number
         Set the maximum width of an input source line, as
         displayed in a listing, to number bytes.

     --listing-cont-lines=number
         Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for
         a single line of input to number + 1.

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     -o objfile
         Name the object-file output from as objfile.

     -R  Fold the data section into the text section.

         Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime
         number close to number.  Increasing this value can
         reduce the length of time it takes the assembler to per-
         form its tasks, at the expense of increasing the
         assembler's memory requirements.  Similarly reducing
         this value can reduce the memory requirements at the
         expense of speed.

     --reduce-memory-overheads
         This option reduces GAS's memory requirements, at the
         expense of making the assembly processes slower.
         Currently this switch is a synonym for --hash-size=4051,
         but in the future it may have other effects as well.

     --statistics
         Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in
         seconds) used by assembly.

     --strip-local-absolute
         Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol
         table.

     -v
     -version
         Print the as version.

     --version
         Print the as version and exit.

     -W
     --no-warn
         Suppress warning messages.

     --fatal-warnings
         Treat warnings as errors.

     --warn
         Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.

     -w  Ignored.

     -x  Ignored.

     -Z  Generate an object file even after errors.

     -- | files ...
         Standard input, or source files to assemble.

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     The following options are available when as is configured
     for an ARC processor.

     -marc[5|6|7|8]
         This option selects the core processor variant.

     -EB | -EL
         Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL)
         output.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the ARM processor family.

     -mcpu=processor[+extension...]
         Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.

     -march=architecture[+extension...]
         Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the
         target.

     -mfpu=floating-point-format
         Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.

     -mfloat-abi=abi
         Select which floating point ABI is in use.

     -mthumb
         Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.

     -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant
         Select which procedure calling convention is in use.

     -EB | -EL
         Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL)
         output.

     -mthumb-interwork
         Specify that the code has been generated with interwork-
         ing between Thumb and ARM code in mind.

     -k  Specify that PIC code has been generated.

     See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific
     options.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for a D10V processor.

     -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for a D30V processor.

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     -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

     -n  Warn when nops are generated.

     -N  Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is
         generated.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the Intel 80960 processor.

     -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
         Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the
         target.

     -b  Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.

     -no-relax
         Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long
         displacements; error if necessary.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the Ubicom IP2K series.

     -mip2022ext
         Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are
         allowed.

     -mip2022
         Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the per-
         mitted instructions to just the basic IP2022 ones.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the Renesas M32R (formerly Mitsubishi M32R) series.

     --m32rx
         Specify which processor in the M32R family is the tar-
         get.  The default is normally the M32R, but this option
         changes it to the M32RX.

     --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
         Produce warning messages when questionable parallel con-
         structs are encountered.

     --no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
         Do not produce warning messages when questionable paral-
         lel constructs are encountered.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the Motorola 68000 series.

     -l  Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word
         instead of two.

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     -m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
     | -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
     | -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
         Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the tar-
         get.  The default is normally the 68020, but this can be
         changed at configuration time.

     -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
         The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-
         point coprocessor. The default is to assume a coproces-
         sor for 68020, 68030, and cpu32.  Although the basic
         68000 is not compatible with the 68881, a combination of
         the two can be specified, since it's possible to do emu-
         lation of the coprocessor instructions with the main
         processor.

     -m68851 | -mno-68851
         The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-
         management unit coprocessor.  The default is to assume
         an MMU for 68020 and up.

     For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features
     options, see @ref{PDP-11-Options}.

     -mpic | -mno-pic
         Generate position-independent (or position-dependent)
         code.  The default is -mpic.

     -mall
     -mall-extensions
         Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the
         default.

     -mno-extensions
         Disable all instruction set extensions.

     -mextension | -mno-extension
         Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set exten-
         sion.

     -mcpu
         Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a
         particular CPU, and disable all other extensions.

     -mmachine
         Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a
         particular machine model, and disable all other exten-
         sions.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for a picoJava processor.

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     -mb Generate ``big endian'' format output.

     -ml Generate ``little endian'' format output.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the Motorola 68HC11 or 68HC12 series.

     -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
         Specify what processor is the target.  The default is
         defined by the configuration option when building the
         assembler.

     -mshort
         Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI.

     -mlong
         Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI.

     -mshort-double
         Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI.

     -mlong-double
         Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI.

     --force-long-branchs
         Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This
         concerns conditional branches, unconditional branches
         and branches to a sub routine.

     -S | --short-branchs
         Do not turn relative branchs into absolute ones when the
         offset is out of range.

     --strict-direct-mode
         Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended
         addressing mode when the instruction does not support
         direct addressing mode.

     --print-insn-syntax
         Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.

     --print-opcodes
         print the list of instructions with syntax and then
         exit.

     --generate-example
         print an example of instruction for each possible
         instruction and then exit. This option is only useful
         for testing as.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the SPARC architecture:

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     -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
     -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
         Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.

         -Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment. -Av9
         and -Av9a select a 64 bit environment.

         -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set
         with UltraSPARC extensions.

     -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
         For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.  These
         options are equivalent to -Av8plus and -Av8plusa,
         respectively.

     -bump
         Warn when the assembler switches to another architec-
         ture.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for the 'c54x architecture.

     -mfar-mode
         Enable extended addressing mode.  All addresses and
         relocations will assume extended addressing (usually 23
         bits).

     -mcpu=CPU_VERSION
         Sets the CPU version being compiled for.

     -merrors-to-file FILENAME
         Redirect error output to a file, for broken systems
         which don't support such behaviour in the shell.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for a MIPS processor.

     -G num
         This option sets the largest size of an object that can
         be referenced implicitly with the "gp" register.  It is
         only accepted for targets that use ECOFF format, such as
         a DECstation running Ultrix.  The default value is 8.

     -EB Generate ``big endian'' format output.

     -EL Generate ``little endian'' format output.

     -mips1
     -mips2
     -mips3
     -mips4
     -mips5

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     -mips32
     -mips32r2
     -mips64
     -mips64r2
         Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set
         Architecture level. -mips1 is an alias for -march=r3000,
         -mips2 is an alias for -march=r6000, -mips3 is an alias
         for -march=r4000 and -mips4 is an alias for
         -march=r8000. -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2, -mips64, and
         -mips64r2 correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32
         Release 2, MIPS64, and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors,
         respectively.

     -march=CPU
         Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.

     -mtune=cpu
         Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.

     -mfix7000
     -mno-fix7000
         Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination
         register of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the
         following two instructions.

     -mdebug
     -no-mdebug
         Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-
         style .mdebug section instead of the standard ELF .stabs
         sections.

     -mpdr
     -mno-pdr
         Control generation of ".pdr" sections.

     -mgp32
     -mfp32
         The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA
         and ABI, but these flags force a certain group of regis-
         ters to be treated as 32 bits wide at all times.  -mgp32
         controls the size of general-purpose registers and
         -mfp32 controls the size of floating-point registers.

     -mips16
     -no-mips16
         Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor.  This is
         equivalent to putting ".set mips16" at the start of the
         assembly file.  -no-mips16 turns off this option.

     -mips3d
     -no-mips3d
         Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific

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         Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MIPS-3D
         instructions. -no-mips3d turns off this option.

     -mdmx
     -no-mdmx
         Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Exten-
         sion. This tells the assembler to accept MDMX instruc-
         tions. -no-mdmx turns off this option.

     --construct-floats
     --no-construct-floats
         The --no-construct-floats option disables the construc-
         tion of double width floating point constants by loading
         the two halves of the value into the two single width
         floating point registers that make up the double width
         register.  By default --construct-floats is selected,
         allowing construction of these floating point constants.

     --emulation=name
         This option causes as to emulate as configured for some
         other target, in all respects, including output format
         (choosing between ELF and ECOFF only), handling of
         pseudo-opcodes which may generate debugging information
         or store symbol table information, and default endian-
         ness.  The available configuration names are: mipsecoff,
         mipself, mipslecoff, mipsbecoff, mipslelf, mipsbelf.
         The first two do not alter the default endianness from
         that of the primary target for which the assembler was
         configured; the others change the default to little- or
         big-endian as indicated by the b or l in the name.
         Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness selection
         in any case.

         This option is currently supported only when the primary
         target as is configured for is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF tar-
         get. Furthermore, the primary target or others specified
         with --enable-targets=... at configuration time must
         include support for the other format, if both are to be
         available.  For example, the Irix 5 configuration
         includes support for both.

         Eventually, this option will support more configura-
         tions, with more fine-grained control over the
         assembler's behavior, and will be supported for more
         processors.

     -nocpp
         as ignores this option.  It is accepted for compatibil-
         ity with the native tools.

     --trap
     --no-trap

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     --break
     --no-break
         Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and
         division by zero. --trap or --no-break (which are
         synonyms) take a trap exception (and only work for
         Instruction Set Architecture level 2 and higher);
         --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the default)
         take a break exception.

     -n  When this option is used, as will issue a warning every
         time it generates a nop instruction from a macro.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for an MCore processor.

     -jsri2bsr
     -nojsri2bsr
         Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By
         default this is enabled. The command line option
         -nojsri2bsr can be used to disable it.

     -sifilter
     -nosifilter
         Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour.  By
         default this is disabled. The default can be overridden
         by the -sifilter command line option.

     -relax
         Alter jump instructions for long displacements.

     -mcpu=[210|340]
         Select the cpu type on the target hardware.  This con-
         trols which instructions can be assembled.

     -EB Assemble for a big endian target.

     -EL Assemble for a little endian target.

     See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific
     options.

     The following options are available when as is configured
     for an Xtensa processor.

     --text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
         With --text-section-literals, literal pools are inter-
         spersed in the text section.  The default is
         --no-text-section-literals, which places literals in a
         separate section in the output file.  These options only
         affect literals referenced via PC-relative "L32R"
         instructions; literals for absolute mode "L32R" instruc-
         tions are handled separately.

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AS(1)                 GNU Development Tools                 AS(1)

     --absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals
         Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions
         use absolute or PC-relative addressing.  The default is
         to assume absolute addressing if the Xtensa processor
         includes the absolute "L32R" addressing option.  Other-
         wise, only the PC-relative "L32R" mode can be used.

     --target-align | --no-target-align
         Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch
         penalties at the expense of some code density.  The
         default is --target-align.

     --longcalls | --no-longcalls
         Enable or disable transformation of call instructions to
         allow calls across a greater range of addresses.  The
         default is --no-longcalls.

     --transform | --no-transform
         Enable or disable all assembler transformations of
         Xtensa instructions. The default is --transform;
         --no-transform should be used only in the rare cases
         when the instructions must be exactly as specified in
         the assembly source.

SEE ALSO

     gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.

COPYRIGHT

     Copyright (C) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000,
     2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
     License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the
     Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with
     no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy
     of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
     Free Documentation License''.

binutils-050707            2014-07-04                          16

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