MirBSD manpage: 25.tbl(USD)

Tbl - A Program to Format Tables                         USD:25-1

                Tbl - A Program to Format Tables

                           M. E. Lesk

                     AT&T Bell Laboratories
                  Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974


          Tbl is  a  document  formatting  preprocessor  for
     troff  or  nroff which makes even fairly complex tables
     easy to specify and enter. It is available on the UNIX-
     system and on Honeywell 6000 GCOS. Tables are made
     up of columns which may be independently centered,
     right-adjusted,   left-adjusted,   or  aligned  by
     decimal points. Headings may be placed over single
     columns  or  groups  of columns. A table entry may
     contain equations, or may consist of several  rows
     of text. Horizontal or vertical lines may be drawn
     as desired in the table, and any table or  element
     may be enclosed in a box. For example:

        |      1970 Federal Budget Transfers     |
        |        (in billions of dollars)        |
        |            |    Taxes  |  Money|       |
        |    State   |  collected|  spent|   Net |
        | New York   |    22.91  |  21.35|  -1.56|
        | New Jersey |     8.33  |   6.96|  -1.37|
        | Connecticut|     4.12  |   3.10|  -1.02|
        | Maine      |     0.74  |   0.67|  -0.07|
        | California |    22.29  |  22.42|  +0.13|
        | New Mexico |     0.70  |   1.49|  +0.79|
        | Georgia    |     3.30  |   4.28|  +0.98|
        | Mississippi|     1.15  |   2.32|  +1.17|
        | Texas      |     9.33  |  11.13|  +1.80|

- UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T  Bell  Labora-
tories in the USA and other countries.

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USD:25-2                         Tbl - A Program to Format Tables


     Tbl turns a simple description of a table into  a  troff  or
nroff  [1]  program (list of commands) that prints the table. Tbl
may be used on the UNIX [2] system and on the Honeywell 6000 GCOS
system.  It  attempts  to  isolate a portion of a job that it can
successfully handle and leave the remainder for  other  programs.
Thus tbl may be used with the equation formatting program eqn [3]
or various layout macro packages [4,5,6], but does not  duplicate
their functions.

     This memorandum is divided into two parts. First we give the
rules  for preparing tbl input; then some examples are shown. The
description of rules is precise but technical, and the  beginning
user  may  prefer  to  read the examples first, as they show some
common table arrangements. A section explaining how to invoke tbl
precedes the examples. To avoid repetition, henceforth read troff
as ``troff or nroff.''

     The input to tbl is text for a document,  with  tables  pre-
ceded  by  a  ``.TS''  (table  start)  command  and followed by a
``.TE'' (table end) command. Tbl processes the tables, generating
troff  formatting  commands, and leaves the remainder of the text
unchanged. The ``.TS'' and ``.TE'' lines are copied, too, so that
troff page layout macros (such as the memo formatting macros [4])
can use these lines to delimit and place tables as they see  fit.
In  particular, any arguments on the ``.TS'' or ``.TE'' lines are
copied but otherwise ignored, and may be used by document  layout
macro commands.

     The format of the input is as follows:

        . . .

where the format of each table is as follows:

        options ;
        format .

Each table is independent, and must contain  formatting  informa-
tion followed by the data to be entered in the table. The format-
ting information, which describes the individual columns and rows

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of  the  table,  may be preceded by a few options that affect the
entire table. A detailed description of tables is  given  in  the
next section.

Input commands.

     As indicated above, a table contains, first, global options,
then a format section describing the layout of the table entries,
and then the data to be printed.  The format and data are  always
required, but not the options. The various parts of the table are
entered as follows:

1)   OPTIONS. There may be a single line of options affecting the
     whole  table. If present, this line must follow the .TS line
     immediately  and  must  contain  a  list  of  option   names
     separated by spaces, tabs, or commas, and must be terminated
     by a semicolon. The allowable options are:

       center     - center the table (default is left-adjust);

       expand     - make the table as wide as  the  current  line

       box        - enclose the table in a box;

       allbox     - enclose each item in the table in a box;

       doublebox  - enclose the table in two boxes;

       tab (x)    - use x instead of tab to separate data items.

       linesize (n)- set lines or rules  (e.g.  from  box)  in  n
                  point type;

       delim (xy) - recognize x and y as the eqn delimiters.

     The tbl program tries to keep boxed tables on  one  page  by
     issuing  appropriate ``need'' (.ne) commands. These requests
     are calculated from the number of lines in the  tables,  and
     if  there  are spacing commands embedded in the input, these
     requests may be inaccurate;  use  normal  troff  procedures,
     such as keep-release macros, in that case. The user who must
     have a multi-page boxed table should use macros designed for
     this purpose, as explained below under `Usage.'

2)   FORMAT. The format section of the table specifies the layout
     of the columns. Each line in this section corresponds to one
     line of the table (except that the last line corresponds  to
     all following lines up to the next .T&, if any - see below),
     and each line contains a key-letter for each column  of  the
     table.  It  is good practice to separate the key letters for
     each column by spaces or tabs. Each key-letter is one of the

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       L or l  to indicate a left-adjusted column entry;

       R or r  to indicate a right-adjusted column entry;

       C or c  to indicate a centered column entry;

       N or n  to  indicate  a  numerical  column  entry,  to  be
               aligned  with  other numerical entries so that the
               units digits of numbers line up;

       A or a  to   indicate   an   alphabetic   subcolumn;   all
               corresponding entries are aligned on the left, and
               positioned so that the widest is  centered  within
               the column (see example on page 12);

       S ori s to indicate a spanned heading,  i.e.  to  indicate
               that  the entry from the previous column continues
               across this column  (not  allowed  for  the  first
               column, obviously); or

       ^       to indicate a vertically spanned heading, i.e.  to
               indicate that the entry from the previous row con-
               tinues down through this row. (Not allowed for the
               first row of the table, obviously).

     When numerical alignment is specified, a  location  for  the
     decimal  point is sought.  The rightmost dot (.) adjacent to
     a digit is used as a decimal  point;  if  there  is  no  dot
     adjoining  a  digit,  the rightmost digit is used as a units
     digit; if no alignment is indicated, the item is centered in
     the  column.  However,  the  special  non-printing character
     string \& may be used to override unconditionally  dots  and
     digits,  or  to  align alphabetic data; this string lines up
     where a dot normally would, and  then  disappears  from  the
     final  output.  In the example below, the items shown at the
     left will be aligned (in a numerical column) as shown on the

                        13              13
                        4.2              4.2
                        26.4.12       26.4.12
                        abc             abc
                        abc\&          abc
                        43\&3.22        433.22
                        749.12         749.12

     Note: If numerical data are used in  the  same  column  with
     wider  L  or r type table entries, the widest number is cen-
     tered relative to the wider L or r items (L is used  instead
     of  l  for  readability;  they have the same meaning as key-
     letters). Alignment within the numerical items is preserved.
     This is similar to the behavior of a type data, as explained
     above. However, alphabetic subcolumns (requested  by  the  a

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     key-letter)  are  always  slightly  indented  relative  to L
     items; if necessary, the column width is increased to  force
     this. This is not true for n type entries.

     Warning: the n and a items should not be used  in  the  same

     For readability,  the  key-letters  describing  each  column
     should be separated by spaces. The end of the format section
     is indicated by a period. The layout of the  key-letters  in
     the  format  section resembles the layout of the actual data
     in the table. Thus a simple format might appear as:
       c  s  s
       l  n  n .
     which specifies a table of three columns. The first line  of
     the  table  contains  a  heading  centered  across all three
     columns; each remaining line contains a  left-adjusted  item
     in  the  first  column  followed by two columns of numerical
     data. A sample table in this format might be:

                Overall title
         Item-a         34.22    9.1
         Item-b         12.65     .02
         Items: c,d,e   23       5.8
         Total          69.87   14.92

     There are some additional features of the key-letter system:

       Horizontal lines
          - A key-letter may be replaced by `_'  (underscore)  to
          indicate  a horizontal line in place of the correspond-
          ing column entry, or by `=' to indicate a  double  hor-
          izontal line. If an adjacent column contains a horizon-
          tal line, or if there are vertical lines adjoining this
          column,  this  horizontal  line is extended to meet the
          nearby lines. If any data entry is  provided  for  this
          column, it is ignored and a warning message is printed.

       Vertical lines
          - A vertical bar may  be  placed  between  column  key-
          letters.   This  will cause a vertical line between the
          corresponding columns of the table. A vertical  bar  to
          the left of the first key-letter or to the right of the
          last one produces a line at the edge of the  table.  If
          two  vertical bars appear between key-letters, a double
          vertical line is drawn.

       Space between columns
          - A number may follow the key-letter.   This  indicates
          the  amount  of  separation between this column and the
          next column. The number normally specifies the  separa-
          tion  in  ens  (one en is about the width of the letter
          `n').* If the ``expand'' option  is  used,  then  these

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          numbers are multiplied  by  a  constant  such
          that the table is as wide as the current line
          length. The default column separation  number
          is  3. If the separation is changed the worst
          case (largest space requested) governs.

       Vertical spanning
          - Normally, vertically  spanned  items  extending  over
          several  rows of the table are centered in their verti-
          cal range. If a key-letter is followed by t or  T,  any
          corresponding vertically spanned item will begin at the
          top line of its range.

       Font changes
          - A key-letter may be followed by a string containing a
          font name or number preceded by the letter f or F. This
          indicates that the corresponding column should be in  a
          different  font  from the default font (usually Roman).
          All font names are one or  two  letters;  a  one-letter
          font  name should be separated from whatever follows by
          a space or tab. The single letters B, b, I, and  i  are
          shorter  synonyms  for  fB and fI. Font change commands
          given with the table entries override these  specifica-

       Point size changes
          - A key-letter may be followed by the letter p or P and
          a  number to indicate the point size of the correspond-
          ing table entries. The number may be a signed digit, in
          which  case  it  is  taken as an increment or decrement
          from the current point size. If both a point size and a
          column  separation  value are given, one or more blanks
          must separate them.

       Vertical spacing changes
          - A key-letter may be followed by the letter v or V and
          a  number  to  indicate the vertical line spacing to be
          used within a multi-line corresponding table entry. The
          number may be a signed digit, in which case it is taken
          as an increment or decrement from the current  vertical
          spacing. A column separation value must be separated by
          blanks or some  other  specification  from  a  vertical
          spacing  request. This request has no effect unless the
          corresponding table entry is a text block (see below).

       Column width indication
          - A key-letter may be followed by the letter w or W and
          a  width  value in parentheses. This width is used as a
          minimum column width. If the  largest  element  in  the
          column  is  not  as wide as the width value given after
* More precisely, an en is a number of points (1  point
= 1/72 inch) equal to half the current type size.

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          the w, the largest element is assumed to be that  wide.
          If  the largest element in the column is wider than the
          specified value, its width is used. The width  is  also
          used as a default line length for included text blocks.
          Normal troff units can  be  used  to  scale  the  width
          value;  if  none  are  used, the default is ens. If the
          width  specification  is   a   unitless   integer   the
          parentheses  may  be  omitted.  If  the  width value is
          changed in a column, the last one given controls.

       Equal width columns
          - A key-letter may be followed by the letter e or E  to
          indicate  equal  width  columns. All columns whose key-
          letters are followed by e or E are made the same width.
          This  permits  the  user  to  get  a group of regularly
          spaced columns.

          The order of the above  features  is  immaterial;  they
          need  not  be  separated by spaces, except as indicated
          above to avoid ambiguities  involving  point  size  and
          font  changes.  Thus a numerical column entry in italic
          font and 12 point type with  a  minimum  width  of  2.5
          inches  and  separated  by  6  ens from the next column
          could be specified as
               np12w(2.5i)fI  6

       Alternative notation
          - Instead of listing the format of successive lines  of
          a  table  on  consecutive  lines of the format section,
          successive line formats may be given on the same  line,
          separated by commas, so that the format for the example
          above might have been written:
               c s s, l n n .

          - Column descriptors missing from the end of  a  format
          line  are assumed to be L. The longest line in the for-
          mat section, however, defines the number of columns  in
          the  table;  extra  columns  in  the  data  are ignored

3)   DATA. The data for the table are  typed  after  the  format.
     Normally, each table line is typed as one line of data. Very
     long input lines can be broken: any line whose last  charac-
     ter is \ is combined with the following line (and the \ van-
     ishes). The data for different columns (the  table  entries)
     are  separated  by  tabs,  or by whatever character has been
     specified in the option tabs option. There are a few special

       Troff commands within tables
          - An input line beginning with a `.' followed  by  any-
          thing  but a number is assumed to be a command to troff

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          and is passed through unchanged, retaining its position
          in the table. So, for example, space within a table may
          be produced by ``.sp'' commands in the data.

       Full width horizontal lines
          - An input line containing only the character $fat  "_"
          $  (underscore) or = (equal sign) is taken to be a sin-
          gle or double line, respectively,  extending  the  full
          width of the table.

       Single column horizontal lines
          - An input table entry containing  only  the  character
          $fat  "_" $ or = is taken to be a single or double line
          extending the full width of the column. Such lines  are
          extended to meet horizontal or vertical lines adjoining
          this column. To obtain these characters explicitly in a
          column,  either  precede them by \& or follow them by a
          space before the usual tab or newline.

       Short horizontal lines
          - An input table entry containing only the string  $fat
          "\_"$  is taken to be a single line as wide as the con-
          tents of the  column.   It  is  not  extended  to  meet
          adjoining lines.

       Vertically spanned items
          - An input table entry containing  only  the  character
          string  \^  indicates  that the table entry immediately
          above spans downward over this row.  It  is  equivalent
          to a table format key-letter of `^'.

       Text blocks
          - In order to include a block of text as a table entry,
          precede  it  by $fat roman "T{" $ and follow it by $fat
          roman "T}" $. Thus the sequence
              . . . $fat roman "T{"$
              block of
              $fat roman "T}"$ . . .
          is the way to enter, as a single entry  in  the  table,
          something that cannot conveniently be typed as a simple
          string between tabs. Note that the $fat  roman  "T}"  $
          end  delimiter must begin a line; additional columns of
          data may follow after a tab on the same line.  See  the
          example on page 14 for an illustration of included text
          blocks in a table. If more than twenty or  thirty  text
          blocks are used in a table, various limits in the troff
          program are likely to be exceeded,  producing  diagnos-
          tics such as `too many string/macro names' or `too many
          number registers.'

          Text blocks are pulled out from  the  table,  processed
          separately  by  troff,  and  replaced in the table as a
          solid block.  If no line length  is  specified  in  the

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          block  of  text  itself,  or  in  the table format, the
          default is to use $ L times C / (N+1) $ where L is  the
          current  line  length, C is the number of table columns
          spanned by the text, and  N  is  the  total  number  of
          columns in the table. The other parameters (point size,
          font, etc.) used in setting the block of text are those
          in  effect at the beginning of the table (including the
          effect of the  ``.TS''  macro)  and  any  table  format
          specifications  of size, spacing and font, using the p,
          v and f modifiers to the column  key-letters.  Commands
          within  the  text  block itself are also recognized, of
          course. However, troff commands within the  table  data
          but not within the text block do not affect that block.

          - Although any number of lines  may  be  present  in  a
          table, only the first 200 lines are used in calculating
          the widths of the various columns.  A multi-page table,
          of  course,  may  be  arranged  as  several single-page
          tables if this proves to be a problem. Other  difficul-
          ties with formatting may arise because, in the calcula-
          tion of column widths all table entries are assumed  to
          be  in  the  font  and size being used when the ``.TS''
          command was  encountered,  except  for  font  and  size
          changes  indicated  (a) in the table format section and
          (b)  within  the  table   data   (as   in   the   entry
          \s+3\fIdata\fP\s0). Therefore, although arbitrary troff
          requests may be sprinkled in  a  table,  care  must  be
          taken  to  avoid  confusing the width calculations; use
          requests such as `.ps' with care.

4)   ADDITIONAL COMMAND LINES. If the format of a table  must  be
     changed  after  many  similar lines, as with sub-headings or
     summarizations, the ``.T&'' (table continue) command can  be
     used  to  change  column  parameters.  The outline of such a
     table input is:

             options ;
             format .
             . . .
             format .
             format .

     as in the examples on pages 14 and 16. Using this procedure,
     each  table  line  can  be close to its corresponding format
     Warning: it is not possible to change the number of columns,

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     the  space  between columns, the global options such as box,
     or the selection of columns to be made equal width.


     On UNIX, tbl can be run on a simple table with the command

        tbl input-file | troff

but for more complicated  use,  where  there  are  several  input
files,  and  they contain equations and ms memorandum layout com-
mands as well as tables, the normal command would be

        tbl file-1 file-2 . . . | eqn | troff -ms

and, of course, the usual options may be used on  the  troff  and
eqn  commands.  The usage for nroff is similar to that for troff,
but only TELETYPE(R) Model 37 and Diablo-mechanism (DASI or  GSI)
terminals can print boxed tables directly.

     For the convenience of users employing line printers without
adequate  driving  tables or post-filters, there is a special -TX
command line option to tbl which produces output  that  does  not
have  fractional  line motions in it. The only other command line
options recognized by tbl are -ms and -mm which are  turned  into
commands  to  fetch  the corresponding macro files; usually it is
more convenient to place these arguments on the troff part of the
command line, but they are accepted by tbl as well.

     Note that when eqn and tbl are used  together  on  the  same
file  tbl  should be used first. If there are no equations within
tables, either order works, but it is usually faster to  run  tbl
first,  since  eqn  normally  produces  a larger expansion of the
input than tbl. However, if there  are  equations  within  tables
(using the delim mechanism in eqn), tbl must be first or the out-
put will be scrambled. Users must also beware of using  equations
in  n-style  columns;  this  is  nearly  always  wrong, since tbl
attempts to split numerical format items into two parts and  this
is  not possible with equations. The user can defend against this
by giving the delim(xx) table option; this prevents splitting  of
numerical  columns within the delimiters. For example, if the eqn
delimiters are $$, giving delim($$) a numerical  column  such  as
``1245 $+- 16$'' will be divided after 1245, not after 16.

     Tbl limits tables to twenty columns; however,  use  of  more
than  16  numerical  columns may fail because of limits in troff,
producing the `too many number registers' message.  Troff  number
registers  used by tbl must be avoided by the user within tables;
these include two-digit names from 31 to 99,  and  names  of  the
forms  #x, x+, x |, ^x, and x-, where x is any lower case letter.
The names ##, #-, and #^ are also used in certain  circumstances.
To  conserve  number  register names, the n and a formats share a
register; hence the restriction above that they may not  be  used
in the same column.

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     For aid in writing  layout  macros,  tbl  defines  a  number
register  TW  which is the table width; it is defined by the time
that the ``.TE'' macro is invoked and may be used in  the  expan-
sion  of  that  macro.  More importantly, to assist in laying out
multi-page boxed tables the macro T# is defined  to  produce  the
bottom lines and side lines of a boxed table, and then invoked at
its end.  By use of this macro in the page  footer  a  multi-page
table  can  be boxed. In particular, the ms macros can be used to
print a multi-page boxed table with a repeated heading by  giving
the  argument H to the ``.TS'' macro. If the table start macro is
        .TS H
a line of the form
must be given in the table after any table  heading  (or  at  the
start  if  none). Material up to the ``.TH'' is placed at the top
of each page of table; the  remaining  lines  in  the  table  are
placed  on  several  pages  as  required. Note that this is not a
feature of tbl, but of the ms layout macros.


     Here are some examples illustrating  features  of  tbl.  The
symbol O in the input represents a tab character.

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        ______________________________________________
   box;                      | Language       Authors           Runs on    |
   c c c                     |                                             |
   l l l.                    | Fortran    Many              Almost anything|
   LanguageOAuthorsORuns on  | PL/1       IBM               360/370        |
                             | C          BTL               11/45,H6000,370|
   FortranOManyOAlmost anythi|gBLISS      Carnegie-Mellon   PDP-10,11      |
   PL/1OIBMO360/370          | IDS        Honeywell         H6000          |
   COBTLO11/45,H6000,370     | Pascal     Stanford          370            |

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Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        _________________________
   allbox;                   |    AT&T Common Stock   |
   c s s                     |_____|_______|__________|
   c c c                     | Year|  Price|  Dividend|
   n n n.                    |_____|_______|__________|
   AT&T Common Stock         | 1971|  41-54|   $2.60  |
   YearOPriceODividend       |_____|_______|__________|
   1971O41-54O$2.60          |    2|  41-54|    2.70  |
   2O41-54O2.70              |_____|_______|__________|
   3O46-55O2.87              |    3|  46-55|    2.87  |
   4O40-53O3.24              |_____|_______|__________|
   5O45-52O3.40              |    4|  40-53|    3.24  |
   6O51-59O.95*              |_____|_______|__________|
   .TE                       |    5|  45-52|    3.40  |
   * (first quarter only)    |_____|_______|__________|
                             |    6|  51-59|     .95* |
                              * (first quarter only)

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        _____________________________________________
   box;                      |           Major New York Bridges           |
   c s s                     |___________________|_________________|_________|
   c | c | c                 |      Bridge      |     Designer   |  Length|
   l | l | n.                |__________________|________________|________|
   Major New York Bridges    | Brooklyn         |  J. A. Roebling|   1595 |
   =                         | Manhattan        |  G. Lindenthal |   1470 |
   BridgeODesignerOLength    | Williamsburg     |  L. L. Buck    |   1600 |
   _                         |__________________|________________|________|
   BrooklynOJ. A. RoeblingO15|5Queensborough    |  Palmer &      |   1182 |
   ManhattanOG. LindenthalO14|0                 |    Hornbostel  |        |
   WilliamsburgOL. L. BuckO16|__________________|________________|________|
   _                         |                  |                |   1380 |
   QueensboroughOPalmer &O118| Triborough       |  O. H. Ammann  | _______|
   O  Hornbostel             |                  |                |    383 |
   _                         |__________________|________________|________|
   OO1380                    | Bronx Whitestone |  O. H. Ammann  |   2300 |
   TriboroughOO. H. AmmannO_ | Throgs Neck      |  O. H. Ammann  |   1800 |
   OO383                     |__________________|________________|________|
   _                         | George Washington|  O. H. Ammann  |   3500 |
   Bronx WhitestoneOO. H. Amm|_n_O__3__0____________|________________|________|
   Throgs NeckOO. H. AmmannO1800
   George WashingtonOO. H. AmmannO3500

                        December 24, 2022

Tbl - A Program to Format Tables                        USD:25-13

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                            Stack
   c c                         | ______|
   np-2 | n | .               1|  46   |
   OStack                      | ______|
   O_                         2|  23   |
   1O46                        | ______|
   O_                         3|  15   |
   2O23                        | ______|
   O_                         4|   6.5 |
   3O15                        | ______|
   O_                         5|   2.1 |
   4O6.5                       | ______|

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        ________________________________
   box;                      | january   february    march   |
   L L L                     | april     may        _________|
   L L _                     | june      july     |  Months  |
   L L | LB                  | august    september| _________|
   L L _                     | october   november    december|
   L L L.                    |_______________________________|

                        December 24, 2022

USD:25-14                        Tbl - A Program to Format Tables

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        ______________________________________
   box;                      |         Composition of Foods        |
   cfB s s s.                |___________|_________________________|
   Composition of Foods      |           |     Percent by Weight   |
   _                         |           | ________________________|
   .T&                       |    Food   |         |     |  Carbo- |
   c  | c s s                |           |  Protein|  Fat|  hydrate|
   c  | c s s                |___________|_________|_____|_________|
   c   | c  | c  | c.        | Apples    |     .4  |   .5|   13.0  |
   FoodOPercent by Weight    | Halibut   |   18.4  |  5.2|    ...  |
   \^O_                      | Lima beans|    7.5  |   .8|   22.0  |
   \^OProteinOFatOCarbo-     | Milk      |    3.3  |  4.0|    5.0  |
   \^O\^O\^Ohydrate          | Mushrooms |    3.5  |   .4|    6.0  |
   _                         | Rye bread |    9.0  |   .6|   52.7  |
   .T&                       |___________|_________|_____|_________|
   l  | n  | n  | n.
   HalibutO18.4O5.2O. . .
   Lima beansO7.5O.8O22.0
   Rye breadO9.0O.6O52.7

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        _____________________________________________
   allbox;                   |             New York Area Rocks            |
   cfI  s   s                |____________|_________________|_____________|
   c    cw(1i)   cw(1i)      |     Era    |     Formation   |  Age (years)|
   lp9 lp9 lp9.              |____________|_________________|_____________|
   New York Area Rocks       | Precambrian|  Reading Prong  |  >1 billion |
   EraOFormationOAge (years) |____________|_________________|_____________|
   PrecambrianOReading ProngO|1Paleozoic  |  Manhattan Prong|  400 million|
   PaleozoicOManhattan ProngO|_0___i__l__o____|_________________|_____________|
   MesozoicOT{               | Mesozoic   |  Newark Basin,  |  200 million|
   .na                       |            |  incl. Stockton,|             |
   Newark Basin, incl.       |            |  Lockatong, and |             |
   Stockton, Lockatong, and B|unswick     |  Brunswick for- |             |
   formations; also Watchungs|            |  mations; also  |             |
   and Palisades.            |            |  Watchungs and  |             |
   T}O200 million            |            |  Palisades.     |             |
   CenozoicOCoastal PlainOT{ |____________|_________________|_____________|
   On Long Island 30,000 year|;Cenozoic   |  Coastal Plain  |  On     Long|
   Cretaceous sediments redep|sited       |                 |  Island     |
   by recent glaciation.     |            |                 |  30,000     |
   .ad                       |            |                 |  years; Cre-|
   T}                        |            |                 |  taceous    |
   .TE                       |            |                 |  sediments  |
                             |            |                 |  redeposited|
                             |            |                 |  by   recent|
                             |            |                 |  glaciation.|

                        December 24, 2022

Tbl - A Program to Format Tables                        USD:25-15

Input:                        Output:
   .EQ                        ___________________________________________________________________________________
   delim $$                  |  Name                                   Definition                               |
   .EN                       |                                                                                  |
                             | Gamma    $GAMMA (z) = int sub 0 sup inf  t sup {z-1} e sup -t dt$                |
   . . .                     | Sine     $sin (x) = 1 over 2i ( e sup ix - e sup -ix )$                          |
                             | Error    $ roman erf (z) = 2 over sqrt pi int sub 0 sup z e sup {-t sup 2} dt$   |
   .TS                       | Bessel   $ J sub 0 (z) = 1 over pi int sub 0 sup pi cos ( z sin theta ) d theta $|
   doublebox;                | Zeta     $ zeta (s) = sum from k=1 to inf k sup -s ~~( Re~s > 1)$                |
   c c                       |____________________________________________________________________________________|
   l l.
   .vs +2p
   GammaO$GAMMA (z) = int sub 0 sup inf  t sup {z-1} e sup -t dt$
   SineO$sin (x) = 1 over 2i ( e sup ix - e sup -ix )$
   ErrorO$ roman erf (z) = 2 over sqrt pi int sub 0 sup z e sup {-t sup 2} dt$
   BesselO$ J sub 0 (z) = 1 over pi int sub 0 sup pi cos ( z sin theta ) d theta $
   ZetaO$ zeta (s) = sum from k=1 to inf k sup -s ~~( Re~s > 1)$
   .vs -2p

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                        ___________________________________________
   box, tab(:);              |            Readability of Text           |
   cb s s s s                | Line Width and Leading for 10-Point Type |
   cp-2 s s s s              |__________|_______|_________|_________|_________|
   c || c | c | c | c        |  Line  |  Set | 1-Point| 2-Point| 4-Point|
   c || c | c | c | c        |  Width | Solid| Leading| Leading| Leading|
   r2 || n2 | n2 | n2 | n.   |________|______|________|________|________|
   Readability of Text       |  9 Pica| -9.3 |  -6.0  |  -5.3  |  -7.1  |
   Line Width and Leading for|114PPica|T-4.5 |  -0.6  |  -0.3  |  -1.7  |
   =                         | 19 Pica| -5.0 |  -5.1  |   0.0  |  -2.0  |
   Line:Set:1-Point:2-Point:4|P31nPica| -3.7 |  -3.8  |  -2.4  |  -3.6  |
   Width:Solid:Leading:Leadin|:43aPica| -9.1 |  -9.0  |  -5.9  |  -8.8  |
   _                         |________|______|________|________|________|
   9 Pica:\-9.3:\-6.0:\-5.3:\-7.1
   14 Pica:\-4.5:\-0.6:\-0.3:\-1.7
   19 Pica:\-5.0:\-5.1: 0.0:\-2.0
   31 Pica:\-3.7:\-3.8:\-2.4:\-3.6
   43 Pica:\-9.1:\-9.0:\-5.9:\-8.8

                        December 24, 2022

USD:25-16                        Tbl - A Program to Format Tables

Input:                        Output:
   .TS                             Some London Transport Statistics
   c s                                        (Year 1964)
   cip-2 s                    Railway route miles                 244
   l n                           Tube                              66
   a n.                          Sub-surface                       22
   Some London Transport StatistiSurface                          156
   (Year 1964)                Passenger traffic - railway
   Railway route milesO244       Journeys                     674 million
   TubeO66                       Average length                4.55 miles
   Sub-surfaceO22                Passenger miles            3,066 million
   SurfaceO156                Passenger traffic - road
   .sp .5                        Journeys                   2,252 million
   .T&                           Average length                2.26 miles
   l r                           Passenger miles            5,094 million
   a r.                       Vehicles                         12,521
   Passenger traffic \- railway  Railway motor cars             2,905
   JourneysO674 million          Railway trailer cars           1,269
   Average lengthO4.55 miles     Total railway                  4,174
   Passenger milesO3,066 million Omnibuses                      8,347
   .T&                        Staff                            73,739
   l r                           Administrative, etc.           5,582
   a r.                          Civil engineering              5,134
   Passenger traffic \- road     Electrical eng.                1,714
   JourneysO2,252 million        Mech. eng. - railway           4,310
   Average lengthO2.26 miles     Mech. eng. - road              9,152
   Passenger milesO5,094 million Railway operations             8,930
   .T&                           Road operations               35,946
   l n                           Other                          2,971
   a n.
   .sp .5
   Railway motor carsO2,905
   Railway trailer carsO1,269
   Total railwayO4,174
   l n
   a n.
   .sp .5
   Administrative, etc.O5,582
   Civil engineeringO5,134
   Electrical eng.O1,714
   Mech. eng. \- railwayO4,310
   Mech. eng. \- roadO9,152
   Railway operationsO8,930
   Road operationsO35,946

                        December 24, 2022

Tbl - A Program to Format Tables                        USD:25-17

   .ps 8
   .vs 10p
   center box;
   c s s
   ci s s
   c c c
   lB l n.
   New Jersey Representatives
   .sp .5
   NameOOffice addressOPhone
   .sp .5
   James J. FlorioO23 S. White Horse Pike, Somerdale 08083O609-627-8222
   William J. HughesO2920 Atlantic Ave., Atlantic City 08401O609-345-4844
   James J. HowardO801 Bangs Ave., Asbury Park 07712O201-774-1600
   Frank Thompson, Jr.O10 Rutgers Pl., Trenton 08618O609-599-1619
   Andrew MaguireO115 W. Passaic St., Rochelle Park 07662O201-843-0240
   Robert A. RoeOU.S.P.O., 194 Ward St., Paterson 07510O201-523-5152
   Henry HelstoskiO666 Paterson Ave., East Rutherford 07073O201-939-9090
   Peter W. Rodino, Jr.OSuite 1435A, 970 Broad St., Newark 07102O201-645-3213
   Joseph G. MinishO308 Main St., Orange 07050O201-645-6363
   Helen S. MeynerO32 Bridge St., Lambertville 08530O609-397-1830
   Dominick V. DanielsO895 Bergen Ave., Jersey City 07306O201-659-7700
   Edward J. PattenONatl. Bank Bldg., Perth Amboy 08861O201-826-4610
   .sp .5
   ci s s
   lB l n.
   .sp .5v
   Millicent FenwickO41 N. Bridge St., Somerville 08876O201-722-8200
   Edwin B. ForsytheO301 Mill St., Moorestown 08057O609-235-6622
   Matthew J. RinaldoO1961 Morris Ave., Union 07083O201-687-4235
   .ps 10
   .vs 12p

                        December 24, 2022

USD:25-18                        Tbl - A Program to Format Tables

|                          New Jersey Representatives                          |
|                                 (Democrats)                                  |
|        Name                        Office address                   Phone    |
|James J. Florio        23 S. White Horse Pike, Somerdale 08083    609-627-8222|
|William J. Hughes      2920 Atlantic Ave., Atlantic City 08401    609-345-4844|
|James J. Howard        801 Bangs Ave., Asbury Park 07712          201-774-1600|
|Frank Thompson, Jr.    10 Rutgers Pl., Trenton 08618              609-599-1619|
|Andrew Maguire         115 W. Passaic St., Rochelle Park 07662    201-843-0240|
|Robert A. Roe          U.S.P.O., 194 Ward St., Paterson 07510     201-523-5152|
|Henry Helstoski        666 Paterson Ave., East Rutherford 07073   201-939-9090|
|Peter W. Rodino, Jr.   Suite 1435A, 970 Broad St., Newark 07102   201-645-3213|
|Joseph G. Minish       308 Main St., Orange 07050                 201-645-6363|
|Helen S. Meyner        32 Bridge St., Lambertville 08530          609-397-1830|
|Dominick V. Daniels    895 Bergen Ave., Jersey City 07306         201-659-7700|
|Edward J. Patten       Natl. Bank Bldg., Perth Amboy 08861        201-826-4610|
|                                (Republicans)                                 |
|Millicent Fenwick      41 N. Bridge St., Somerville 08876         201-722-8200|
|Edwin B. Forsythe      301 Mill St., Moorestown 08057             609-235-6622|
|Matthew J. Rinaldo     1961 Morris Ave., Union 07083              201-687-4235|

This is a paragraph of normal text placed here only  to  indicate
where the left and right margins are.  In this way the reader can
judge the appearance of centered tables or expanded  tables,  and
observe how such tables are formatted.

   c s s s
   c c c c
   l l n n.
   Bell Labs Locations
   NameOAddressOArea CodeOPhone
   HolmdelOHolmdel, N. J. 07733O201O949-3000
   Murray HillOMurray Hill, N. J. 07974O201O582-6377
   WhippanyOWhippany, N. J. 07981O201O386-3000
   Indian HillONaperville, Illinois 60540O312O690-2000

                       Bell Labs Locations
   Name                 Address             Area Code     Phone
Holmdel        Holmdel, N. J. 07733            201       949-3000
Murray Hill    Murray Hill, N. J. 07974        201       582-6377
Whippany       Whippany, N. J. 07981           201       386-3000
Indian Hill    Naperville, Illinois 60540      312       690-2000

                        December 24, 2022

Tbl - A Program to Format Tables                        USD:25-19

   cb   s   s   s
   c | c | c   s
   ltiw(1i) | ltw(2i) | lp8 | lw(1.5i)p8.
   Some Interesting Places
   NameODescriptionOPractical Information
   American Museum of Natural History
   The collections fill 11.5 acres (Michelin) or 25 acres (MTA)
   of exhibition halls on four floors.  There is a full-sized replica
   of a blue whale and the world's largest star sapphire (stolen in 1964).
   T}OHoursO10-5, ex. Sun 11-5, Wed. to 9
   Central Park West & 79th St.
   \^O\^OAdmissionODonation: $1.00 asked
   \^O\^OSubwayOAA to 81st St.
   Bronx ZooOT{
   About a mile long and .6 mile wide, this is the largest zoo in America.
   A lion eats 18 pounds
   of meat a day while a sea lion eats 15 pounds of fish.
   10-4:30 winter, to 5:00 summer
   185th St. & Southern Blvd, the Bronx.
   \^O\^OAdmissionO$1.00, but Tu,We,Th free
   \^O\^OSubwayO2, 5 to East Tremont Ave.
   Brooklyn MuseumOT{
   Five floors of galleries contain American and ancient art.
   There are American period rooms and architectural ornaments saved
   from wreckers, such as a classical figure from Pennsylvania Station.
   T}OHoursOWed-Sat, 10-5, Sun 12-5
   Eastern Parkway & Washington Ave., Brooklyn.
   \^O\^OSubwayO2,3 to Eastern Parkway.
   New-York Historical Society
   All the original paintings for Audubon's

                        December 24, 2022

USD:25-20                        Tbl - A Program to Format Tables

   .I Birds of America .R are here, as are exhibits  of  American
   decorative  arts, New York history, Hudson River school paint-
   ings, carriages, and glass paperweights. T}OHoursOT{  Tues-Fri
   &  Sun, 1-5; Sat 10-5 T} \^O\^OLocationOT{ Central Park West &
   77th St. T} \^O\^OAdmissionOFree \^O\^OSubwayOAA to  81st  St.
   \^O\^OTelephoneO212-873-3400 .TE

                              Some Interesting Places
      Name             Description                  Practical Information
 American Museum   The collections fill   Hours       10-5, ex. Sun 11-5, Wed. to 9
 of Natural His-   11.5  acres  (Miche-   Location    Central Park West & 79th St.
 tory              lin)  or  25   acres   Admission   Donation: $1.00 asked
                   (MTA)  of exhibition   Subway      AA to 81st St.
                   halls    on     four   Telephone   212-873-4225
                   floors.   There is a
                   full-sized   replica
                   of  a blue whale and
                   the world's  largest
                   star        sapphire
                   (stolen in 1964).
 Bronx Zoo         About  a  mile  long   Hours       10-4:30 winter, to 5:00  sum-
                   and  .6  mile  wide,               mer
                   this is the  largest   Location    185th St.  &  Southern  Blvd,
                   zoo  in  America.  A               the Bronx.
                   lion eats 18  pounds   Admission   $1.00, but Tu,We,Th free
                   of  meat a day while   Subway      2, 5 to East Tremont Ave.
                   a sea lion  eats  15   Telephone   212-933-1759
                   pounds of fish.
 Brooklyn Museum   Five floors of  gal-   Hours       Wed-Sat, 10-5, Sun 12-5
                   leries contain Amer-   Location    Eastern Parkway &  Washington
                   ican   and   ancient               Ave., Brooklyn.
                   art. There are Amer-   Admission   Free
                   ican  period   rooms   Subway      2,3 to Eastern Parkway.
                   and    architectural   Telephone   718-638-5000
                   ornaments saved from
                   wreckers,  such as a
                   classical     figure
                   from    Pennsylvania

                        December 24, 2022

Tbl - A Program to Format Tables                        USD:25-21

|New-York   His-|torAilclal Stohceietyoriginal|  Houpainti|gsTues-   for                  |
|               |  Audubon's  Birds  of|     America| areihere,nas1-                |
|               |  are   exhibits    of|     Americ|n 5decorative                  |
|               |  arts, New York  his-|  Loctory, |HudsonraRiverk West & 77th St. |
|ion            |  school    paintings,|carriages,n|ndFglass  pa-                  |
|               |  perweights.         |  Subway   |  AA to  81st                  |
|t.             |                      |           |                               |
|               |                      |  Telephone|  212-873-                     |


     Many thanks are due to J. C. Blinn, who  has  done  a  large
amount of testing and assisted with the design of the program. He
has also written many of the more intelligible sentences in  this
document and helped edit all of it. All phototypesetting programs
on UNIX are dependent on the work of J. F. Ossanna, whose  assis-
tance with this program in particular has been most helpful. This
program is patterned on a table formatter originally  written  by
J.  F.  Gimpel. The assistance of T. A. Dolotta, B. W. Kernighan,
and J. N. Sturman is gratefully acknowledged.


[1]  J. F. Ossanna, NROFF/TROFF User's Manual, Computing  Science
     Technical Report No. 54, Bell Laboratories, 1976.

[2]  K. Thompson and D. M. Ritchie, ``The UNIX Time-Sharing  Sys-
     tem,'' Comm. ACM. 17, pp. 365-75 (1974).

[3]  B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, ``A System for Typesetting
     Mathematics,'' Comm. ACM. 18, pp. 151-57 (1975).

[4]  M. E. Lesk, Typing  Documents  on  UNIX,  Bell  Laboratories
     internal memorandum.

[5]  M. E. Lesk and B.  W.  Kernighan,  Computer  Typesetting  of
     Technical  Journals on UNIX, Computing Science Technical Re-
     port No. 44, Bell Laboratories, July 1976.

[6]  J. R. Mashey and D. W. Smith, PWB/MM  -  Programmer's  Work-
     bench Memorandum Macros, Bell Laboratories memorandum.

            List of Tbl Command Characters and Words

              Command                              Meaning               Section
 a A                                   Alphabetic subcolumn                  2
 allbox                                Draw box around all items             1

                        December 24, 2022

USD:25-22                        Tbl - A Program to Format Tables

 b                   B                                   Boldface
item                         2
 box                                   Draw      box       around
table                 1                                         c
C                                   Centered
column                       2
 center                                Center      table       in
page                  1
 doublebox                             Doubled     box     around
table              1  e E                                   Equal
width                                 columns                   2
 expand                                Make   table   full   line
width            1   f   F                                   Font
change                           2                              i
I                                   Italic
item                           2                                l
L                                   Left                 adjusted
column                  2                                       n
N                                   Numerical
column                      2
 nnn                                   Column             separa-
tion                     2                                      p
P                                   Point                    size
change                     2                                    r
R                                   Right                adjusted
column                 2                                        s
S                                   Spanned
item                          2                                 t
T                                   Vertical     spanning      at
top              2   tab (x)                               Change
data separator character       1  $fat roman "T{"  ~~  fat  roman
"T}"$    Text        block                            3         v
V                                   Vertical              spacing
change               2                                          w
W                                   Minimum                 width
value                   2
 .xx                                   Included    troff     com-
mand                3
 |                                     Vertical
line                         2
 ||                                    Double            vertical
line                  2
 ^                                     Vertical
span                         2
 \^                                    Vertical
span                         3
 =                                     Double          horizontal
line              2,3  $fat "_"$                             Hor-
izontal            line                     2,3              $fat
"\_"$                            Short                 horizontal
line                 3

                        December 24, 2022

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