MirBSD manpage: 18.msdiffs(USD)

                    A Revised Version of -ms

                          Bill Tuthill

                       Computing Services
                    University of California
                       Berkeley, CA  94720

     The -ms macros have been slightly revised and rearranged for
the Berkeley Unix distribution. Because of the rearrangement, the
new macros can be read by the computer in  about  half  the  time
required  by  the previous version of -ms. This means that output
will begin to appear between ten seconds and several minutes more
quickly,  depending  on  the system load. On long files, however,
the savings in total time are not substantial. The old version of
-ms is still available as -mos.

     Several bugs in -ms have been fixed, including a bad problem
with  the  .1C macro, minor difficulties with boxed text, a break
induced by .EQ before initialization,  the  failure  to  set  tab
stops  in  displays,  and  several bothersome errors in the refer
macros. Macros used only at Bell Laboratories have been  removed.
There  are  a few extensions to previous -ms macros, and a number
of new macros, but all  the  documented  -ms  macros  still  work
exactly  as  they  did before, and have the same names as before.
Output produced with -ms should look like  output  produced  with

     One important new feature is  automatically  numbered  foot-
notes.  Footnote  numbers  are  printed by means of a pre-defined
string (\**), which you invoke separately from .FS and .FE.  Each
time  it  is  used,  this string increases the footnote number by
one, whether or not you use .FS and .FE in  your  text.  Footnote
numbers  will  be  superscripted  on  the  phototypesetter and on
daisy-wheel terminals, but on low-resolution devices (such as the
lpr  and  a crt), they will be bracketed. If you use \** to indi-
cate numbered footnotes, then the .FS  macro  will  automatically
include the footnote number at the bottom of the page. This foot-
note, for example, was produced as follows:[1]

        This footnote, for example, was produced as follows:\**

If you are  using  \**  to  number  footnotes,  but  want  a
  [1] If you never  use  the  ``\**''  string,  no  footnote

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particular footnote to be  marked  with  an  asterisk  or  a
dagger, then give that mark as the first argument to .FS: -

        then give that mark as the first argument to .FS: \(dg
        .FS   \(dg

Footnote numbering will be  temporarily  suspended,  because
the  \**  string is not used. Instead of a dagger, you could
use an asterisk * or double dagger =, represented as \(dd.

     Another new feature is a macro for printing theses according
to Berkeley standards. This macro is called .TM, which stands for
thesis mode. (It is much like the .th macro in -me.) It will  put
page  numbers  in  the  upper right-hand corner; number the first
page;  suppress  the  date;  and  doublespace  everything  except
quotes,  displays, and keeps. Use it at the top of each file mak-
ing up your thesis. Calling .TM defines the .CT macro for chapter
titles, which skips to a new page and moves the pagenumber to the
center footer. The .P1 (P one) macro can  be  used  even  without
thesis  mode  to  print the header on page 1, which is suppressed
except in thesis mode. If you want roman numeral page  numbering,
use an ``.af PN i'' request.

     There is a new macro especially  for  bibliography  entries,
called  .XP,  which stands for exdented paragraph. It will exdent
the first line of the paragraph by \n(PI units, usually  5n  (the
same  as the indent for the first line of a .PP). Most bibliogra-
phies are printed this way. Here are some  examples  of  exdented

Lumley, Lyle S., Sex in Crustaceans: Shell Fish Habits, Harbinger
     Press, Tampa Bay and San Diego, October 1979. 243 pages. The
     pioneering work in this field.

Leffadinger, Harry A., ``Mollusk Mating Season: 52 Weeks, or  All
     Year?'' in Acta Biologica, vol. 42, no. 11, November 1980. A
     provocative thesis, but the conclusions are wrong.

Of course, you will have to take care  of  italicizing  the  book
title  and journal, and quoting the title of the journal article.
Indentation or exdentation can be changed by setting the value of
number register PI.

     If you need to produce endnotes rather than  footnotes,  put
the  references  in  a file of their own. This is similar to what
numbers  will  appear  anywhere  in the text, including down
here. The output footnotes will look exactly like  footnotes
produced with -mos.
  - In the footnote, the dagger will appear where the  foot-
note number would otherwise appear, as on the left.

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you would do if you were typing the paper on a conventional type-
writer.  Note  that  you  can  use  automatic  footnote numbering
without actually having .FS and .FE pairs in your  text.  If  you
place  footnotes  in a separate file, you can use .IP macros with
\** as a hanging tag; this will give you numbers at the left-hand
margin.  With  some styles of endnotes, you would want to use .PP
rather than .IP macros, and  specify  \**  before  the  reference

     There are four new macros to help produce a  table  of  con-
tents.  Table of contents entries must be enclosed in .XS and .XE
pairs, with optional .XA macros for additional entries; arguments
to  .XS  and  .XA  specify  the page number, to be printed at the
right. A final .PX macro prints out the table of  contents.  Here
is a sample of typical input and output text:

        .XS  ii
        .XA  1
        Chapter 1: Review of the Literature
        .XA  23
        Chapter 2: Experimental Evidence
                   Table of Contents

        Introduction  ....................................   ii
        Chapter 1: Review of the Literature ..............    1
        Chapter 2: Experimental Evidence .................   23

The .XS and .XE pairs may also be used in the text, after a  sec-
tion header for instance, in which case page numbers are supplied
automatically. However, most documents that require  a  table  of
contents  are  too long to produce in one run, which is necessary
if this method is to work. It is recommended that you do a  table
of contents after finishing your document. To print out the table
of contents, use the .PX macro; if you forget  it,  nothing  will

     As an aid in producing text that will format correctly  with
both  nroff and troff, there are some new string definitions that
define quotation marks and dashes for each of these  two  format-
ting  programs.  The  \*_ string will yield two hyphens in nroff,
but in troff it will produce an em dash-- like this one. The  \*Q
and  \*U strings will produce `` and '' in troff, but " in nroff.
(In typesetting, the double quote is traditionally considered bad

     There are now a large  number  of  optional  foreign  accent
marks  defined  by the -ms macros. All the accent marks available
in -mos are present, and they all work just as they  always  did.
However, there are better definitions available by placing .AM at
the beginning of your document. Unlike the -mos accent marks, the
accent  strings should come after the letter being accented. Here

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is a list of the diacritical marks, with examples  of  what  they
look like.

        name of accent      input     output
        acute accent        e\*'      '
        grave accent        e\*`      `
        circumflex          o\*^      ^
        cedilla             c\*,      ,
        tilde               n\*~      n̅
        question            \*?       ?
        exclamation         \*!       !
        umlaut              u\*:      "
        digraph s           \*8       B
        ha'`ek               c\*v      '`
        macron              a\*_      ^
        underdot            s\*.      .
        o-slash             o\*/      /
        angstrom            a\*o      aa
        yogh                kni\*3t   kni3t
        Thorn               \*(Th     P
        thorn               \*(th     p
        Eth                 \*(D-     -
        eth                 \*(d-     `
        hooked o            \*q       ,
        ae ligature         \*(ae     ae
        AE ligature         \*(Ae     AE
        oe ligature         \*(oe     oe
        OE ligature         \*(Oe     OE

If you want to use these new diacritical marks, don't forget  the
.AM  at  the top of your file. Without it, some will not print at
all, and others will be placed on the wrong letter.

     It is also possible to produce custom  headers  and  footers
that  are different on even and odd pages. The .OH and .EH macros
define odd and even headers, while .OF and  .EF  define  odd  and
even  footers.  Arguments  to  these four macros are specified as
with .tl. This document was produced with:

        .OH  '\fIThe  -mx  Macros''Page  %\fP'
        .EH  '\fIPage  %''The  -mx  Macros\fP'

Note that it would be a error to have an apostrophe in the header
text; if you need one, you will have to use a different delimiter
around the left, center, and right portions of the title. You can
use  any  character  as  a  delimiter, provided it doesn't appear
elsewhere in the argument to .OH, .EH, .OF, or EF.

     The -ms macros work in conjunction with the  tbl,  eqn,  and
refer  preprocessors. Macros to deal with these items are read in
only as needed, as are  the  thesis  macros  (.TM),  the  special
accent  mark definitions (.AM), table of contents macros (.XS and
.XE), and macros to format the optional cover page. The code  for

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A Revised Version of -ms                                 USD:18-5

the  -ms package lives in /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.s, and sourced files
reside in the directory /usr/ucb/lib/ms.

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                        December 24, 2022

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