MirBSD manpage: 20.meref(USD)


                           -ME REFERENCE MANUAL

                               Release 2.27

                              Eric P. Allman*

                              Project INGRES
                      Electronics Research Laboratory
                    University of California, Berkeley
                        Berkeley, California  94720

          This document describes in extremely terse form the features
     of the -me macro package for version seven NROFF/TROFF. Some fam-
     iliarity is assumed with those programs. Specifically, the reader
     should understand breaks, fonts, pointsizes, the use and  defini-
     tion  of  number registers and strings, how to define macros, and
     scaling factors for ens, points, v's (vertical line spaces), etc.

          For a more casual  introduction  to  text  processing  using
     NROFF,  refer  to  the  document  /usr/share/doc/usd/19.memacros:
     Writing Papers with NROFF using -me.

          There are a number of macro parameters that may be adjusted.
     Fonts may be set to a font number only. Font 8 means bold font in
     TROFF; in NROFF font 8 is underlined  unless  the  -rb3  flag  is
     specified  to use "true bold" font (most versions of NROFF do not
     interpret bold font nicely). Font 0 is no font change;  the  font
     of  the surrounding text is used instead. Notice that fonts 0 and
     8 are "pseudo-fonts"; that is, they are simulated by the  macros.
     This  means  that  although it is legal to set a font register to
     zero or eight, it is not legal to use the escape character  form,
     such as:

         \f8

          All distances are in basic units, so  it  is  nearly  always
     necessary  to  use  a scaling factor. For example, the request to
     set the paragraph indent to eight one-en spaces is:
     ____________________
        *Author's current address: Computer  Science  Division,  EECS,
     University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.
        -NROFF and TROFF may be trademarks of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

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         .nr pi 8n

     and not

         .nr pi 8

     which would set the paragraph indent to  eight  basic  units,  or
     about  0.02  inch. Default parameter values are given in brackets
     in the remainder of this document.

          Registers and strings of the form $x may be used in  expres-
     sions  but  should  not be changed. Macros of the form $x perform
     some function (as described) and may be redefined to change  this
     function.  This may be a sensitive operation; look at the body of
     the original macro before changing it.

          All names in -me follow a rigid naming convention. The  user
     may  define  number registers, strings, and macros, provided that
     s/he uses single character upper case names or  double  character
     names  consisting  of letters and digits, with at least one upper
     case letter. In no case should  special  characters  be  used  in
     user-defined names.

          On daisy wheel type printers in twelve pitch, the -rx1  flag
     can  be stated to make lines default to one eighth inch (the nor-
     mal spacing for a newline in twelve-pitch). This is normally  too
     small  for easy readability, so the default is to space one sixth
     inch.

          The -rv2 flag will indicates that this is being output on  a
     C/A/T  phototypesetter;  this changes the page offset and inserts
     cut marks.

          This documentation was NROFF'ed on  December  24,  2022  and
     applies to version 2.27 of the -me macros.

     1. Paragraphing

          These macros are used  to  begin  paragraphs.  The  standard
     paragraph  macro  is  .pp; the others are all variants to be used
     for special purposes.

          The first call to one of the paragraphing macros defined  in
     this  section or the .sh macro (defined in the next session) ini-
     tializes the macro processor. After initialization it is not pos-
     sible  to  use  any  of the following requests: .sc, .lo, .th, or
     .ac. Also, the effects of changing parameters which will  have  a
     global  effect on the format of the page (notably page length and
     header and footer margins) are not well  defined  and  should  be
     avoided.

     .lp            Begin  left-justified  paragraph.  Centering   and
                    underlining  are  turned  off if they were on, the

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                    font
                    is set to
                    .NR (pf
                    [1]
                    the type size
                    is set to
                    .NR (pp
                    [10p],
                    and a
                    .NR (ps
                    space is inserted
                    before the paragraph
                    [0.35v in TROFF, 1v or 0.5v in NROFF
                    depending on device resolution].
                    The indent is reset
                    to
                    .NR ($i
                    [0]
                    plus
                    .NR (po
                    [0]
                    unless the paragraph
                    is inside a display.
                    (see
                    .b .ba ).
                    At least
                    the first two lines
                    of the paragraph
                    are kept together
                    on a page.
                    .TL
                    .b .pp
                    .DE
                    Like
                    .b .lp ,
                    except that it puts
                    .NR (pi
                    [5n]
                    units of indent.
                    This is the standard paragraph macro.
                    .TL
                    .b .ip
                    .i T
                    .i I
                    .DE
                    Indented paragraph
                    with hanging tag.
                    The body of the following paragraph
                    is indented
                    .i I
                    spaces
                    (or
                    .NR (ii

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                    [5n]
                    spaces
                    if
                    .i I
                    is not specified)
                    more than a non-indented paragraph
                    (such as with
                    .b .pp )
                    is.
                    The title
                    .i T
                    is exdented (opposite of indented).
                    The result is a paragraph
                    with an even left edge
                    and
                    .i T
                    printed in the margin.
                    Any spaces in
                    .i T
                    must be unpaddable.
                    If
                    .i T
                    will not fit in the space provided,
                    .b .ip
                    will start a new line.
                    .TL
                    .b .np
                    .DE
                    A variant of .ip which numbers paragraphs.
                    Numbering is reset
                    after a
                    .b .lp ,
                    .b .pp ,
                    or
                    .b .sh .
                    The current paragraph number
                    is in
                    .NR ($p .
                    .TL
                    .b .bu
                    .DE
                    Like
                    .b .np
                    except that paragraphs are marked with bullets (+).
                    Leading space is eliminated to create compact lists.
                    .sh 1 "Section Headings"
                    .pp
                    Numbered sections
                    are similar to paragraphs
                    except that a
                    section number
                    is automatically
                    generated for each one.

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                    The section numbers are of the form
                    .b 1.2.3 .
                    The
                    .i depth
                    of the section
                    is the count of numbers
                    (separated by decimal points)
                    in the section number.
                    .pp
                    Unnumbered section headings are similar,
                    except that no number is attached
                    to the heading.
                    .TL
                    .b .sh
                    .i +N
                    .i T
                    .i "a b c d e f"
                    .DE
                    Begin numbered section
                    of depth
                    .i N .
                    If
                    .i N
                    is missing,
                    the current depth
                    (maintained in
                    the number register
                    .NR ($0 )
                    is used.
                    The values of
                    the individual parts of the section number
                    are maintained in
                    .NR ($1
                    through
                    .NR ($6 .
                    There is a
                    .NR (ss
                    [1v]
                    space before the section.
                    .i T
                    is printed
                    as a section title
                    in font
                    .NR (sf
                    [8]
                    and size
                    .NR (sp
                    [10p].
                    The
                    .q name
                    of the section may be accessed via
                    .ST ($n .
                    If

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                    .NR (si
                    is non-zero,
                    the base indent
                    is set to
                    .NR (si
                    times the section depth,
                    and the section title
                    is exdented.
                    (See
                    .b .ba .)
                    Also,
                    an additional indent of
                    .NR (so
                    [0]
                    is added to the section title
                    (but not to the body of the section).
                    The font is then set
                    to the paragraph font,
                    so that more information may occur
                    on the line
                    with the section number
                    and title.
                    .b .sh
                    insures that there is enough room
                    to print the section head
                    plus the beginning of a paragraph
                    (about 3 lines total).
                    If
                    .i a
                    through
                    .i f
                    are specified,
                    the section number is set to that number
                    rather than incremented automatically.
                    If any of
                    .i a
                    through
                    .i f
                    are a hyphen,
                    that number is not reset.
                    If
                    .i T
                    is a single underscore
                    (.q _ ),
                    then the section depth and numbering is reset,
                    but the base indent is not reset
                    and nothing is printed out.
                    This is useful to automatically
                    coordinate section numbers with
                    chapter numbers.
                    .TL
                    .b .sx
                    .i +N

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                    .DE
                    Go to section depth
                    .i N
                    [.b -1 ],
                    but do not print the number
                    and title,
                    and do not increment the section number
                    at level
                    .i N .
                    This has the effect
                    of starting a new paragraph
                    at level
                    .i N .
                    .TL
                    .b .uh
                    .i T
                    .DE
                    Unnumbered section heading.
                    The title
                    .i T
                    is printed
                    with the same rules for spacing,
                    font, etc.,
                    as for
                    .b .sh .
                    .TL
                    .b .$p
                    .i T
                    .i B
                    .i N
                    .DE
                    Print section heading.
                    May be redefined
                    to get fancier headings.
                    .i T
                    is the title passed on the
                    .b .sh
                    or
                    .b .uh
                    line;
                    .i B
                    is the section number for this section,
                    and
                    .i N
                    is the depth of this section.
                    These parameters are not always present;
                    in particular,
                    .b .sh
                    passes all three,
                    .b .uh
                    passes only the first,
                    and
                    .b .sx

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                    passes three,
                    but the first two
                    are null strings.
                    Care should be taken if this macro
                    is redefined;
                    it is quite complex and subtle.
                    .TL
                    .b .$0
                    .i T
                    .i B
                    .i N
                    .DE
                    This macro is called automatically
                    after every call to
                    .b .$p .
                    It is normally undefined,
                    but may be used
                    to automatically put
                    every section title
                    into the table of contents
                    or for some similar function.
                    .i T
                    is the section title
                    for the section title which was just printed,
                    .i B
                    is the section number,
                    and
                    .i N
                    is the section depth.
                    .TL
                    .b .$1
                    -
                    .b .$6
                    .DE
                    Traps called just before printing that depth section.
                    May be defined to
                    (for example)
                    give variable spacing
                    before sections.
                    These macros are called from
                    .b .$p ,
                    so if you redefine that macro
                    you may lose this feature.
                    .sh 1 "Headers and Footers"
                    .ds TP 'l'm'r'
                    .pp
                    Headers and footers
                    are put at the top and bottom
                    of every page
                    automatically.
                    They are set in font
                    .NR (tf
                    [3]

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                    and size
                    .NR (tp
                    [10p].
                    Each of the definitions
                    apply as of the
                    .i next
                    page.
                    Three-part titles
                    must be quoted
                    if there are two blanks adjacent
                    anywhere in the title
                    or more than eight blanks total.
                    .pp
                    The spacing
                    of headers and footers
                    are controlled by three number registers.
                    .NR (hm
                    [4v]
                    is the distance from the top of the page
                    to the top of the header,
                    .NR (fm
                    [3v]
                    is the distance from the bottom of the page
                    to the bottom of the footer,
                    .NR (tm
                    [7v]
                    is the distance from the top of the page
                    to the top of the text,
                    and
                    .NR (bm
                    [6v]
                    is the distance from the bottom of the page
                    to the bottom of the text
                    (nominal).
                    The macros
                    .b .m1 ,
                    .b .m2 ,
                    .b .m3 ,
                    and
                    .b .m4
                    are also supplied for compatibility
                    with
                    ROFF documents.
                    .TL
                    .b .he

                    .DE
                    Define three-part header,
                    to be printed on the top
                    of every page.
                    .TL
                    .b .fo

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                    .DE
                    Define footer,
                    to be printed at the bottom
                    of every page.
                    .TL
                    .b .eh

                    .DE
                    Define header,
                    to be printed at the top of every
                    even-numbered page.
                    .TL
                    .b .oh

                    .DE
                    Define header,
                    to be printed at the top of every
                    odd-numbered page.
                    .TL
                    .b .ef

                    .DE
                    Define footer,
                    to be printed at the bottom
                    of every even-numbered page.
                    .TL
                    .b .of

                    .DE
                    Define footer,
                    to be printed at the bottom
                    of every odd-numbered page.
                    .TL
                    .b .hx
                    .DE
                    Suppress headers and footers
                    on the next page.
                    .TL
                    .b .m1
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set the space between the top of the page
                    and the header
                    [4v].
                    .TL
                    .b .m2
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set the space between the header
                    and the first line of text
                    [2v].
                    .TL
                    .b .m3

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                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set the space
                    between the bottom of the text
                    and the footer
                    [2v].
                    .TL
                    .b .m4
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set the space
                    between the footer
                    and the bottom of the page
                    [4v].
                    .TL
                    .b .ep
                    .DE
                    End this page,
                    but do not begin the next page.
                    Useful for forcing out footnotes,
                    but other than
                    that hardly every used.
                    Must be followed by a
                    .b .bp
                    or the end of input.
                    .TL
                    .b .$h
                    .DE
                    Called at every page
                    to print the header.
                    May be redefined
                    to provide fancy
                    (e.g.,
                    multi-line)
                    headers,
                    but doing so
                    loses the function of the
                    .b .he ,
                    .b .fo ,
                    .b .eh ,
                    .b .oh ,
                    .b .ef ,
                    and
                    .b .of
                    requests,
                    as well as the chapter-style title feature
                    of
                    .b .+c .
                    .TL
                    .b .$f
                    .DE
                    Print footer;
                    same comments apply

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                    as in
                    .b .$h .
                    .TL
                    .b .$H
                    .DE
                    A normally undefined macro
                    which is called
                    at the top of each page
                    (after putting out
                    the header,
                    initial saved floating keeps,
                    etc.);
                    in other words,
                    this macro is called immediately before
                    printing text
                    on a page.
                    It can be used for column headings
                    and the like.
                    .sh 1 "Displays"
                    .pp
                    All displays except centered blocks
                    and block quotes
                    are preceded and followed
                    by an extra
                    .NR (bs
                    [same as
                    .NR (ps ]
                    space.
                    Quote spacing is stored in a separate register;
                    centered blocks have no default initial or trailing space.
                    The vertical spacing of all displays except quotes
                    and centered blocks
                    is stored in register
                    .NR ($R
                    instead of
                    .NR ($r .
                    .TL
                    .b .(l
                    .i m
                    .i f
                    .DE
                    Begin list.
                    Lists are single spaced,
                    unfilled text.
                    If
                    .i f
                    is
                    .b F ,
                    the list will be filled.
                    If
                    .i m
                    [.b I ]
                    is

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                    .b I
                    the list is indented by
                    .NR (bi
                    [4m];
                    if
                    .b M
                    the list is indented to the left margin;
                    if
                    .b L
                    the list is left justified with respect to the text
                    (different from
                    .b M
                    only if the base indent
                    (stored in
                    .NR ($i
                    and set with
                    .b .ba )
                    is not zero);
                    and if
                    .b C
                    the list is centered on a line-by-line basis.
                    The list is set in font
                    .NR (df
                    [0].
                    Must be matched by a
                    .b .)l .
                    This macro is almost like
                    .b .(b
                    except that no attempt is made
                    to keep the display on one page.
                    .TL
                    .b .)l
                    .DE
                    End list.
                    .TL
                    .b .(q
                    .DE
                    Begin major quote.
                    These are single spaced,
                    filled,
                    moved in from the text
                    on both sides
                    by
                    .NR (qi
                    [4n],
                    preceded and followed
                    by
                    .NR (qs
                    [same as
                    .NR (bs ]
                    space,
                    and are set in point size
                    .NR (qp

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                    [one point smaller than surrounding text].
                    .TL
                    .b .)q
                    .DE
                    End major quote.
                    .TL
                    .b .(b
                    .i m
                    .i f
                    .DE
                    Begin block.
                    Blocks are a form of
                    .i keep ,
                    where the text of a keep
                    is kept together on one page
                    if possible
                    (keeps are useful
                    for tables and figures
                    which should not be broken
                    over a page).
                    If the block will not fit
                    on the current page
                    a new page is begun,
                    .i unless
                    that would leave more than
                    .NR (bt
                    [0]
                    whitespace
                    at the bottom of the text.
                    If
                    .NR (bt
                    is zero, the threshold feature
                    is turned off.
                    Blocks are not filled
                    unless
                    .i f
                    is
                    .b F ,
                    when they are filled.
                    The block will be left-justified
                    if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b L ,
                    indented by
                    .NR (bi
                    [4m]
                    if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b I
                    or absent,
                    centered

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                    (line-for-line)
                    if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b C ,
                    and left justified to the margin
                    (not to the base indent)
                    if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b M .
                    The block is set in font
                    .NR (df
                    [0].
                    .TL
                    .b .)b
                    .DE
                    End block.
                    .TL
                    .b .(z
                    .i m
                    .i f
                    .DE
                    Begin floating keep.
                    Like
                    .b .(b
                    except that the keep is
                    .i floated
                    to the bottom of the page
                    or the top of the next page.
                    Therefore,
                    its position relative to the text changes.
                    The floating keep is preceded and followed
                    by
                    .NR (zs
                    [1v]
                    space.
                    Also,
                    it defaults to mode
                    .b M .
                    .TL
                    .b .)z
                    .DE
                    End floating keep.
                    .TL
                    .b .(c
                    .DE
                    Begin centered block.
                    The next keep
                    is centered as a block,
                    rather than on a line-by-line basis
                    as with
                    .b ".(b C" .

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                    This call may be nested
                    inside keeps.
                    .TL
                    .b .)c
                    .DE
                    End centered block.
                    .sh 1 Annotations
                    .TL
                    .b .(d
                    .DE
                    Begin delayed text.
                    Everything in the next keep
                    is saved for output
                    later with
                    .b .pd ,
                    in a manner
                    similar to footnotes.
                    .TL
                    .b .)d
                    .i n
                    .DE
                    End delayed text.
                    The delayed text number register
                    .NR ($d
                    and the associated string
                    .ST #
                    are incremented if
                    .ST #
                    has been referenced.
                    .TL
                    .b .pd
                    .DE
                    Print delayed text.
                    Everything diverted via
                    .b .(d
                    is printed and truncated.
                    This might be used
                    at the end of each chapter.
                    .TL
                    .b .(f
                    .DE
                    Begin footnote.
                    The text of the footnote
                    is floated to the bottom
                    of the page
                    and set in font
                    .NR (ff
                    [1]
                    and size
                    .NR (fp
                    [8p].
                    Each entry
                    is preceded by

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                    .NR (fs
                    [0.2v]
                    space,
                    is indented
                    .NR (fi
                    [3n]
                    on the first line,
                    and is indented
                    .NR (fu
                    [0]
                    from the right margin.
                    Footnotes line up underneath
                    two column output.
                    If the text of the footnote
                    will not all fit on one page
                    it will be carried over
                    to the next page.
                    .TL
                    .b .)f
                    .i n
                    .DE
                    End footnote.
                    The number register
                    .NR ($f
                    and the associated string
                    .ST *
                    are incremented
                    if they have been referenced.
                    .TL
                    .b .$s
                    .DE
                    The macro to output the footnote separator.
                    This macro may be redefined
                    to give other size lines or other types
                    of separators.
                    Currently
                    it draws a 1.5i line.
                    .TL
                    .b .(x
                    .i x
                    .DE
                    Begin index entry.
                    Index entries are saved in the index
                    .i x
                    [.b x ]
                    until called up with
                    .b .xp.
                    Each entry is preceded
                    by a
                    .NR (xs
                    [0.2v]
                    space.
                    Each entry is

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                    .q undented
                    by
                    .NR (xu
                    [0.5i];
                    this register tells how far the page number
                    extends into the right margin.
                    .TL
                    .b .)x
                    .i P
                    .i A
                    .DE
                    End index entry.
                    The index entry
                    is finished with a row of dots
                    with
                    .i A
                    [null]
                    right justified on the last line
                    (such as for an author's name),
                    followed by P
                    [.NR % ].
                    If
                    .i A
                    is specified,
                    .i P
                    must be specified;
                    .NR %
                    can be used to print the current page number.
                    If
                    .i P
                    is an underscore,
                    no page number
                    and no row of dots
                    are printed.
                    .TL
                    .b .xp
                    .i x
                    .DE
                    Print index
                    .i x
                    [.b x ].
                    The index is formatted in the font, size, and so forth
                    in effect at the time it is printed,
                    rather than at the time it is collected.
                    .sh 1 "Columned Output"
                    .TL
                    .b .2c
                    .i +S
                    .i N
                    .DE
                    Enter two-column mode.
                    The column separation is set to
                    .i +S

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                    [4n, 0.5i in ACM mode]
                    (saved in
                    .NR ($s ).
                    The column width,
                    calculated to fill the single column line length
                    with both columns,
                    is stored in
                    .NR ($l .
                    The current column
                    is in
                    .NR ($c .
                    You can test register
                    .NR ($m
                    [1]
                    to see if you are in single column
                    or double column mode.
                    Actually,
                    the request enters
                    .i N
                    [2]
                    column output.
                    .TL
                    .b .1c
                    .DE
                    Revert to single-column mode.
                    .TL
                    .b .bc
                    .DE
                    Begin column.
                    This is like
                    .b .bp
                    except that it begins a new column
                    on a new page
                    only if necessary,
                    rather than forcing a whole new page
                    if there is another column left
                    on the current page.
                    .sh 1 "Fonts and Sizes"
                    .TL
                    .b .sz
                    .i +P
                    .DE
                    The pointsize is set to
                    .i P
                    [10p],
                    and the line spacing is set proportionally.
                    The ratio of line spacing to pointsize
                    is stored in
                    .NR ($r .
                    The ratio used internally
                    by displays and annotations
                    is stored in
                    .NR ($R

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                    (although this is not used by
                    .b .sz ).
                    This size is
                    .i not
                    sticky beyond many macros:
                    in particular,
                    .NR (pp
                    (paragraph pointsize)
                    modifies the pointsize every time a new paragraph is begun
                    using the
                    .b .pp ,
                    .b .lp ,
                    .b .ip ,
                    .b .np ,
                    or
                    .b .bu
                    macros.
                    Also,
                    .NR (fp
                    (footnote pointsize),
                    .NR (qp
                    (quote pointsize),
                    .NR (sp
                    (section header pointsize),
                    and
                    .NR (tp
                    (title pointsize)
                    may modify the pointsize.
                    .TL
                    .b .r
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Set
                    .i W
                    in roman font,
                    appending
                    .i X
                    in the previous font.
                    To append different font requests,
                    use
                    .i X
                    =
                    .b \c .
                    If no parameters,
                    change to roman font.
                    .TL
                    .b .i
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Set
                    .i W

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                    in italics,
                    appending
                    .i X
                    in the previous font.
                    If no parameters,
                    change to italic font.
                    Underlines in NROFF.
                    .TL
                    .b .b
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Set
                    .i W
                    in bold font
                    and append
                    .i X
                    in the previous font.
                    If no parameters,
                    switch to bold font.
                    In NROFF,
                    underlines.
                    .TL
                    .b .rb
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Set
                    .i W
                    in bold font
                    and append
                    .i X
                    in the previous font.
                    If no parameters,
                    switch to bold font.
                    .b .rb
                    differs from
                    .b .b
                    in that
                    .b .rb
                    does not underline in NROFF.
                    .TL
                    .b .u
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Underline
                    .i W
                    and append
                    .i X .
                    This is a true underlining,
                    as opposed to the
                    .b .ul

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                    request,
                    which changes to
                    .q "underline font"
                    (usually italics in TROFF).
                    It won't work right
                    if
                    .i W
                    is spread or broken (including hyphenated).
                    In other words,
                    it is safe in nofill mode only.
                    .TL
                    .b .q
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Quote
                    .i W
                    and append
                    .i X .
                    In NROFF
                    this just surrounds
                    .i W
                    with double quote marks
                    (`.b """" '),
                    but in TROFF
                    uses directed quotes.
                    .TL
                    .b .bi
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Set
                    .i W
                    in bold italics
                    and append
                    .i X .
                    Actually,
                    sets
                    .i W
                    in italic
                    and overstrikes once.
                    Underlines in NROFF.
                    It won't work right
                    if
                    .i W
                    is spread or broken (including hyphenated).
                    In other words,
                    it is safe in nofill mode only.
                    .TL
                    .b .bx
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE

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                    Sets
                    .i W
                    in a box,
                    with
                    .i X
                    appended.
                    Underlines in NROFF.
                    It won't work right
                    if
                    .i W
                    is spread or broken (including hyphenated).
                    In other words,
                    it is safe in nofill mode only.
                    .TL
                    .b sm
                    .i W
                    .i X
                    .DE
                    Sets
                    .i W
                    in a smaller pointsize,
                    with
                    .i X
                    appended.
                    .sh 1 "Roff Support"
                    .TL
                    .b .ix
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Indent,
                    no break.
                    Equivalent to
                    .b 'in
                    .i N .
                    .TL
                    .b .bl
                    .i N
                    .DE
                    Leave
                    .i N
                    contiguous whitespace,
                    on the next page if not enough room
                    on this page.
                    Equivalent to a
                    .b .sp
                    .i N
                    inside a block.
                    .TL
                    .b .pa
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Equivalent to
                    .b .bp .

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                    .TL
                    .b .ro
                    .DE
                    Set page number
                    in roman numerals.
                    Equivalent to
                    .b ".af % i" .
                    .TL
                    .b .ar
                    .DE
                    Set page number in Arabic.
                    Equivalent to
                    .b ".af % 1" .
                    .TL
                    .b .n1
                    .DE
                    Number lines in margin from one
                    on each page.
                    .TL
                    .b .n2
                    .i N
                    .DE
                    Number lines from
                    .i N ,
                    stop if
                    .i N
                    = 0.
                    .TL
                    .b .sk
                    .DE
                    Leave the next output page blank,
                    except for headers and footers.
                    This is used to leave space
                    for a full-page diagram
                    which is produced externally
                    and pasted in later.
                    To get a partial-page paste-in display,
                    say
                    .b .sv  .i N ,
                    where
                    .i N
                    is the amount of space
                    to leave;
                    this space will be output immediately
                    if there is room,
                    and will otherwise be output
                    at the top of the next page.
                    However, be warned:
                    if
                    .i N
                    is greater than the amount of available space
                    on an empty page,
                    no space will ever be output.

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-25

                    .sh 1 "Preprocessor Support"
                    .TL
                    .b .EQ
                    .i m
                    .i T
                    .DE
                    Begin equation.
                    The equation is centered
                    if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b C
                    or omitted,
                    indented
                    .NR (bi
                    [4m]
                    if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b I ,
                    and left justified if
                    .i m
                    is
                    .b L .
                    .i T
                    is a title printed on the right margin
                    next to the equation.
                    See
                    .i "Typesetting Mathematics - User's Guide"
                    by Brian W. Kernighan
                    and Lorinda L. Cherry.
                    .TL
                    .b .EN
                    .i c
                    .DE
                    End equation.
                    If
                    .i c
                    is
                    .b C
                    the equation must be continued
                    by immediately following
                    with another
                    .b .EQ ,
                    the text of which
                    can be centered
                    along with this one.
                    Otherwise,
                    the equation is printed,
                    always on one page,
                    with
                    .NR (es
                    [0.5v in TROFF, 1v in NROFF]

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                    space
                    above and below it.
                    .TL
                    .b .TS
                    .i h
                    .DE
                    Table start.
                    Tables are single spaced
                    and kept on one page
                    if possible.
                    If you have a large table
                    which will not fit on one page,
                    use
                    .i h
                    =
                    .b H
                    and follow the header part
                    (to be printed on every page of the table)
                    with a
                    .b .TH .
                    See
                    .i "Tbl - A Program to Format Tables"
                    by M. E. Lesk.
                    .TL
                    .b .TH
                    .DE
                    With
                    .b ".TS H" ,
                    ends the header portion of the table.
                    .TL
                    .b .TE
                    .DE
                    Table end.
                    Note that this table
                    does not float,
                    in fact,
                    it is not even guaranteed to stay on one page
                    if you use requests such as
                    .b .sp
                    intermixed with the text
                    of the table.
                    If you want it to float
                    (or if you use requests
                    inside the table),
                    surround the entire table
                    (including the
                    .b .TS
                    and
                    .b .TE
                    requests)
                    with the requests
                    .b .(z
                    and

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-27

                    .b .)z .
                    .TL
                    .b .PS
                    .i h
                    .i w
                    .DE
                    Begin
                    .i pic
                    picture.
                    .i H
                    is the height and
                    .i w
                    is the width,
                    both in basic units.
                    .i Ditroff
                    only.
                    .TL
                    .b .PE
                    .DE
                    End picture.
                    .TL
                    .b .IS
                    .DE
                    Begin
                    .i ideal
                    picture.
                    .TL
                    .b .IE
                    .DE
                    End
                    .i ideal
                    picture.
                    .TL
                    .b .IF
                    .DE
                    End
                    .i ideal
                    picture (alternate form).
                    .TL
                    .b GS
                    .DE
                    Begin
                    .i gremlin
                    picture.
                    .TL
                    .b GE
                    .DE
                    End
                    .i gremlin
                    picture.
                    .TL
                    .b GF
                    .DE

     USD:20-28                                    -me Reference Manual

                    End
                    .i gremlin
                    picture (alternate form).
                    .sh 1 "Miscellaneous"
                    .TL
                    .b .re
                    .DE
                    Reset tabs.
                    Set to every 0.5i
                    in TROFF
                    and every 0.8i in NROFF.
                    .TL
                    .b .ba
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set the base indent
                    to
                    .i +N
                    [0]
                    (saved in
                    .NR ($i ).
                    All paragraphs,
                    sections,
                    and displays
                    come out indented by this amount.
                    Titles and footnotes
                    are unaffected.
                    The
                    .b .sh
                    request performs a
                    .b .ba
                    request
                    if
                    .NR (si
                    [0] is not zero,
                    and sets the base indent to
                    .NR (si .b * .NR ($0 .
                    .TL
                    .b .xl
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set the line length to
                    .i N
                    [6.0i].
                    This differs
                    from
                    .b .ll
                    because it only affects the current environment.
                    .TL
                    .b .ll
                    .i +N
                    .DE
                    Set line length in all environments

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-29

                    to
                    .i N
                    [6.0i].
                    This should not be used
                    after output has begun,
                    and particularly not in two-column output.
                    The current line length is stored in
                    .NR ($l .
                    .TL
                    .b .hl
                    .DE
                    Draws a horizontal line
                    the length of the page.
                    This is useful
                    inside floating keeps
                    to differentiate
                    between the text
                    and the figure.
                    .TL
                    .b .lh
                    .DE
                    Print a letterhead at the current position on the page.
                    The format of the letterhead must be defined
                    in the file
                    .b /usr/lib/me/letterhead.me
                    by your local systems staff.
                    Some environments may require
                    .i ditroff
                    for this macro
                    to function properly.
                    .TL
                    .b .lo
                    .DE
                    This macro loads another set of macros
                    (in
                    .b /usr/lib/me/local.me )
                    which is intended to be a set of locally defined macros.
                    These macros
                    should all be of the form
                    .b .* .i X ,
                    where
                    .i X
                    is any letter
                    (upper or lower case)
                    or digit.
                    .sh 1 "Standard Papers"
                    .TL
                    .b .tp
                    .DE
                    Begin title page.
                    Spacing at the top of the page
                    can occur,
                    and headers and footers are suppressed.

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                    Also,
                    the page number
                    is not incremented
                    for this page.
                    .TL
                    .b .th
                    .DE
                    Set thesis mode.
                    This defines the modes acceptable
                    for a doctoral dissertation
                    at Berkeley.
                    It double spaces,
                    defines the header
                    to be a single page number,
                    and changes the margins
                    to be 1.5 inch on the left
                    and one inch on the top.
                    .b .++
                    and
                    .b .+c
                    should be used with it.
                    This macro must be stated
                    before
                    initialization,
                    that is,
                    before the first call of a paragraphing
                    macro
                    or
                    .b .sh .
                    .TL
                    .b .++
                    .i m
                    .i H
                    .DE
                    This request defines the section of the paper
                    which we are entering.
                    The section type is defined by
                    .i m .
                    .b C
                    means that we are entering the chapter portion
                    of the paper,
                    .b A
                    means that we are entering the appendix portion
                    of the paper,
                    .b P
                    means that the material following
                    should be the preliminary portion
                    (abstract, table of contents, etc.)
                    portion of the paper,
                    .b AB
                    means that we are entering the abstract
                    (numbered independently from 1
                    in Arabic numerals),

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-31

                    and
                    .b B
                    means that we are entering the bibliographic
                    portion at the end of the paper.
                    Also, the variants
                    .b RC
                    and
                    .b RA
                    are allowed,
                    which specify renumbering of pages
                    from one at the beginning of each
                    chapter or appendix,
                    respectively.
                    The
                    .i H
                    parameter defines the new header.
                    If there are any spaces in it,
                    the entire header must be quoted.
                    If you want the header to have the chapter number
                    in it,
                    use the string
                    .b "\\\\n(ch" .
                    For example, to number appendixes
                    .b A.1
                    etc.,
                    type
                    .b ".++ RA '''\\\\n(ch.%'" .
                    Each section
                    (chapter, appendix, etc.)
                    should be preceded by the
                    .b .+c
                    request.
                    It should be mentioned
                    that it is easier when using
                    TROFF to put the front material
                    at the end of the paper,
                    so that the table of contents
                    can be collected and put out;
                    this material can then be physically
                    moved to the beginning of the paper.
                    .TL
                    .b .+c
                    .i T
                    .DE
                    Begin chapter with title
                    .i T .
                    The chapter number
                    is maintained in
                    .NR (ch .
                    This register is incremented
                    every time
                    .b .+c
                    is called with a parameter.

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                    The title and chapter number
                    are printed by
                    .b .$c .
                    The header is moved to the footer
                    on the first page
                    of each chapter.
                    If
                    .i T
                    is omitted,
                    .b .$c
                    is not called;
                    this is useful for doing your own
                    .q "title page"
                    at the beginning of papers
                    without a title page proper.
                    .b .$c
                    calls
                    .b .$C
                    as a hook so that chapter titles can be inserted
                    into a table of contents automatically.
                    The footnote numbering is reset to one.
                    .TL
                    .b .$c
                    .i T
                    .DE
                    Print chapter number
                    (from
                    .NR (ch )
                    and
                    .i T .
                    This macro can be redefined to your liking.
                    It is defined by default
                    to be acceptable
                    for a PhD thesis
                    at Berkeley.
                    This macro calls
                    .b $C ,
                    which can be defined to make index entries,
                    or whatever.
                    .TL
                    .b .$C
                    .i K
                    .i N
                    .i T
                    .DE
                    This macro is called by
                    .b .$c .
                    It is normally undefined,
                    but can be used to automatically insert
                    index entries,
                    or whatever.
                    .i K
                    is a keyword,

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-33

                    either
                    .q Chapter
                    or
                    .q Appendix
                    (depending on the
                    .b .++
                    mode);
                    .i N
                    is the chapter or appendix number,
                    and
                    .i T
                    is the chapter or appendix title.
                    .TL
                    .b .ac
                    .i A
                    .i N
                    .DE
                    This macro
                    (short for
                    .b .acm )
                    sets up the NROFF environment
                    for camera-ready papers
                    as used by the ACM.
                    This format is 25% larger,
                    and has no headers or footers.
                    The author's name
                    .i A
                    is printed at the bottom of the page
                    (but off the part which will be printed
                    in the conference proceedings),
                    together with the current page number
                    and the total number of pages
                    .i N .
                    Additionally,
                    this macro loads the file
                    .b /usr/lib/me/acm.me ,
                    which may later be augmented with other macros
                    useful for printing papers
                    for ACM conferences.
                    It should be noted
                    that this macro will not work correctly in version 7 TROFF,
                    since it sets the page length
                    wider than the physical width
                    of the C/A/T phototypesetter roll.
                    .sh 1 "Predefined Strings"
                    .TL
                    .ST *
                    .DE
                    Footnote number, actually
                    .ST ([* .NR ($f .ST (]* .
                    This macro is incremented
                    after each call to
                    .b .)f .

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                    .TL
                    .ST #
                    .DE
                    Delayed text number.
                    Actually
                    [.NR ($d ].
                    .TL
                    .ST ([*
                    .DE
                    Superscript.
                    This used to be
                    .ST [
                    in the old
                    .b -me
                    macros, but this has been changed for GNU GROFF compatibility.
                    This string gives upward movement
                    and a change to a smaller point size
                    if possible,
                    otherwise it gives the left bracket character
                    (`.b [ ').
                    Extra space is left above the line
                    to allow room for the superscript.
                    .TL
                    .ST (]*
                    .DE
                    Unsuperscript.
                    This used to be
                    .ST ]
                    in the old
                    .b -me
                    macros, but this has been changed for GNU GROFF compatibility.
                    Inverse to
                    .ST ([* .
                    For example,
                    to produce a superscript
                    you might type
                    .b x .ST ([* .b 2 .ST (]* ,
                    which will produce
                    .b x[2] .
                    .TL
                    .ST <
                    .DE
                    Subscript.
                    Defaults to
                    `<'
                    if half-carriage motion not possible.
                    Extra space is left below the line
                    to allow for the subscript.
                    .TL
                    .ST >
                    .DE
                    Inverse to
                    .ST < .

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-35

                    .TL
                    .ST (dw
                    .DE
                    The day of the week,
                    as a word.
                    .TL
                    .ST (mo
                    .DE
                    The month,
                    as a word.
                    .TL
                    .ST (td
                    .DE
                    Today's date,
                    directly printable.
                    The date is of the form December 24, 2022.
                    Other forms of the date can be used
                    by using
                    .NR (dy
                    (the day of the month;
                    for example, 24),
                    .ST (mo
                    (as noted above)
                    or
                    .NR (mo
                    (the same,
                    but as an ordinal number;
                    for example, December is 12),
                    and
                    .NR (yr
                    (the last two digits of the current year).
                    .TL
                    .ST (lq
                    .DE
                    Left quote marks.
                    Double quote in NROFF.
                    .TL
                    .ST (rq
                    .DE
                    Right quote.
                    .TL
                    .ST -
                    .DE
                    .ie 72>0 3/4
                    .el 3/4
                    em dash in TROFF;
                    two hyphens in NROFF.
                    .sh 1 "Special Characters and Marks"
                    .pp
                    There are a number of special characters
                    and diacritical marks
                    (such as accents)
                    available through -me.

     USD:20-36                                    -me Reference Manual

                    To reference these characters,
                    you must call the macro
                    .b .sc
                    to define the characters before using them.
                    .TL
                    .b .sc
                    .DE
                    Define special characters and diacritical marks, as described
                    in the remainder of this section.
                    This macro must be stated
                    before initialization.
                    The special characters available
                    are listed below.
                    .in +4n
                    .ta 15 +5 +6
                    .nf
                    Name    Usage   Example
                    Acute accent    \*'     a\*'    '
                    Grave accent    \*`     e\*`    `
                    Umlat   \*:     u\*:    u
                    Tilde   \*~     n\*~    n̅
                    Caret   \*^     e\*^    ^
                    Cedilla \*,     c\*,    ,
                    Czech   \*v     e\*v    e
                    Circle  \*o     A\*o    A
                    There exists    \*(qe           EXISTS
                    For all \*(qa           FORALL
                    .fi
                    .sp 1i
                    .in 0
                    .b Acknowledgments
                    .pp
                    I would like to thank
                    Bob Epstein,
                    Bill Joy,
                    and Larry Rowe
                    for having the courage
                    to use the -me macros
                    to produce non-trivial papers
                    during the development stages;
                    Ricki Blau,
                    Pamela Humphrey,
                    and Jim Joyce
                    for their help with the documentation phase;
                    peter kessler
                    for numerous complaints,
                    most accompanied by fixes;
                    and the plethora of people who have contributed ideas
                    and have given support for the project.
                    .bp
                    .b Summary
                    .pp
                    This alphabetical list summarizes all macros, strings, and number registers

     -me Reference Manual                                    USD:20-37

                    available in the -me macros.
                    Selected
                    .i troff
                    commands, registers, and functions are included as well;
                    those listed can generally be used with impunity.
                    .pp
                    The columns are the name of the
                    command, macro, register, or string;
                    the type of the object,
                    and the description.
                    Types are
                    .b M
                    for macro or builtin command
                    (invoked with
                    .b .
                    or
                    .b '
                    in the first input column),
                    .b S
                    for a string
                    (invoked with
                    .b \*
                    or
                    .b \*( ),
                    .b R
                    for a number register
                    (invoked with
                    .b \n
                    or
                    .b \n( ),
                    and
                    .b F
                    for a
                    .i troff
                    builtin function
                    (invoked by preceding it with a single backslash).
                    .pp
                    Lines marked with S are
                    .i troff
                    internal codes.
                    Lines marked with - or =
                    may be defined by the user to get special functions;
                    = indicates that these are defined by default
                    and changing them may have unexpected side effects.
                    Lines marked with
                    are specific to
                    .i ditroff
                    (device-independent
                    .i troff ).
                    .de $H
                    .ev 1
                    .ta 240u +144u
                    NAME    TYPE    DESCRIPTION

     USD:20-38                                    -me Reference Manual

                    .ev
                    ..
                    .(l
                    .$H
                    \(space)        FS      unpaddable space
                    \"      FS      comment (to end of line)
                    \*#     S       optional delayed text tag string
                    \$N     FS      interpolate argument N
                    \n($0   R       section depth
                    .$0     M-      invoked after section title printed
                    \n($1   R       first section number
                    .$1     M-      invoked before printing depth 1 section
                    \n($2   R       second section number
                    .$2     M-      invoked before printing depth 2 section
                    \n($3   R       third section number
                    .$3     M-      invoked before printing depth 3 section
                    \n($4   R       fourth section number
                    .$4     M-      invoked before printing depth 4 section
                    \n($5   R       fifth section number
                    .$5     M-      invoked before printing depth 5 section
                    \n($6   R       sixth section number
                    .$6     M-      invoked before printing depth 6 section
                    .$C     M-      called at beginning of chapter
                    .$H     M-      text header
                    \n($R   R=      relative vertical spacing in displays
                    \n($c   R       current column number
                    .$c     M=      print chapter title
                    \n($d   R       delayed text number
                    \n($f   R       footnote number
                    .$f     M=      print footer
                    .$h     M=      print header
                    \n($i   R       paragraph base indent
                    \n($l   R       column width
                    \n($m   R       number of columns in effect
                    \*($n   S       section name
                    \n($p   R       numbered paragraph number
                    .$p     M=      print section heading (internal macro)
                    \n($r   R=      relative vertical spacing in text
                    \n($s   R       column indent
                    .$s     M=      footnote separator (from text)
                    \n%     RS      current page number
                    \&      FS      zero width character, useful for hiding controls
                    \(xx    FS      interpolate special character xx
                    .(b     M       begin block
                    .(c     M       begin centered block
                    .(d     M       begin delayed text
                    .(f     M       begin footnote
                    .(l     M       begin list
                    .(q     M       begin quote
                    .(x     M       begin index entry
                    .(z     M       begin floating keep
                    .)b     M       end block
                    .)c     M       end centered block

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                    .)d     M       end delayed text
                    .)f     M       end footnote
                    .)l     M       end list
                    .)q     M       end quote
                    .)x     M       end index entry
                    .)z     M       end floating keep
                    \*x     FS      interpolate string x
                    \*(xx   FS      interpolate string xx
                    \**     S       optional footnote tag string
                    .++     M       set paper section type
                    .+c     M       begin chapter
                    \*,     S       cedilla
                    \-      FS      minus sign
                    \*-     S       3/4 em dash
                    \0      FS      unpaddable digit-width space
                    .1c     M       revert to single column output
                    .2c     M       begin two column output
                    \*:     S       umlat
                    \*<     S       begin subscript
                    \*>     S       end subscript
                    .EN     M       end equation
                    .EQ     M       begin equation
                    \L'd'   FS      vertical line drawing function for distance d
                    .GE     M       end gremlin picture
                    .GF     M       end gremlin picture (with flyback)
                    .GS     M       start gremlin picture
                    .IE     M       end ideal picture
                    .IF     M       end ideal picture (with flyback)
                    .IS     M       start ideal picture
                    .PE     M       end pic picture
                    .PF     M       end pic picture (with flyback)
                    .PS     M       start pic picture
                    .TE     M       end table
                    .TH     M       end header of table
                    .TS     M       begin table
                    \*([*   S       begin superscript (formerly \*[)
                    \n(.$   RS      number of arguments to macro
                    \n(.i   RS      current indent
                    \n(.l   RS      current line length
                    \n(.s   RS      current point size
                    \*('    S       acute accent
                    \*(`    S       grave accent
                    \('     FS      acute accent
                    \(`     FS      grave accent
                    \*(]*   S       end superscript (formerly \*])
                    \^      FS      1/12 em narrow space
                    \*^     S       caret
                    .ac     M       ACM mode
                    .ad     MS      set text adjustment
                    .af     MS      assign format to register
                    .am     MS      append to macro
                    .ar     M       set page numbers in Arabic
                    .as     MS      append to string

     USD:20-40                                    -me Reference Manual

                    .b      M       bold font
                    .ba     M       set base indent
                    .bc     M       begin new column
                    .bi     M       bold italic
                    \n(bi   R       display (block) indent
                    .bl     M       blank lines (even at top of page)
                    \n(bm   R       bottom title margin
                    .bp     MS      begin page
                    .br     MS      break (start new line)
                    \n(bs   R       display (block) pre/post spacing
                    \n(bt   R       block keep threshold
                    .bx     M       boxed
                    \c      FS      continue input
                    .ce     MS      center lines
                    \n(ch   R       current chapter number
                    .de     MS      define macro
                    \n(df   R       display font
                    .ds     MS      define string
                    \n(dw   RS      current day of week
                    \*(dw   S       current day of week
                    \n(dy   RS      day of month
                    \e      FS      printable version of \
                    .ef     M       set footer (even numbered pages only)
                    .eh     M       set header (even numbered pages only)
                    .el     MS      else part of conditional
                    .ep     M       end page
                    \n(es   R       equation pre/post space
                    \ff     FS      inline font change to font f
                    \f(ff   FS      inline font change to font ff
                    .fc     MS      set field characters
                    \n(ff   R       footnote font
                    .fi     MS      fill output lines
                    \n(fi   R       footnote indent (first line only)
                    \n(fm   R       footer margin
                    .fo     M       set footer
                    \n(fp   R       footnote pointsize
                    \n(fs   R       footnote prespace
                    \n(fu   R       footnote undent (from right margin)
                    \h'd'   FS      local horizontal motion for distance d
                    .hc     MS      set hyphenation character
                    .he     M       set header
                    .hl     M       draw horizontal line
                    \n(hm   R       header margin
                    .hx     M       suppress headers and footers on next page
                    .hy     MS      set hyphenation mode
                    .i      M       italic font
                    .ie     MS      conditional with else
                    .if     MS      conditional
                    \n(ii   R       indented paragraph indent
                    .in     MS      indent (transient, use .ba for pervasive)
                    .ip     M       begin indented paragraph
                    .ix     M       indent, no break
                    \l'd'   FS      horizontal line drawing function for distance d

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                    .lc     MS      set leader repetition character
                    .lh     M       interpolate local letterhead
                    .ll     M       set line length
                    .lo     M       load local macros
                    .lp     M       begin left justified paragraph
                    \*(lq   S       left quote marks
                    .ls     MS      set multi-line spacing
                    .m1     M       set space from top of page to header
                    .m2     M       set space from header to text
                    .m3     M       set space from text to footer
                    .m4     M       set space from footer to bottom of page
                    .mc     MS      insert margin character
                    .mk     MS      mark vertical position
                    \n(mo   RS      month of year
                    \*(mo   S       current month
                    \nx     FS      interpolate number register x
                    \n(xx   FS      interpolate number register xx
                    .n1     M       number lines in margin
                    .n2     M       number lines in margin
                    .na     MS      turn off text adjustment
                    .ne     MS      need vertical space
                    .nf     MS      don't fill output lines
                    .nh     MS      turn off hyphenation
                    .np     M       begin numbered paragraph
                    .nr     MS      set number register
                    .ns     MS      no space mode
                    \*o     S       circle (e.g., for Norse A)
                    .of     M       set footer (odd numbered pages only)
                    .oh     M       set header (odd numbered pages only)
                    .pa     M       begin page
                    .pd     M       print delayed text
                    \n(pf   R       paragraph font
                    \n(pi   R       paragraph indent
                    .pl     MS      set page length
                    .pn     MS      set next page number
                    .po     MS      page offset
                    \n(po   R       simulated page offset
                    .pp     M       begin paragraph
                    \n(pp   R       paragraph pointsize
                    \n(ps   R       paragraph prespace
                    .q      M       quoted
                    \*(qa   S       for all
                    \*(qe   S       there exists
                    \n(qi   R       quote indent (also shortens line)
                    \n(qp   R       quote pointsize
                    \n(qs   R       quote pre/post space
                    .r      M       roman font
                    .rb     M       real bold font
                    .re     M       reset tabs
                    .rm     MS      remove macro or string
                    .rn     MS      rename macro or string
                    .ro     M       set page numbers in roman
                    \*(rq   S       right quote marks

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                    .rr     MS      remove register
                    .rs     MS      restore spacing
                    .rt     MS      return to vertical position
                    \sS     FS      inline size change to size S
                    .sc     M       load special characters
                    \n(sf   R       section title font
                    .sh     M       begin numbered section
                    \n(si   R       relative base indent per section depth
                    .sk     M       skip next page
                    .sm     M       set argument in a smaller pointsize
                    .so     MS      source input file
                    \n(so   R       additional section title offset
                    .sp     MS      vertical space
                    \n(sp   R       section title pointsize
                    \n(ss   R       section prespace
                    .sx     M       change section depth
                    .sz     M       set pointsize and vertical spacing
                    .ta     MS      set tab stops
                    .tc     MS      set tab repetition character
                    \*(td   S       today's date
                    \n(tf   R       title font
                    .th     M       set thesis mode
                    .ti     MS      temporary indent (next line only)
                    .tl     MS      three part title
                    \n(tm   R       top title margin
                    .tp     M       begin title page
                    \n(tp   R       title pointsize
                    .tr     MS      translate
                    .u      M       underlined
                    .uh     M       unnumbered section
                    .ul     MS      underline next line
                    \v'd'   FS      local vertical motion for distance d
                    \*v     S       inverted `v' for czeck ``e''
                    \w'S'   FS      return width of string S
                    .xl     M       set line length (local)
                    .xp     M       print index
                    \n(xs   R       index entry prespace
                    \n(xu   R       index undent (from right margin)
                    \n(yr   RS      year (last two digits only)
                    \n(zs   R       floating keep pre/post space
                    \{      FS      begin conditional group
                    \|      FS      1/6 em narrow space
                    \}      FS      end conditional group
                    \*~     S       tilde
                    .)l
                    .rm $H

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