MirBSD manpage: 30.rogue(USD)


                        A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom

                                 Michael C. Toy
                            Kenneth C. R. C. Arnold

                        Computer Systems Research Group
           Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
                            University of California
                          Berkeley, California  94720

                                    ABSTRACT

              Rogue is a visual CRT based fantasy game which  runs
              under  the  UNIX-  timesharing  system.  This  paper
              describes  how  to play rogue, and gives a few hints
              for those  who  might  otherwise  get  lost  in  the
              Dungeons of Doom.

          1. Introduction

               You have just finished your years as a student  at  the
          local  fighter's  guild.  After  much practice and sweat you
          have finally completed your training and are ready to embark
          upon  a  perilous  adventure.  As a test of your skills, the
          local guildmasters have sent you into the Dungeons of  Doom.
          Your  task  is  to  return  with  the Amulet of Yendor. Your
          reward for the completion  of  this  task  will  be  a  full
          membership  in the local guild. In addition, you are allowed
          to keep all the loot you bring back from the dungeons.

               In preparation for  your  journey,  you  are  given  an
          enchanted  mace,  a bow, and a quiver of arrows taken from a
          dragon's hoard in the far off Dark Mountains. You  are  also
          outfitted  with  elf-crafted  armor and given enough food to
          reach the dungeons. You say goodbye to  family  and  friends
          for what may be the last time and head up the road.

               You set out on your  way  to  the  dungeons  and  after
          several days of uneventful travel, you see the ancient ruins
          that mark the entrance to the Dungeons of Doom. It  is  late
          at  night,  so  you  make camp at the entrance and spend the
          ____________________
             -UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories

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          night sleeping under the open  skies.  In  the  morning  you
          gather  your  weapons, put on your armor, eat what is almost
          your last food, and enter the dungeons.

          2. What is going on here?

               You have just begun a game of rogue. Your  goal  is  to
          grab as much treasure as you can, find the Amulet of Yendor,
          and get out of the Dungeons of Doom alive. On the screen,  a
          map  of  where  you  have been and what you have seen on the
          current dungeon level is kept. As you explore  more  of  the
          level, it appears on the screen in front of you.

               Rogue differs from most computer fantasy games in  that
          it  is  screen  oriented.  Commands are all one or two keys-
          trokes[1] and the results of  your  commands  are  displayed
          graphically  on  the  screen  rather than being explained in
          words.[2]

               Another major difference between rogue and  other  com-
          puter  fantasy  games  is  that once you have solved all the
          puzzles in a standard fantasy game, it has lost most of  its
          excitement  and  it  ceases  to  be fun. Rogue, on the other
          hand, generates a new dungeon every time  you  play  it  and
          even the author finds it an entertaining and exciting game.

          3. What do all those things on the screen mean?

               In order to understand what is going on  in  rogue  you
          have to first get some grasp of what rogue is doing with the
          screen. The rogue screen is intended to replace the "You can
          see ..." descriptions of standard fantasy games. Figure 1 is
          a sample of what a rogue screen might look like.

          3.1. The bottom line

               At the bottom line of the screen are a  few  pieces  of
          cryptic  information describing your current status. Here is
          an explanation of what these things mean:

          Level  This number indicates how deep you have gone  in  the
                 dungeon.  It  starts  at  one  and  goes up as you go
                 deeper into the dungeon.

          Gold   The number of gold pieces you have  managed  to  find
                 and keep with you so far.
          ____________________
             [1] As opposed to pseudo English sentences.
             [2] A minimum screen size of 24 lines by  80  columns  is
          required.  If  the  screen is larger, only the 24x80 section
          will be used for the map.

          A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom                     USD:30-3

          ____________________________________________________________

                                  ------------
                                  |..........+
                                  |..@....]..|
                                  |....B.....|
                                  |..........|
                                  -----+------

          Level: 1  Gold: 0      Hp: 12(12)  Str: 16(16)  Arm: 4  Exp: 1/0

                                    Figure 1
          ____________________________________________________________

          Hp     Your current and maximum health points. Health points
                 indicate how much damage you can take before you die.
                 The more you get hit in a fight, the lower they  get.
                 You  can  regain health points by resting. The number
                 in parentheses is  the  maximum  number  your  health
                 points can reach.

          Str    Your current strength and maximum ever strength. This
                 can  be  any  integer  less  than  or equal to 99, or
                 greater than or equal to 1. The  higher  the  number,
                 the  stronger  you are. The number in the parentheses
                 is the maximum strength you have attained so far this
                 game.

          Arm    Your current armor protection. This number  indicates
                 how  effective  your  armor is in stopping blows from
                 unfriendly creatures. The higher this number is,  the
                 more effective the armor.

          Exp    These two numbers give your current experience  level
                 and  experience  points.  As  you do things, you gain
                 experience  points.  At  certain   experience   point
                 totals,  you  gain  an  experience  level.  The  more
                 experienced you are, the better you are able to fight
                 and to withstand magical attacks.

          3.2. The top line

               The top line of the screen  is  reserved  for  printing
          messages   that  describe  things  that  are  impossible  to
          represent visually. If you see a "--More--" on the top line,
          this  means that rogue wants to print another message on the
          screen, but it wants to make certain that you have read  the
          one that is there first. To read the next message, just type

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          a space.

          3.3. The rest of the screen

               The rest of the screen is the map of the level  as  you
          have   explored  it  so  far.  Each  symbol  on  the  screen
          represents something. Here is a list  of  what  the  various
          symbols mean:

          @    This symbol represents you, the adventurer.

          -|   These symbols represent the walls of rooms.

          +    A door to/from a room.

          .    The floor of a room.

          #    The floor of a passage between rooms.

          *    A pile or pot of gold.

          )    A weapon of some sort.

          ]    A piece of armor.

          !    A flask containing a magic potion.

          ?    A piece of paper, usually a magic scroll.

          =    A ring with magic properties

          /    A magical staff or wand

          ^    A trap, watch out for these.

          %    A staircase to other levels

          :    A piece of food.

          A-Z  The uppercase letters represent the various inhabitants
               of  the  Dungeons of Doom. Watch out, they can be nasty
               and vicious.

          4. Commands

               Commands are given to rogue by typing one or two  char-
          acters.  Most  commands can be preceded by a count to repeat
          them (e.g. typing "10s" will do ten searches). Commands  for
          which counts make no sense have the count ignored. To cancel
          a count or a prefix, type <ESCAPE>. The list of commands  is
          rather  long, but it can be read at any time during the game
          with the "?" command. Here it is for reference, with a short
          explanation of each command.

          A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom                     USD:30-5

          ?    The help command. Asks for a character to give help on.
               If  you type a "*", it will list all the commands, oth-
               erwise it will explain what  the  character  you  typed
               does.

          /    This is the "What is that on the  screen?"  command.  A
               "/"  followed  by  any  character  that  you see on the
               level, will  tell  you  what  that  character  is.  For
               instance, typing "/@" will tell you that the "@" symbol
               represents you, the player.

          h, H, ^H
               Move left. You move one space to the left. If  you  use
               upper  case  "h",  you will continue to move left until
               you run into something. This  works  for  all  movement
               commands  (e.g.  "L" means run in direction "l") If you
               use the "control" "h", you will continue moving in  the
               specified  direction until you pass something interest-
               ing or run into a  wall.  You  should  experiment  with
               this,  since it is a very useful command, but very dif-
               ficult to describe. This also works  for  all  movement
               commands.

          j    Move down.

          k    Move up.

          l    Move right.

          y    Move diagonally up and left.

          u    Move diagonally up and right.

          b    Move diagonally down and left.

          n    Move diagonally down and right.

          t    Throw an object. This is a prefix  command.  When  fol-
               lowed  with  a  direction  it  throws  an object in the
               specified direction. (e.g. type "th" to throw something
               to the left.)

          f    Fight until someone dies. When followed with  a  direc-
               tion  this will force you to fight the creature in that
               direction until either you or it bites the big one.

          m    Move onto something without picking it  up.  This  will
               move you one space in the direction you specify and, if
               there is an object there you can pick up, it  won't  do
               it.

          z    Zap prefix. Point a staff or wand in a given  direction
               and  fire  it.  Even  non-directional  staves  must  be

          USD:30-6                     A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom

               pointed in some direction to be used.

          ^    Identify trap command. If a trap is on your map and you
               can't  remember  what  type it is, you can get rogue to
               remind you by getting next to it and  typing  "^"  fol-
               lowed  by  the  direction that would move you on top of
               it.

          s    Search for traps and secret doors. Examine  each  space
               immediately adjacent to you for the existence of a trap
               or secret door. There is a large chance  that  even  if
               there  is  something  there,  you won't find it, so you
               might have to search a while before you find something.

          >    Climb down a staircase to the next level. Not  surpris-
               ingly,  this  can  only  be done if you are standing on
               staircase.

          <    Climb up a staircase to the level above. This can't  be
               done without the Amulet of Yendor in your possession.

          .    Rest. This is the "do nothing" command.  This  is  good
               for waiting and healing.

          ,    Pick up something.  This  picks  up  whatever  you  are
               currently  standing on, if you are standing on anything
               at all.

          i    Inventory. List what you are carrying in your pack.

          I    Selective inventory. Tells you what a  single  item  in
               your pack is.

          q    Quaff one of the potions you are carrying.

          r    Read one of the scrolls in your pack.

          e    Eat food from your pack.

          w    Wield a weapon. Take a weapon  out  of  your  pack  and
               carry  it  for use in combat, replacing the one you are
               currently using (if any).

          W    Wear armor. You can only wear one suit of  armor  at  a
               time. This takes extra time.

          T    Take armor off. You can't remove armor that is  cursed.
               This takes extra time.

          P    Put on a ring. You can wear only two rings  at  a  time
               (one  on  each  hand). If you aren't wearing any rings,
               this command will ask you which hand you want  to  wear
               it  on, otherwise, it will place it on the unused hand.

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               The program assumes that you wield your sword  in  your
               right hand.

          R    Remove a ring. If you are only wearing one  ring,  this
               command  takes  it off. If you are wearing two, it will
               ask you which one you wish to remove,

          d    Drop an object. Take something out  of  your  pack  and
               leave it lying on the floor. Only one object can occupy
               each space. You cannot drop a cursed object at  all  if
               you are wielding or wearing it.

          c    Call an object something. If you have a type of  object
               in  your  pack  which  you  wish  to remember something
               about, you can use the call command to give a  name  to
               that type of object. This is usually used when you fig-
               ure out what a potion, scroll, ring, or staff is  after
               you pick it up but before it is truly identified.  Each
               type of scroll and potion will become identified  after
               its first use.

          o    Examine  and  set  options.  This  command  is  further
               explained in the section on options.

          ^R   Redraws the screen.  Useful  if  spurious  messages  or
               transmission errors have messed up the display.

          ^P   Print last message. Useful when  a  message  disappears
               before you can read it. Consecutive repetitions of this
               command will reveal the last five messages.

          <ESCAPE>
               Cancel a command, prefix, or count.

          !    Escape to a shell for some commands.

          Q    Quit. Leave the game.

          S    Save the current game  in  a  file.  It  will  ask  you
               whether  you wish to use the default save file. Caveat:
               Rogue won't let you start up a copy of  a  saved  game,
               and  it removes the save file as soon as you start up a
               restored game. This is to prevent people from saving  a
               game just before a dangerous position and then restart-
               ing it if they die. To restore a saved game,  give  the
               file name as an argument to rogue. As in
                         % rogue save_file

          v    Prints the program version number.

          )    Print the weapon you are currently wielding

          USD:30-8                     A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom

          ]    Print the armor you are currently wearing

          =    Print the rings you are currently wearing

          5. Rooms

               Rooms in the dungeons are lit as you enter  them.  Upon
          leaving a room, all monsters inside the room are erased from
          the screen. In the darkness of a corridor, you can only  see
          one space in all directions around you.

          6. Fighting

               If you see a monster and you wish  to  fight  it,  just
          attempt  to  run into it. Many times a monster you find will
          mind its own business unless you attack it. It is often  the
          case that discretion is the better part of valor.

          7. Objects you can find

               When you find something in the dungeon, it is common to
          want to pick the object up. This is accomplished in rogue by
          walking over the object (unless you use the "m" prefix,  see
          above).  If  you  are  carrying too many things, the program
          will tell you and it won't pick up the object, otherwise  it
          will  add  it to your pack and tell you what you just picked
          up.

               Many of the  commands  that  operate  on  objects  must
          prompt  you to find out which object you want to use. If you
          change your mind and don't want to  do  that  command  after
          all, just type an <ESCAPE> and the command will be aborted.

               Some objects, like armor and weapons, are  easily  dif-
          ferentiated.  Others,  like  scrolls  and potions, are given
          labels which vary according to type. During a game, any  two
          of  the same kind of object with the same label are the same
          type. However, the labels will vary from game to game.

               When you use one  of  these  labeled  objects,  if  its
          effect may be obvious.  Potions or scrolls will become iden-
          tified at this point, but not other items. You may  want  to
          call  these  other  items something so you will recognize it
          later, you can use the "call" command (see above).

          7.1. Weapons

               Some weapons, like arrows, come in  bunches,  but  most
          come one at a time. In order to use a weapon, you must wield
          it. To fire an arrow out of a bow, you must first wield  the
          bow,  then throw the arrow. You can only wield one weapon at
          a time, but you can't change weapons  if  the  one  you  are
          currently  wielding  is  cursed. The commands to use weapons

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          are "w" (wield) and "t" (throw).

          7.2. Armor

               There are various sorts of armor lying  around  in  the
          dungeon.  Some  of it is enchanted, some is cursed, and some
          is just normal. Different armor types have  different  armor
          protection.  The  higher the armor protection, the more pro-
          tection the armor affords against  the  blows  of  monsters.
          Here  is  a list of the various armor types and their normal
          armor protection:

                     __________________________________________
                    |   Type                        Protection|
                    | None                                   0|
                    | Leather armor                          2|
                    | Studded leather / Ring mail            3|
                    | Scale mail                             4|
                    | Chain mail                             5|
                    | Banded mail / Splint mail              6|
                    | Plate mail                             7|
                    |_________________________________________|

          If a piece of armor is enchanted, its armor protection  will
          be  higher  than  normal.  If a suit of armor is cursed, its
          armor protection will be lower, and you will not be able  to
          remove  it. However, not all armor with a protection that is
          lower than normal is cursed.

               The commands to use weapons  are  "W"  (wear)  and  "T"
          (take off).

          7.3. Scrolls

               Scrolls come with titles in an unknown tongue[3]. After
          you read a scroll, it disappears from your pack. The command
          to use a scroll is "r" (read).

          7.4. Potions

               Potions are labeled by the color of the  liquid  inside
          the  flask.  They disappear after being quaffed. The command
          to quaff a potion is "q" (quaff).

          ____________________
             [3] Actually, it's a dialect spoken only by  the  twenty-
          seven  members  of a tribe in Outer Mongolia, but you're not
          supposed to know that.

          USD:30-10                    A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom

          7.5. Staves and Wands

               Staves and wands do the same kinds  of  things.  Staves
          are  identified  by a type of wood; wands by a type of metal
          or bone. They are generally things you want to do  to  some-
          thing  over  a long distance, so you must point them at what
          you wish to affect to use them. Some staves are not affected
          by  the direction they are pointed, though. Staves come with
          multiple magic charges, the number being  random,  and  when
          they  are  used  up,  the  staff  is just a piece of wood or
          metal.

               The command to use a wand or staff is "z" (zap)

          7.6. Rings

               Rings are very useful items, since they are  relatively
          permanent  magic,  unlike  the  usually  fleeting effects of
          potions, scrolls, and staves. Of course, the bad  rings  are
          also more powerful. Most rings also cause you to use up food
          more rapidly, the rate varying with the type of ring.  Rings
          are  differentiated by their stone settings. The commands to
          use rings are "P" (put on) and "R" (remove).

          7.7. Food

               Food is necessary to keep you going. If you go too long
          without eating you will faint, and eventually die of starva-
          tion. The command to use food is "e" (eat).

          8. Options

               Due to variations in personal tastes and conceptions of
          the  way  rogue should do things, there are a set of options
          you can set that cause rogue to behave in various  different
          ways.

          8.1. Setting the options

               There are two ways to set the  options.  The  first  is
          with  the  "o"  command  of  rogue;  the  second is with the
          "ROGUEOPTS" environment variable[4].

          8.1.1. Using the `o' command

               When you type "o" in rogue, it clears  the  screen  and
          displays  the  current settings for all the options. It then
          places the cursor by the value of the first option and waits
          ____________________
             [4] On Version 6 systems, there is no equivalent  of  the
          ROGUEOPTS feature.

          A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom                    USD:30-11

          for you to type. You can type a <RETURN> which means  to  go
          to  the next option, a "-" which means to go to the previous
          option, an <ESCAPE> which means to return to  the  game,  or
          you  can  give  the option a value. For boolean options this
          merely involves typing "t" for true or "f"  for  false.  For
          string options, type the new value followed by a <RETURN>.

          8.1.2. Using the ROGUEOPTS variable

               The ROGUEOPTS variable is a string containing  a  comma
          separated  list  of  initial values for the various options.
          Boolean variables can be turned on by listing their name  or
          turned  off  by putting a "no" in front of the name. Thus to
          set up an environment variable so that jump is on, passgo is
          off, and the name is set to "Blue Meanie", use the command
             % setenv ROGUEOPTS "jump,nopassgo,name=Blue Meanie"[5]

          8.2. Option list

               Here is a list of the options  and  an  explanation  of
          what each one is for. The default value for each is enclosed
          in square brackets. For character string options, input over
          forty characters will be ignored.

          jump [nojump]
               If this option  is  set,  running  moves  will  not  be
               displayed  until  you  reach  the end of the move. This
               saves considerable cpu and display  time.  This  option
               defaults to jump if you are using a slow terminal.

          passgo [nopassgo]
               Follow turnings in passageways. If you run in a passage
               and  you run into stone or a wall, rogue will see if it
               can turn to the right or left. If it can only turn  one
               way,  it  will  turn that way. If it can turn either or
               neither, it will stop.  This  algorithm  can  sometimes
               lead  to slightly confusing occurrences which is why it
               defaults to nopassgo.

          skull [skull]
               Print out the skull at the end if you get killed.  This
               is nice but slow, so you can turn it off if you like.

          name [account name]
               This is the name of your character. It is used  if  you
               get on the top ten scorer's list.
          ____________________
             [5] For those of you who use the Bourne shell sh (1), the
          commands would be
             $ ROGUEOPTS="jump,nopassgo,name=Blue Meanie"
             $ export ROGUEOPTS

          USD:30-12                    A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom

          fruit [slime-mold]
               This should hold the name of a  fruit  that  you  enjoy
               eating.  It is basically a whimsey that rogue uses in a
               couple of places.

          file [~/rogue.save]
               The default file name for  saving  the  game.  If  your
               phone  is hung up by accident, rogue will automatically
               save the game in this file. The  file  name  may  start
               with the special character "~" which expands to be your
               home directory.

          9. Scoring

               Rogue maintains a list of the  top  scoring  people  or
          scores  on  your  machine.  If you score higher than someone
          else on this list, or better  your  previous  score  on  the
          list,  you  will  be inserted in the proper place under your
          current name.

               If you quit the game, you get out with all of your gold
          intact. If, however, you get killed in the Dungeons of Doom,
          your body is forwarded to your next-of-kin, along  with  90%
          of  your  gold;  ten  percent  of  your  gold is kept by the
          Dungeons' wizard as a fee[6]. This should make you  consider
          whether  you  want  to take one last hit at that monster and
          possibly live, or quit and thus stop with whatever you have.
          If  you quit, you do get all your gold, but if you swing and
          live, you might find more.

               If  you  just  want  to  see  what  the   current   top
          players/games list is, you can type
                    % rogue -s

          10. Acknowledgements

               Rogue was originally conceived of by Glenn Wichman  and
          Michael  Toy.  Ken  Arnold and Michael Toy then smoothed out
          the user interface, and added jillions of new  features.  We
          would  like  to  thank  Bob  Arnold,  Michelle  Busch,  Andy
          Hatcher, Kipp Hickman, Mark Horton, Daniel Jensen, Bill Joy,
          Joe  Kalash,  Steve  Maurer,  Marty  McNary, Jan Miller, and
          Scott Nelson for their ideas and assistance;  and  also  the
          teeming  multitudes who graciously ignored work, school, and
          social life to play rogue  and  send  us  bugs,  complaints,
          suggestions, and just plain flames. And also Mom.

          ____________________
             [6] The Dungeon's wizard is named Wally the Wonder  Badg-
          er. Invocations should be accompanied by a sizable donation.

          A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom                    USD:30-13

               The public domain version of rogue now distributed with
          Berkeley UNIX was written by Timothy Stoehr.

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