MirOS Manual: 20.meref(USD)


                           -ME REFERENCE MANUAL

                               Release 2.27

                              Eric P. Allman*

                              Project INGRES
                      Electronics Research Laboratory
                    University of California, Berkeley
                        Berkeley, California  94720

          This document describes in extremely terse form the features
     of the -me macro package for version seven NROFF/TROFF. Some fam-
     iliarity is assumed with those programs. Specifically, the reader
     should understand breaks, fonts, pointsizes, the use and  defini-
     tion  of  number registers and strings, how to define macros, and
     scaling factors for ens, points, v's (vertical line spaces), etc.

          For a more casual  introduction  to  text  processing  using
     NROFF,  refer  to  the  document  /usr/share/doc/usd/19.memacros:
     Writing Papers with NROFF using -me.

          There are a number of macro parameters that may be adjusted.
     Fonts may be set to a font number only. Font 8 means bold font in
     TROFF; in NROFF font 8 is underlined  unless  the  -rb3  flag  is
     specified  to use "true bold" font (most versions of NROFF do not
     interpret bold font nicely). Font 0 is no font change;  the  font
     of  the surrounding text is used instead. Notice that fonts 0 and
     8 are "pseudo-fonts"; that is, they are simulated by the  macros.
     This  means  that  although it is legal to set a font register to
     zero or eight, it is not legal to use the escape character  form,
     such as:

         \f8

          All distances are in basic units, so  it  is  nearly  always
     necessary  to  use  a scaling factor. For example, the request to
     set the paragraph indent to eight one-en spaces is:
     ____________________
        *Author's current address: Computer  Science  Division,  EECS,
     University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.
        -NROFF and TROFF may be trademarks of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

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         .nr pi 8n

     and not

         .nr pi 8

     which would set the paragraph indent to  eight  basic  units,  or
     about  0.02  inch. Default parameter values are given in brackets
     in the remainder of this document.

          Registers and strings of the form $x may be used in  expres-
     sions  but  should  not be changed. Macros of the form $x perform
     some function (as described) and may be redefined to change  this
     function.  This may be a sensitive operation; look at the body of
     the original macro before changing it.

          All names in -me follow a rigid naming convention. The  user
     may  define  number registers, strings, and macros, provided that
     s/he uses single character upper case names or  double  character
     names  consisting  of letters and digits, with at least one upper
     case letter. In no case should  special  characters  be  used  in
     user-defined names.

          On daisy wheel type printers in twelve pitch, the -rx1  flag
     can  be stated to make lines default to one eighth inch (the nor-
     mal spacing for a newline in twelve-pitch). This is normally  too
     small  for easy readability, so the default is to space one sixth
     inch.

          The -rv2 flag will indicates that this is being output on  a
     C/A/T  phototypesetter;  this changes the page offset and inserts
     cut marks.

          This documentation was NROFF'ed on July 4, 2014 and  applies
     to version 2.27 of the -me macros.

     1. Paragraphing

          These macros are used  to  begin  paragraphs.  The  standard
     paragraph  macro  is  .pp; the others are all variants to be used
     for special purposes.

          The first call to one of the paragraphing macros defined  in
     this  section or the .sh macro (defined in the next session) ini-
     tializes the macro processor. After initialization it is not pos-
     sible  to  use  any  of the following requests: .sc, .lo, .th, or
     .ac. Also, the effects of changing parameters which will  have  a
     global  effect on the format of the page (notably page length and
     header and footer margins) are not well  defined  and  should  be
     avoided.

     .lp            Begin  left-justified  paragraph.  Centering   and
                    underlining  are  turned  off if they were on, the

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                    font is set to \n(pf [1] the type size is  set  to
                    \n(pp  [10p], and a \n(ps space is inserted before
                    the paragraph [0.35v in TROFF, 1v or 0.5v in NROFF
                    depending  on  device  resolution].  The indent is
                    reset to \n($i [0] plus \n(po [0] unless the para-
                    graph is inside a display. (see .ba). At least the
                    first two lines of the paragraph are kept together
                    on a page.

     .pp            Like .lp, except that it puts \n(pi [5n] units  of
                    indent. This is the standard paragraph macro.

     .ip T I        Indented paragraph with hanging tag. The  body  of
                    the  following  paragraph is indented I spaces (or
                    \n(ii [5n] spaces if I is not specified) more than
                    a  non-indented  paragraph  (such as with .pp) is.
                    The title T is exdented  (opposite  of  indented).
                    The  result  is a paragraph with an even left edge
                    and T printed in the margin. Any spaces in T  must
                    be unpaddable. If T will not fit in the space pro-
                    vided, .ip will start a new line.

     .np            A variant of .ip which numbers paragraphs. Number-
                    ing is reset after a .lp, .pp, or .sh. The current
                    paragraph number is in \n($p.

     .bu            Like .np except that paragraphs  are  marked  with
                    bullets (+). Leading space is eliminated to create
                    compact lists.

     2. Section Headings

          Numbered sections are similar to paragraphs  except  that  a
     section  number is automatically generated for each one. The sec-
     tion numbers are of the form 1.2.3. The depth of the  section  is
     the count of numbers (separated by decimal points) in the section
     number.

          Unnumbered section headings  are  similar,  except  that  no
     number is attached to the heading.

     .sh +N T a b c dBeegifn numbered section of depth N. If N  is  miss-
                    ing,  the  current depth (maintained in the number
                    register \n($0) is used. The values of the indivi-
                    dual parts of the section number are maintained in
                    \n($1 through \n($6. There is a \n(ss  [1v]  space
                    before  the  section.  T  is  printed as a section
                    title in font \n(sf [8] and size \n(sp [10p].  The
                    "name"  of  the section may be accessed via \*($n.
                    If \n(si is non-zero, the base indent  is  set  to
                    \n(si  times  the  section  depth, and the section
                    title is exdented. (See .ba.) Also, an  additional
                    indent  of \n(so [0] is added to the section title

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                    (but not to the body of the section). The font  is
                    then  set  to  the  paragraph  font,  so that more
                    information may occur on the line with the section
                    number and title. .sh insures that there is enough
                    room to print the section head plus the  beginning
                    of a paragraph (about 3 lines total). If a through
                    f are specified, the section number is set to that
                    number  rather  than incremented automatically. If
                    any of a through f are a hyphen,  that  number  is
                    not reset. If T is a single underscore ("_"), then
                    the section depth and numbering is reset, but  the
                    base  indent  is  not reset and nothing is printed
                    out. This is useful  to  automatically  coordinate
                    section numbers with chapter numbers.

     .sx +N         Go to section depth N [-1], but do not  print  the
                    number and title, and do not increment the section
                    number at level N. This has the effect of starting
                    a new paragraph at level N.

     .uh T          Unnumbered section heading. The title T is printed
                    with  the  same  rules for spacing, font, etc., as
                    for .sh.

     .$p T B N      Print section heading. May  be  redefined  to  get
                    fancier headings. T is the title passed on the .sh
                    or .uh line; B is the section number for this sec-
                    tion,  and  N  is the depth of this section. These
                    parameters are not always present; in  particular,
                    .sh  passes  all three, .uh passes only the first,
                    and .sx passes three, but the first two  are  null
                    strings.  Care  should  be  taken if this macro is
                    redefined; it is quite complex and subtle.

     .$0 T B N      This macro is  called  automatically  after  every
                    call  to .$p. It is normally undefined, but may be
                    used to automatically put every section title into
                    the  table  of  contents or for some similar func-
                    tion. T is the section title for the section title
                    which  was  just printed, B is the section number,
                    and N is the section depth.

     .$1 - .$6      Traps called just before printing that depth  sec-
                    tion.  May  be defined to (for example) give vari-
                    able spacing before  sections.  These  macros  are
                    called from .$p, so if you redefine that macro you
                    may lose this feature.

     3. Headers and Footers

          Headers and footers are put at the top and bottom  of  every
     page automatically. They are set in font \n(tf [3] and size \n(tp
     [10p]. Each of the definitions apply as of the next page.  Three-

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     part  titles must be quoted if there are two blanks adjacent any-
     where in the title or more than eight blanks total.

          The spacing of headers and footers are controlled  by  three
     number  registers. \n(hm [4v] is the distance from the top of the
     page to the top of the header, \n(fm [3v] is  the  distance  from
     the bottom of the page to the bottom of the footer, \n(tm [7v] is
     the distance from the top of the page to the top of the text, and
     \n(bm  [6v]  is  the  distance from the bottom of the page to the
     bottom of the text (nominal). The macros .m1, .m2, .m3,  and  .m4
     are also supplied for compatibility with ROFF documents.

     .he 'l'm'r'    Define three-part header, to be printed on the top
                    of every page.

     .fo 'l'm'r'    Define footer, to be  printed  at  the  bottom  of
                    every page.

     .eh 'l'm'r'    Define header, to be printed at the top  of  every
                    even-numbered page.

     .oh 'l'm'r'    Define header, to be printed at the top  of  every
                    odd-numbered page.

     .ef 'l'm'r'    Define footer, to be  printed  at  the  bottom  of
                    every even-numbered page.

     .of 'l'm'r'    Define footer, to be  printed  at  the  bottom  of
                    every odd-numbered page.

     .hx            Suppress headers and footers on the next page.

     .m1 +N         Set the space between the top of the page and  the
                    header [4v].

     .m2 +N         Set the space between the  header  and  the  first
                    line of text [2v].

     .m3 +N         Set the space between the bottom of the  text  and
                    the footer [2v].

     .m4 +N         Set the space between the footer and the bottom of
                    the page [4v].

     .ep            End this page, but do not  begin  the  next  page.
                    Useful  for  forcing out footnotes, but other than
                    that hardly every used. Must be followed by a  .bp
                    or the end of input.

     .$h            Called at every page to print the header.  May  be
                    redefined  to  provide  fancy  (e.g.,  multi-line)
                    headers, but doing so loses the  function  of  the
                    .he, .fo, .eh, .oh, .ef, and .of requests, as well

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                    as the chapter-style title feature of .+c.

     .$f            Print footer; same comments apply as in .$h.

     .$H            A normally undefined macro which is called at  the
                    top  of  each  page (after putting out the header,
                    initial saved  floating  keeps,  etc.);  in  other
                    words,  this  macro  is  called immediately before
                    printing text on a page. It can be used for column
                    headings and the like.

     4. Displays

          All displays except centered blocks  and  block  quotes  are
     preceded  and  followed  by an extra \n(bs [same as \n(ps] space.
     Quote spacing is stored in a separate register;  centered  blocks
     have  no  default initial or trailing space. The vertical spacing
     of all displays except quotes and centered blocks  is  stored  in
     register \n($R instead of \n($r.

     .(l m f        Begin list.  Lists  are  single  spaced,  unfilled
                    text. If f is F, the list will be filled. If m [I]
                    is I the list is indented by \n(bi [4m]; if M  the
                    list is indented to the left margin; if L the list
                    is left justified with respect to the  text  (dif-
                    ferent  from  M only if the base indent (stored in
                    \n($i and set with .ba) is not zero); and if C the
                    list is centered on a line-by-line basis. The list
                    is set in font \n(df [0]. Must  be  matched  by  a
                    .)l.  This macro is almost like .(b except that no
                    attempt is made to keep the display on one page.

     .)l            End list.

     .(q            Begin  major  quote.  These  are  single   spaced,
                    filled,  moved  in  from the text on both sides by
                    \n(qi [4n], preceded and followed by  \n(qs  [same
                    as  \n(bs]  space, and are set in point size \n(qp
                    [one point smaller than surrounding text].

     .)q            End major quote.

     .(b m f        Begin block. Blocks are a form of keep, where  the
                    text  of  a  keep  is kept together on one page if
                    possible (keeps are useful for tables and  figures
                    which  should  not  be broken over a page). If the
                    block will not fit on the current page a new  page
                    is  begun, unless that would leave more than \n(bt
                    [0] whitespace at the bottom of the text. If \n(bt
                    is  zero,  the  threshold  feature  is turned off.
                    Blocks are not filled unless f is F, when they are
                    filled.  The  block will be left-justified if m is
                    L, indented by \n(bi [4m] if m  is  I  or  absent,

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                    centered  (line-for-line) if m is C, and left jus-
                    tified to the margin (not to the base indent) if m
                    is M. The block is set in font \n(df [0].

     .)b            End block.

     .(z m f        Begin floating keep. Like .(b except that the keep
                    is floated to the bottom of the page or the top of
                    the next page. Therefore, its position relative to
                    the  text  changes.  The floating keep is preceded
                    and  followed  by  \n(zs  [1v]  space.  Also,   it
                    defaults to mode M.

     .)z            End floating keep.

     .(c            Begin centered block. The next keep is centered as
                    a  block,  rather  than on a line-by-line basis as
                    with .(b C. This call may be nested inside keeps.

     .)c            End centered block.

     5. Annotations

     .(d            Begin delayed text. Everything in the next keep is
                    saved for output later with .pd, in a manner simi-
                    lar to footnotes.

     .)d n          End delayed text. The delayed text number register
                    \n($d  and  the  associated  string \*# are incre-
                    mented if \*# has been referenced.

     .pd            Print delayed text. Everything diverted via .(d is
                    printed  and  truncated. This might be used at the
                    end of each chapter.

     .(f            Begin  footnote.  The  text  of  the  footnote  is
                    floated  to the bottom of the page and set in font
                    \n(ff [1] and size \n(fp [8p]. Each entry is  pre-
                    ceded  by  \n(fs  [0.2v]  space, is indented \n(fi
                    [3n] on the first line, and is indented \n(fu  [0]
                    from  the  right  margin. Footnotes line up under-
                    neath two column output. If the text of the  foot-
                    note  will not all fit on one page it will be car-
                    ried over to the next page.

     .)f n          End footnote. The number register  \n($f  and  the
                    associated string \** are incremented if they have
                    been referenced.

     .$s            The macro to output the footnote  separator.  This
                    macro may be redefined to give other size lines or
                    other types of separators. Currently  it  draws  a
                    1.5i line.

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     .(x x          Begin index entry. Index entries are saved in  the
                    index  x  [x] until called up with .xp. Each entry
                    is preceded by a \n(xs [0.2v] space. Each entry is
                    "undented"  by  \n(xu  [0.5i]; this register tells
                    how far the page number  extends  into  the  right
                    margin.

     .)x P A        End index entry. The index entry is finished  with
                    a row of dots with A [null] right justified on the
                    last line (such as for an author's name), followed
                    by  P  [\n%].  If A is specified, P must be speci-
                    fied; \n% can be used to print  the  current  page
                    number.  If P is an underscore, no page number and
                    no row of dots are printed.

     .xp x          Print index x [x]. The index is formatted  in  the
                    font,  size, and so forth in effect at the time it
                    is printed, rather than at the  time  it  is  col-
                    lected.

     6. Columned Output

     .2c +S N       Enter two-column mode. The  column  separation  is
                    set to +S [4n, 0.5i in ACM mode] (saved in \n($s).
                    The column width, calculated to  fill  the  single
                    column line length with both columns, is stored in
                    \n($l. The current column is  in  \n($c.  You  can
                    test  register \n($m [1] to see if you are in sin-
                    gle column or double column  mode.  Actually,  the
                    request enters N [2] column output.

     .1c            Revert to single-column mode.

     .bc            Begin column. This is  like  .bp  except  that  it
                    begins  a  new column on a new page only if neces-
                    sary, rather than forcing  a  whole  new  page  if
                    there is another column left on the current page.

     7. Fonts and Sizes

     .sz +P         The pointsize is set to  P  [10p],  and  the  line
                    spacing  is  set proportionally. The ratio of line
                    spacing to pointsize is stored in \n($r. The ratio
                    used  internally  by  displays  and annotations is
                    stored in \n($R (although  this  is  not  used  by
                    .sz).  This size is not sticky beyond many macros:
                    in particular, \n(pp (paragraph  pointsize)  modi-
                    fies  the  pointsize every time a new paragraph is
                    begun using the .pp, .lp, .ip, .np, or .bu macros.
                    Also,  \n(fp  (footnote  pointsize),  \n(qp (quote
                    pointsize), \n(sp (section header pointsize),  and
                    \n(tp (title pointsize) may modify the pointsize.

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     .r W X         Set W in roman font, appending X in  the  previous
                    font.  To  append different font requests, use X =
                    \c. If no parameters, change to roman font.

     .i W X         Set W in italics,  appending  X  in  the  previous
                    font.  If  no  parameters,  change to italic font.
                    Underlines in NROFF.

     .b W X         Set W in bold font and append X  in  the  previous
                    font.  If  no  parameters, switch to bold font. In
                    NROFF, underlines.

     .rb W X        Set W in bold font and append X  in  the  previous
                    font.  If  no parameters, switch to bold font. .rb
                    differs from .b in that .rb does not underline  in
                    NROFF.

     .u W X         Underline W and append X. This is a true underlin-
                    ing,  as opposed to the .ul request, which changes
                    to "underline font" (usually italics in TROFF). It
                    won't work right if W is spread or broken (includ-
                    ing hyphenated). In other words,  it  is  safe  in
                    nofill mode only.

     .q W X         Quote W and append X. In NROFF this just surrounds
                    W with double quote marks (`"'), but in TROFF uses
                    directed quotes.

     .bi W X        Set W in bold italics and append X. Actually, sets
                    W  in  italic  and overstrikes once. Underlines in
                    NROFF. It won't work right if W is spread or  bro-
                    ken  (including hyphenated). In other words, it is
                    safe in nofill mode only.

     .bx W X        Sets W in a box, with X  appended.  Underlines  in
                    NROFF.  It won't work right if W is spread or bro-
                    ken (including hyphenated). In other words, it  is
                    safe in nofill mode only.

     sm W X         Sets W in a smaller pointsize, with X appended.

     8. Roff Support

     .ix +N         Indent, no break. Equivalent to 'in N.

     .bl N          Leave N contiguous whitespace, on the next page if
                    not  enough room on this page. Equivalent to a .sp
                    N inside a block.

     .pa +N         Equivalent to .bp.

     .ro            Set page number in roman numerals.  Equivalent  to
                    .af % i.

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     .ar            Set page number in Arabic. Equivalent to .af % 1.

     .n1            Number lines in margin from one on each page.

     .n2 N          Number lines from N, stop if N = 0.

     .sk            Leave the  next  output  page  blank,  except  for
                    headers  and  footers. This is used to leave space
                    for a full-page diagram which is  produced  exter-
                    nally  and  pasted in later. To get a partial-page
                    paste-in display, say .sv N, where N is the amount
                    of  space  to  leave;  this  space  will be output
                    immediately if there is room, and  will  otherwise
                    be output at the top of the next page. However, be
                    warned: if N is greater than the amount of  avail-
                    able space on an empty page, no space will ever be
                    output.

     9. Preprocessor Support

     .EQ m T        Begin equation. The equation is centered if m is C
                    or  omitted,  indented  \n(bi  [4m] if m is I, and
                    left justified if m is L. T is a title printed  on
                    the   right  margin  next  to  the  equation.  See
                    Typesetting Mathematics - User's Guide by Brian W.
                    Kernighan and Lorinda L. Cherry.

     .EN c          End equation. If c is C the equation must be  con-
                    tinued  by immediately following with another .EQ,
                    the text of which can be centered along with  this
                    one. Otherwise, the equation is printed, always on
                    one page, with \n(es [0.5v in TROFF, 1v in  NROFF]
                    space above and below it.

     .TS h          Table start. Tables are single spaced and kept  on
                    one  page  if  possible. If you have a large table
                    which will not fit on one page, use h = H and fol-
                    low  the  header part (to be printed on every page
                    of the table) with a .TH. See Tbl - A  Program  to
                    Format Tables by M. E. Lesk.

     .TH            With .TS H, ends the header portion of the table.

     .TE            Table end. Note that this table does not float, in
                    fact,  it  is  not  even guaranteed to stay on one
                    page if you use requests such  as  .sp  intermixed
                    with  the  text  of  the  table. If you want it to
                    float (or if you use requests inside  the  table),
                    surround  the  entire table (including the .TS and
                    .TE requests) with the requests .(z and .)z.

     .PS h w        Begin pic picture. H is the height and  w  is  the
                    width, both in basic units. Ditroff only.

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     .PE            End picture.

     .IS            Begin ideal picture.

     .IE            End ideal picture.

     .IF            End ideal picture (alternate form).

     GS             Begin gremlin picture.

     GE             End gremlin picture.

     GF             End gremlin picture (alternate form).

     10. Miscellaneous

     .re            Reset tabs. Set to every 0.5i in TROFF  and  every
                    0.8i in NROFF.

     .ba +N         Set the base indent to +N [0]  (saved  in  \n($i).
                    All  paragraphs,  sections,  and displays come out
                    indented by this amount. Titles and footnotes  are
                    unaffected. The .sh request performs a .ba request
                    if \n(si [0] is not zero, and sets the base indent
                    to \n(si*\n($0.

     .xl +N         Set the line length to N [6.0i]. This differs from
                    .ll  because  it only affects the current environ-
                    ment.

     .ll +N         Set line length in all environments to  N  [6.0i].
                    This  should  not  be used after output has begun,
                    and particularly not  in  two-column  output.  The
                    current line length is stored in \n($l.

     .hl            Draws a horizontal line the length  of  the  page.
                    This  is useful inside floating keeps to differen-
                    tiate between the text and the figure.

     .lh            Print a letterhead at the current position on  the
                    page. The format of the letterhead must be defined
                    in  the  file  /usr/lib/me/letterhead.me  by  your
                    local systems staff. Some environments may require
                    ditroff for this macro to function properly.

     .lo            This  macro  loads  another  set  of  macros   (in
                    /usr/lib/me/local.me)  which  is  intended to be a
                    set of locally defined macros. These macros should
                    all  be  of  the  form  .*X, where X is any letter
                    (upper or lower case) or digit.

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     11. Standard Papers

     .tp            Begin title page. Spacing at the top of  the  page
                    can occur, and headers and footers are suppressed.
                    Also, the page number is not incremented for  this
                    page.

     .th            Set thesis mode. This defines the modes acceptable
                    for a doctoral dissertation at Berkeley. It double
                    spaces, defines the header to  be  a  single  page
                    number,  and changes the margins to be 1.5 inch on
                    the left and one inch on  the  top.  .++  and  .+c
                    should  be used with it. This macro must be stated
                    before initialization, that is, before  the  first
                    call of a paragraphing macro or .sh.

     .++ m H        This request defines  the  section  of  the  paper
                    which we are entering. The section type is defined
                    by m. C means that we  are  entering  the  chapter
                    portion of the paper, A means that we are entering
                    the appendix portion of the paper,  P  means  that
                    the  material  following should be the preliminary
                    portion (abstract, table of contents,  etc.)  por-
                    tion  of  the paper, AB means that we are entering
                    the abstract (numbered  independently  from  1  in
                    Arabic numerals), and B means that we are entering
                    the bibliographic portion at the end of the paper.
                    Also,  the  variants  RC and RA are allowed, which
                    specify renumbering  of  pages  from  one  at  the
                    beginning  of  each  chapter  or appendix, respec-
                    tively. The H parameter defines the new header. If
                    there are any spaces in it, the entire header must
                    be quoted. If you want  the  header  to  have  the
                    chapter number in it, use the string \\\\n(ch. For
                    example, to number appendixes A.1 etc.,  type  .++
                    RA  '''\\\\n(ch.%'.  Each section (chapter, appen-
                    dix, etc.) should be preceded by the .+c  request.
                    It  should  be  mentioned  that  it is easier when
                    using TROFF to put the front material at  the  end
                    of the paper, so that the table of contents can be
                    collected and put out; this material can  then  be
                    physically moved to the beginning of the paper.

     .+c T          Begin chapter with title T. The chapter number  is
                    maintained  in \n(ch. This register is incremented
                    every time .+c is called  with  a  parameter.  The
                    title  and  chapter number are printed by .$c. The
                    header is moved to the footer on the first page of
                    each  chapter. If T is omitted, .$c is not called;
                    this is useful for doing your own "title page"  at
                    the  beginning  of  papers  without  a  title page
                    proper. .$c calls .$C as a hook  so  that  chapter
                    titles  can  be  inserted into a table of contents

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                    automatically. The footnote numbering is reset  to
                    one.

     .$c T          Print chapter number  (from  \n(ch)  and  T.  This
                    macro  can  be  redefined  to  your  liking. It is
                    defined by default to  be  acceptable  for  a  PhD
                    thesis at Berkeley. This macro calls $C, which can
                    be defined to make index entries, or whatever.

     .$C K N T      This macro is called by .$c. It is normally  unde-
                    fined,  but  can  be  used to automatically insert
                    index entries, or whatever. K is a keyword, either
                    "Chapter"  or  "Appendix"  (depending  on  the .++
                    mode); N is the chapter or appendix number, and  T
                    is the chapter or appendix title.

     .ac A N        This macro (short for  .acm)  sets  up  the  NROFF
                    environment for camera-ready papers as used by the
                    ACM. This format is 25% larger, and has no headers
                    or  footers. The author's name A is printed at the
                    bottom of the page (but off the part which will be
                    printed  in  the conference proceedings), together
                    with the current page number and the total  number
                    of  pages  N.  Additionally,  this macro loads the
                    file /usr/lib/me/acm.me, which may later  be  aug-
                    mented  with  other  macros  useful  for  printing
                    papers for ACM conferences.  It  should  be  noted
                    that this macro will not work correctly in version
                    7 TROFF, since it sets the page length wider  than
                    the  physical  width  of the C/A/T phototypesetter
                    roll.

     12. Predefined Strings

     \**            Footnote number,  actually  \*([*\n($f\*(]*.  This
                    macro is incremented after each call to .)f.

     \*#            Delayed text number. Actually [\n($d].

     \*([*          Superscript. This used to be \*[ in  the  old  -me
                    macros,  but  this  has been changed for GNU GROFF
                    compatibility. This string gives  upward  movement
                    and  a change to a smaller point size if possible,
                    otherwise it  gives  the  left  bracket  character
                    (`['). Extra space is left above the line to allow
                    room for the superscript.

     \*(]*          Unsuperscript. This used to be \*] in the old  -me
                    macros,  but  this  has been changed for GNU GROFF
                    compatibility. Inverse to \*([*. For  example,  to
                    produce a superscript you might type x\*([*2\*(]*,
                    which will produce x[2].

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     \*<            Subscript. Defaults to `<' if half-carriage motion
                    not  possible.  Extra space is left below the line
                    to allow for the subscript.

     \*>            Inverse to \*<.

     \*(dw          The day of the week, as a word.

     \*(mo          The month, as a word.

     \*(td          Today's date, directly printable. The date  is  of
                    the form July 4, 2014. Other forms of the date can
                    be used by using \n(dy (the day of the month;  for
                    example,  4), \*(mo (as noted above) or \n(mo (the
                    same, but as an ordinal number; for example,  July
                    is  7),  and  \n(yr  (the  last  two digits of the
                    current year).

     \*(lq          Left quote marks. Double quote in NROFF.

     \*(rq          Right quote.

     \*-            3/4 em dash in TROFF; two hyphens in NROFF.

     13. Special Characters and Marks

          There are a number of  special  characters  and  diacritical
     marks (such as accents) available through -me. To reference these
     characters, you must call the macro .sc to define the  characters
     before using them.

     .sc            Define special characters and  diacritical  marks,
                    as  described  in  the  remainder of this section.
                    This macro must be stated  before  initialization.
                    The special characters available are listed below.
                        Name           Usage      Example
                        Acute accent   \*'  a\*'  '
                        Grave accent   \*`  e\*`  `
                        Umlat          \*:  u\*:  u
                        Tilde          \*~  n\*~  n̅
                        Caret          \*^  e\*^  ^
                        Cedilla        \*,  c\*,  ,
                        Czech          \*v  e\*v  e
                        Circle         \*o  A\*o  A
                        There exists   \*(qe      EXISTS
                        For all        \*(qa      FORALL

     Acknowledgments

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          I would like to thank Bob Epstein, Bill Joy, and Larry  Rowe
     for  having  the  courage  to  use the -me macros to produce non-
     trivial papers during the development stages; Ricki Blau,  Pamela
     Humphrey,  and  Jim  Joyce  for their help with the documentation
     phase; peter kessler for numerous complaints, most accompanied by
     fixes;  and the plethora of people who have contributed ideas and
     have given support for the project.

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     Summary

          This alphabetical list summarizes all macros,  strings,  and
     number registers available in the -me macros. Selected troff com-
     mands, registers, and  functions  are  included  as  well;  those
     listed can generally be used with impunity.

          The columns are the name of the command, macro, register, or
     string;  the type of the object, and the description. Types are M
     for macro or builtin command (invoked with . or '  in  the  first
     input  column),  S for a string (invoked with \* or \*(), R for a
     number register (invoked with \n or \n(), and F for a troff buil-
     tin function (invoked by preceding it with a single backslash).

          Lines marked with S are troff internal codes.  Lines  marked
     with  - or = may be defined by the user to get special functions;
     = indicates that these are defined by default and  changing  them
     may have unexpected side effects. Lines marked with  are specific
     to ditroff (device-independent troff).

         NAME      TYPE  DESCRIPTION
         \(space)  FS    unpaddable space
         \"        FS    comment (to end of line)
         \*#       S     optional delayed text tag string
         \$N       FS    interpolate argument N
         \n($0     R     section depth
         .$0       M-    invoked after section title printed
         \n($1     R     first section number
         .$1       M-    invoked before printing depth 1 section
         \n($2     R     second section number
         .$2       M-    invoked before printing depth 2 section
         \n($3     R     third section number
         .$3       M-    invoked before printing depth 3 section
         \n($4     R     fourth section number
         .$4       M-    invoked before printing depth 4 section
         \n($5     R     fifth section number
         .$5       M-    invoked before printing depth 5 section
         \n($6     R     sixth section number
         .$6       M-    invoked before printing depth 6 section
         .$C       M-    called at beginning of chapter
         .$H       M-    text header
         \n($R     R=    relative vertical spacing in displays
         \n($c     R     current column number
         .$c       M=    print chapter title
         \n($d     R     delayed text number
         \n($f     R     footnote number
         .$f       M=    print footer
         .$h       M=    print header
         \n($i     R     paragraph base indent
         \n($l     R     column width
         \n($m     R     number of columns in effect
         \*($n     S     section name
         \n($p     R     numbered paragraph number

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         NAME      TYPE  DESCRIPTION
         .$p       M=    print section heading (internal macro)
         \n($r     R=    relative vertical spacing in text
         \n($s     R     column indent
         .$s       M=    footnote separator (from text)
         \n%       RS    current page number
         \&        FS    zero width character, useful for hiding controls
         \(xx      FS    interpolate special character xx
         .(b       M     begin block
         .(c       M     begin centered block
         .(d       M     begin delayed text
         .(f       M     begin footnote
         .(l       M     begin list
         .(q       M     begin quote
         .(x       M     begin index entry
         .(z       M     begin floating keep
         .)b       M     end block
         .)c       M     end centered block
         .)d       M     end delayed text
         .)f       M     end footnote
         .)l       M     end list
         .)q       M     end quote
         .)x       M     end index entry
         .)z       M     end floating keep
         \*x       FS    interpolate string x
         \*(xx     FS    interpolate string xx
         \**       S     optional footnote tag string
         .++       M     set paper section type
         .+c       M     begin chapter
         \*,       S     cedilla
         \-        FS    minus sign
         \*-       S     3/4 em dash
         \0        FS    unpaddable digit-width space
         .1c       M     revert to single column output
         .2c       M     begin two column output
         \*:       S     umlat
         \*<       S     begin subscript
         \*>       S     end subscript
         .EN       M     end equation
         .EQ       M     begin equation
         \L'd'     FS    vertical line drawing function for distance d
         .GE       M     end gremlin picture
         .GF       M     end gremlin picture (with flyback)
         .GS       M     start gremlin picture
         .IE       M     end ideal picture
         .IF       M     end ideal picture (with flyback)
         .IS       M     start ideal picture
         .PE       M     end pic picture
         .PF       M     end pic picture (with flyback)
         .PS       M     start pic picture
         .TE       M     end table
         .TH       M     end header of table
         .TS       M     begin table

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         NAME      TYPE  DESCRIPTION
         \*([*     S     begin superscript (formerly \*[)
         \n(.$     RS    number of arguments to macro
         \n(.i     RS    current indent
         \n(.l     RS    current line length
         \n(.s     RS    current point size
         \*('      S     acute accent
         \*(`      S     grave accent
         \('       FS    acute accent
         \(`       FS    grave accent
         \*(]*     S     end superscript (formerly \*])
         \^        FS    1/12 em narrow space
         \*^       S     caret
         .ac       M     ACM mode
         .ad       MS    set text adjustment
         .af       MS    assign format to register
         .am       MS    append to macro
         .ar       M     set page numbers in Arabic
         .as       MS    append to string
         .b        M     bold font
         .ba       M     set base indent
         .bc       M     begin new column
         .bi       M     bold italic
         \n(bi     R     display (block) indent
         .bl       M     blank lines (even at top of page)
         \n(bm     R     bottom title margin
         .bp       MS    begin page
         .br       MS    break (start new line)
         \n(bs     R     display (block) pre/post spacing
         \n(bt     R     block keep threshold
         .bx       M     boxed
         \c        FS    continue input
         .ce       MS    center lines
         \n(ch     R     current chapter number
         .de       MS    define macro
         \n(df     R     display font
         .ds       MS    define string
         \n(dw     RS    current day of week
         \*(dw     S     current day of week
         \n(dy     RS    day of month
         \e        FS    printable version of \
         .ef       M     set footer (even numbered pages only)
         .eh       M     set header (even numbered pages only)
         .el       MS    else part of conditional
         .ep       M     end page
         \n(es     R     equation pre/post space
         \ff       FS    inline font change to font f
         \f(ff     FS    inline font change to font ff
         .fc       MS    set field characters
         \n(ff     R     footnote font
         .fi       MS    fill output lines
         \n(fi     R     footnote indent (first line only)
         \n(fm     R     footer margin

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         NAME      TYPE  DESCRIPTION
         .fo       M     set footer
         \n(fp     R     footnote pointsize
         \n(fs     R     footnote prespace
         \n(fu     R     footnote undent (from right margin)
         \h'd'     FS    local horizontal motion for distance d
         .hc       MS    set hyphenation character
         .he       M     set header
         .hl       M     draw horizontal line
         \n(hm     R     header margin
         .hx       M     suppress headers and footers on next page
         .hy       MS    set hyphenation mode
         .i        M     italic font
         .ie       MS    conditional with else
         .if       MS    conditional
         \n(ii     R     indented paragraph indent
         .in       MS    indent (transient, use .ba for pervasive)
         .ip       M     begin indented paragraph
         .ix       M     indent, no break
         \l'd'     FS    horizontal line drawing function for distance d
         .lc       MS    set leader repetition character
         .lh       M     interpolate local letterhead
         .ll       M     set line length
         .lo       M     load local macros
         .lp       M     begin left justified paragraph
         \*(lq     S     left quote marks
         .ls       MS    set multi-line spacing
         .m1       M     set space from top of page to header
         .m2       M     set space from header to text
         .m3       M     set space from text to footer
         .m4       M     set space from footer to bottom of page
         .mc       MS    insert margin character
         .mk       MS    mark vertical position
         \n(mo     RS    month of year
         \*(mo     S     current month
         \nx       FS    interpolate number register x
         \n(xx     FS    interpolate number register xx
         .n1       M     number lines in margin
         .n2       M     number lines in margin
         .na       MS    turn off text adjustment
         .ne       MS    need vertical space
         .nf       MS    don't fill output lines
         .nh       MS    turn off hyphenation
         .np       M     begin numbered paragraph
         .nr       MS    set number register
         .ns       MS    no space mode
         \*o       S     circle (e.g., for Norse A)
         .of       M     set footer (odd numbered pages only)
         .oh       M     set header (odd numbered pages only)
         .pa       M     begin page
         .pd       M     print delayed text
         \n(pf     R     paragraph font
         \n(pi     R     paragraph indent

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         NAME      TYPE  DESCRIPTION
         .pl       MS    set page length
         .pn       MS    set next page number
         .po       MS    page offset
         \n(po     R     simulated page offset
         .pp       M     begin paragraph
         \n(pp     R     paragraph pointsize
         \n(ps     R     paragraph prespace
         .q        M     quoted
         \*(qa     S     for all
         \*(qe     S     there exists
         \n(qi     R     quote indent (also shortens line)
         \n(qp     R     quote pointsize
         \n(qs     R     quote pre/post space
         .r        M     roman font
         .rb       M     real bold font
         .re       M     reset tabs
         .rm       MS    remove macro or string
         .rn       MS    rename macro or string
         .ro       M     set page numbers in roman
         \*(rq     S     right quote marks
         .rr       MS    remove register
         .rs       MS    restore spacing
         .rt       MS    return to vertical position
         \sS       FS    inline size change to size S
         .sc       M     load special characters
         \n(sf     R     section title font
         .sh       M     begin numbered section
         \n(si     R     relative base indent per section depth
         .sk       M     skip next page
         .sm       M     set argument in a smaller pointsize
         .so       MS    source input file
         \n(so     R     additional section title offset
         .sp       MS    vertical space
         \n(sp     R     section title pointsize
         \n(ss     R     section prespace
         .sx       M     change section depth
         .sz       M     set pointsize and vertical spacing
         .ta       MS    set tab stops
         .tc       MS    set tab repetition character
         \*(td     S     today's date
         \n(tf     R     title font
         .th       M     set thesis mode
         .ti       MS    temporary indent (next line only)
         .tl       MS    three part title
         \n(tm     R     top title margin
         .tp       M     begin title page
         \n(tp     R     title pointsize
         .tr       MS    translate
         .u        M     underlined
         .uh       M     unnumbered section
         .ul       MS    underline next line
         \v'd'     FS    local vertical motion for distance d

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         NAME      TYPE  DESCRIPTION
         \*v       S     inverted `v' for czeck ``e''
         \w'S'     FS    return width of string S
         .xl       M     set line length (local)
         .xp       M     print index
         \n(xs     R     index entry prespace
         \n(xu     R     index undent (from right margin)
         \n(yr     RS    year (last two digits only)
         \n(zs     R     floating keep pre/post space
         \{        FS    begin conditional group
         \|        FS    1/6 em narrow space
         \}        FS    end conditional group
         \*~       S     tilde

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