MirBSD manpage: 09.edtut(USD)

      A Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor

                     Brian W. Kernighan

                      Murray Hill, NJ


       Almost all text input  on  the  UNIX-  operating
     system  is  done  with  the  text-editor  ed. This
     memorandum is a tutorial guide to  help  beginners
     get started with text editing.

       Although it does not cover everything,  it  does
     discuss  enough  for most users' day-to-day needs.
     This  includes  printing,   appending,   changing,
     deleting,  moving,  and  inserting entire lines of
     text; reading and writing files; context searching
     and  line  addressing; the substitute command; the
     global commands; and the use of special characters
     for advanced editing.


  Ed is a ``text editor'', that is, an  interactive  program
for  creating  and modifying ``text'', using directions pro-
vided by a user at a terminal. The text is often a  document
like this one, or a program, or perhaps data for a program.

  This introduction is meant to simplify  learning  ed.  The
recommended way to learn ed is to read this document, simul-
taneously using ed to follow the examples, then to read  the
description  in  section  I of the UNIX Programmer's Manual,
all the while experimenting with ed. (Solicitation of advice
from experienced users is also useful.)

  Do the exercises! They cover material not completely  dis-
cussed  in  the actual text. An appendix summarizes the com-

- UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T  Bell  Labora-
tories in the USA and other countries.

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  This is an introduction and a tutorial. For  this  reason,
no  attempt is made to cover more than a part of the facili-
ties that ed offers (although  this  fraction  includes  the
most  useful  and  frequently  used  parts).  When  you have
mastered the Tutorial, try Advanced Editing on  UNIX.  Also,
there  is not enough space to explain basic UNIX procedures.
We will assume that you know how to log on to UNIX, and that
you  have  at least a vague understanding of what a file is.
For more on that, read UNIX for Beginners.

  You must also know what character to type as  the  end-of-
line  on  your  particular  terminal.  This character is the
RETURN key on most terminals. Throughout, we will  refer  to
this character, whatever it is, as RETURN.

Getting Started

  We'll assume that you have logged in to your system and it
has just printed the prompt character, usually either a $ or
a %. The easiest way to get ed is to type

     ed      (followed by a return)

You are now ready to go - ed is waiting for you to  tell  it
what to do.

Creating Text - the Append command ``a''

  As your first problem, suppose you  want  to  create  some
text  starting from scratch. Perhaps you are typing the very
first draft of a paper; clearly it will have to start  some-
where,  and  undergo  modifications later. This section will
show how to get some text in, just  to  get  started.  Later
we'll talk about how to change it.

  When ed is first started, it is rather like working with a
blank  piece  of  paper  -  there  is no text or information
present. This must be supplied by the person using ed; it is
usually done by typing in the text, or by reading it into ed
from a file. We will start  by  typing  in  some  text,  and
return shortly to how to read files.

  First a bit of terminology. In ed jargon, the  text  being
worked  on  is said to be ``kept in a buffer.'' Think of the
buffer as a work space, if you like, or simply as the infor-
mation  that  you  are  going  to  be editing. In effect the
buffer is like the piece of paper, on which  we  will  write
things, then change some of them, and finally file the whole
thing away for another day.

  The user tells ed  what  to  do  to  his  text  by  typing
instructions called ``commands.'' Most commands consist of a

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single letter, which must be typed in lower case. Each  com-
mand  is typed on a separate line. (Sometimes the command is
preceded by information about what line or lines of text are
to be affected - we will discuss these shortly.) Ed makes no
response to most commands - there is no prompting or  typing
of  messages  like  ``ready''. (This silence is preferred by
experienced users, but sometimes a hangup for beginners.)

  The first command is append, written as the letter


all by itself. It means ``append (or add) text lines to  the
buffer,  as I type them in.'' Appending is rather like writ-
ing fresh material on a piece of paper.

  So to enter lines of text into the buffer, just type an  a
followed  by  a  RETURN,  followed  by the lines of text you
want, like this:

     Now is the time
     for all good men
     to come to the aid of their party.

  The only way to stop appending is to type a line that con-
tains  only  a period. The ``.'' is used to tell ed that you
have finished appending. (Even experienced users forget that
terminating ``.'' sometimes. If ed seems to be ignoring you,
type an extra line with just ``.'' on it. You may then  find
you've  added  some garbage lines to your text, which you'll
have to take out later.)

  After the append command has been done,  the  buffer  will
contain the three lines

     Now is the time
     for all good men
     to come to the aid of their party.

The ``a'' and ``.'' aren't there, because they are not text.

  To add more text to what  you  already  have,  just  issue
another a command, and continue typing.

Error Messages - ``?''

  If at any time you make an error in the commands you  type
to ed, it will tell you by typing


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This is about as cryptic as it can be, but with practice you
can usually figure out how you goofed.

Writing text out as a file - the Write command ``w''

  It's likely that you'll want to save your text  for  later
use.  To  write  out the contents of the buffer onto a file,
use the write command


followed by the filename you want to  write  on.  This  will
copy the buffer's contents onto the specified file (destroy-
ing any previous information on the file). To save the  text
on a file named junk, for example, type

     w junk

Leave a space between w and the file name. Ed  will  respond
by  printing  the number of characters it wrote out. In this
case, ed would respond with


(Remember that blanks and the return character at the end of
each  line  are  included in the character count.) Writing a
file just makes a copy of the text - the  buffer's  contents
are not disturbed, so you can go on adding lines to it. This
is an important point. Ed at all times works on a copy of  a
file,  not  the  file itself. No change in the contents of a
file takes place until you give a w  command.  (Writing  out
the  text  onto  a  file  from  time  to time as it is being
created is a good idea, since if the system  crashes  or  if
you  make  some horrible mistake, you will lose all the text
in the buffer but any text that was written onto a  file  is
relatively safe.)

Leaving ed - the Quit command ``q''

  To terminate a session with ed, save the text you're work-
ing  on  by  writing it onto a file using the w command, and
then type the command


which stands for quit. The  system  will  respond  with  the
prompt  character  ($  or %). At this point your buffer van-
ishes, with all its text, which is why you want to write  it
out before quitting.**
** Actually, ed will print ? if you try to quit without
writing.  At  that  point,  write  if you want; if not,
another q will get you out regardless.

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Exercise 1:

  Enter ed and create some text using

     . . . text . . .

Write it out using w. Then leave ed with the q command,  and
print  the  file, to see that everything worked. (To print a
file, say

     pr filename


     cat filename

in response to the prompt character. Try both.)

Reading text from a file - the Edit command ``e''

  A common way to get text into the buffer  is  to  read  it
from  a  file in the filesystem. This is what you do to edit
text that you saved with the w command in  a  previous  ses-
sion.  The  edit  command e fetches the entire contents of a
file into the buffer. So if you had saved  the  three  lines
``Now  is  the  time'', etc., with a w command in an earlier
session, the ed command

     e junk

would fetch the entire contents of the file  junk  into  the
buffer, and respond


which is the number of characters in junk. If  anything  was
already in the buffer, it is deleted first.

  If you use the e command to read a file into  the  buffer,
then  you need not use a file name after a subsequent w com-
mand; ed remembers the last file name used in an e  command,
and w will write on this file. Thus a good way to operate is

     e file
     [editing session]

This way, you can simply say w from time  to  time,  and  be
secure  in the knowledge that if you got the file name right
at the beginning, you are writing into the proper file  each

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  You can find  out  at  any  time  what  file  name  ed  is
remembering  by  typing the file command f. In this example,
if you typed


ed would reply


Reading text from a file - the Read command ``r''

  Sometimes you want to read a file into the buffer  without
destroying  anything  that is already there. This is done by
the read command r. The command

     r junk

will read the file junk into the buffer; it adds it  to  the
end  of  whatever  is  already in the buffer. So if you do a
read after an edit:

     e junk
     r junk

the buffer will contain two copies of the text (six lines).

     Now is the time
     for all good men
     to come to the aid of their party.
     Now is the time
     for all good men
     to come to the aid of their party.

Like the w and e commands, r prints the number of characters
read in, after the reading operation is complete.

  Generally speaking, r is much less used than e.

Exercise 2:

  Experiment with the e command - try reading  and  printing
various  files.  You  may get an error name: No such file or
directory, where name is the name of a file; this means that
the  file  doesn't  exist, typically because you spelled the
file name wrongly, or perhaps that you are  not  allowed  to
read  or  write it. Try alternately reading and appending to
see that they work similarly. Verify that

     ed filename

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is exactly equivalent to

     e filename

What does

     f filename


Printing the contents of the  buffer  -  the  Print  command

  To print or list the contents of the buffer (or  parts  of
it) on the terminal, use the print command


The way this is done is as follows: specify the lines  where
you  want  printing  to  begin and where you want it to end,
separated by a comma, and followed by the letter p. Thus  to
print  the first two lines of the buffer, for example, (that
is, lines 1 through 2) say

     1,2p    (starting line=1, ending line=2 p)

Ed will respond with

     Now is the time
     for all good men

  Suppose you want to print all the lines in the buffer. You
could  use  1,3p  as  above if you knew there were exactly 3
lines in the buffer. But, in general,  you  don't  know  how
many  there  are,  so  what  do  you use for the ending line
number? Ed provides a shorthand symbol for ``line number  of
last line in buffer'' - the dollar sign $. Use it this way:


This will print all the lines in the buffer (line 1 to  last
line).  If  you  want to stop the printing before it is fin-
ished, it can be interrupted with ^C  (Control-C);  ed  will


and wait for the next command.

  To print the last line of the buffer, you could use


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but ed lets you abbreviate this to


You can print any single line by typing the line number fol-
lowed by a p. Thus


produces the response

     Now is the time

which is the first line of the buffer.

  In fact, ed lets you  abbreviate  even  further:  you  can
print  any  single  line by typing just the line number - no
need to type the letter p. So if you say


ed will print the last line of the buffer.

  You can also use $ in combinations like


which prints the last two lines of the  buffer.  This  helps
when you want to see how far you got in typing.

Exercise 3:

  As before, create some text using the a command and exper-
iment  with  the p command. You will find, for example, that
you can't print line 0 or a  line  beyond  the  end  of  the
buffer, and that attempts to print a buffer in reverse order
by saying


don't work.

The current line - ``Dot'' or ``.''

  Suppose your buffer still contains the six lines as above,
that you have just typed


and ed has printed the three lines for you. Try typing just

     p       (no line numbers)

This will print

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     to come to the aid of their party.

which is the third line of the buffer. In  fact  it  is  the
last  (most  recent)  line that you have done anything with.
(You just printed it!) You can repeat this p command without
line numbers, and it will continue to print line 3.

  The reason is that ed maintains a record of the last  line
that  you  did  anything to (in this case, line 3, which you
just printed) so that it can be used instead of an  explicit
line  number.  This  most  recent line is referred to by the
shorthand symbol

     .       (pronounced ``dot'')

Dot is a line number in the same way that  $  is;  it  means
exactly  ``the  current  line'',  or loosely, ``the line you
most recently did something to.'' You can use it in  several
ways - one possibility is to say


This will print all the lines from (including)  the  current
line  to  the  end  of  the buffer. In our example these are
lines 3 through 6.

  Some commands change the value of  dot,  while  others  do
not.  The  p command sets dot to the number of the last line
printed; the last command will set both . and $ to 6.

  Dot is most useful when used  in  combinations  like  this

     .+1     (or equivalently, .+1p)

This means ``print the next line'' and is  a  handy  way  to
step slowly through a buffer. You can also say

     .-1     (or .-1p)

which means ``print the line before the current line.'' This
enables  you to go backwards if you wish. Another useful one
is something like


which prints the previous three lines.

  Don't forget that all of these change the  value  of  dot.
You can find out what dot is at any time by typing


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Ed will respond by printing the value of dot.

  Let's summarize some things about the p command  and  dot.
Essentially p can be preceded by 0, 1, or 2 line numbers. If
there is no line  number  given,  it  prints  the  ``current
line'',  the  line  that dot refers to. If there is one line
number given (with or without the letter p), it prints  that
line  (and  dot  is  set  there);  and if there are two line
numbers, it prints all the lines in that range (and sets dot
to the last line printed). If two line numbers are specified
the first can't be bigger than the second (see Exercise 2).

  Typing a single return will cause  printing  of  the  next
line  - it's equivalent to .+1p. Try it. Try typing a -; you
will find that it's equivalent to .-1p.

Deleting lines: the ``d'' command

  Suppose you want to get rid of the three  extra  lines  in
the buffer. This is done by the delete command


Except that d deletes lines instead of  printing  them,  its
action  is similar to that of p. The lines to be deleted are
specified for d exactly as they are for p:

     starting line, ending line d

Thus the command


deletes lines 4 through the end. There are now  three  lines
left, as you can check by using


And notice that $ now is line 3! Dot is set to the next line
after the last line deleted, unless the last line deleted is
the last line in the buffer. In that case, dot is set to $.

Exercise 4:

  Experiment with a, e, r, w, p, and d until  you  are  sure
that  you  know  what  they do, and until you understand how
dot, $, and line numbers are used.

  If you are adventurous, try using line numbers with a,  r,
and  w as well. You will find that a will append lines after
the line number that you specify (rather  than  after  dot);
that  r  reads  a  file in after the line number you specify
(not necessarily at the end of the buffer); and that w  will
write out exactly the lines you specify, not necessarily the

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whole buffer. These  variations  are  sometimes  handy.  For
instance  you can insert a file at the beginning of a buffer
by saying

     0r filename

and you can enter lines at the beginning of  the  buffer  by

     . . . text . . .

Notice that .w is very different from


Modifying text: the Substitute command ``s''

  We are now ready to try one of the most important  of  all
commands - the substitute command


This is the command that is used to change individual  words
or  letters  within a line or group of lines. It is what you
use, for example, for correcting spelling mistakes and  typ-
ing errors.

  Suppose that by a typing error, line 1 says

     Now is th time

- the e has been left off the. You can use s to fix this  up
as follows:


This says: ``in line 1, substitute for the characters th the
characters the.'' To verify that it works (ed will not print
the result automatically) say


and get

     Now is the time

which is what you wanted. Notice that dot must have been set
to  the  line where the substitution took place, since the p
command printed that line. Dot is always set this  way  with
the s command.

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  The general way to use the substitute command is

     starting-line, ending-line s/change this/to this/

Whatever string of characters is between the first  pair  of
slashes  is replaced by whatever is between the second pair,
in all the lines between starting-line and ending-line. Only
the  first  occurrence  on each line is changed, however. If
you want to change every occurrence,  see  Exercise  5.  The
rules  for  line numbers are the same as those for p, except
that dot is set to the last line changed. (But  there  is  a
trap  for  the unwary: if no substitution took place, dot is
not changed. This causes an error ? as a warning.)

  Thus you can say


and correct the first spelling mistake on each line  in  the
text.   (This  is  useful  for  people  who  are  consistent

  If no line numbers are given, the  s  command  assumes  we
mean  ``make  the  substitution on line dot'', so it changes
things only on the current line. This leads to the very com-
mon sequence

     s/something/something else/p

which makes some correction on the current  line,  and  then
prints  it,  to make sure it worked out right. If it didn't,
you can try again. (Notice that there is a  p  on  the  same
line as the s command. With few exceptions, p can follow any
command; no other multi-command lines are legal.)

  It's also legal to say

     s/ . . . //

which means ``change  the  first  string  of  characters  to
``nothing'',  i.e., remove them. This is useful for deleting
extra words in a line or removing extra letters from  words.
For instance, if you had

     Nowxx is the time

you can say


to get

     Now is the time

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Notice that // (two adjacent  slashes)  means  ``no  charac-
ters'',  not  a blank. There is a difference! (See below for
another meaning of //.)

Exercise 5:

  Experiment with the substitute command. See  what  happens
if  you  substitute  for  some  word  on a line with several
occurrences of that word. For example, do this:

     the other side of the coin
     s/the/on the/p

You will get

     on the other side of the coin

A substitute command changes only the  first  occurrence  of
the first string. You can change all occurrences by adding a
g (for ``global'') to the s command, like this:

     s/ . . . / . . . /gp

Try other characters instead of slashes to delimit  the  two
sets  of  characters in the s command - anything should work
except blanks or tabs.

  (If you get funny results using any of the characters

     ^    .    $    [    *    \    &

read the section on ``Special Characters''.)

Context searching - ``/ . . . /''

  With the substitute command mastered, you can move  on  to
another highly important idea of ed - context searching.

  Suppose you have the  original  three  line  text  in  the

     Now is the time
     for all good men
     to come to the aid of their party.

Suppose you want to find the line that contains their so you
can  change  it  to  the.  Now  with only three lines in the
buffer, it's pretty easy to keep track of what line the word
their  is  on.  But  if the buffer contained several hundred
lines, and you'd been making changes, deleting and rearrang-
ing  lines,  and so on, you would no longer really know what
this line number would be. Context  searching  is  simply  a

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method  of  specifying  the desired line, regardless of what
its number is, by specifying some context on it.

  The way to say ``search for a line that contains this par-
ticular string of characters'' is to type

     /string of characters we want to find/

For example, the ed command


is a context search which is sufficient to find the  desired
line  - it will locate the next occurrence of the characters
between slashes (``their''). It also sets dot to  that  line
and prints the line for verification:

     to come to the aid of their party.

``Next occurrence'' means that ed  starts  looking  for  the
string  at line .+1, searches to the end of the buffer, then
continues at line 1 and searches to line dot. (That is,  the
search ``wraps around'' from $ to 1.) It scans all the lines
in the buffer until it either finds the desired line or gets
back  to  dot again. If the given string of characters can't
be found in any line, ed types the error message


Otherwise it prints the line it found.

  You can do both the search for the desired line and a sub-
stitution all at once, like this:


which will yield

     to come to the aid of the party.

There were three parts to that last command: context  search
for the desired line, make the substitution, print the line.

  The expression /their/ is a context search expression.  In
their simplest form, all context search expressions are like
this - a string of characters surrounded by slashes. Context
searches  are interchangeable with line numbers, so they can
be used by themselves to find and print a desired  line,  or
as  line  numbers  for some other command, like s. They were
used both ways in the examples above.

  Suppose the buffer contains the three familiar lines

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     Now is the time
     for all good men
     to come to the aid of their party.

Then the ed line numbers


are all context search expressions, and they  all  refer  to
the  same  line  (line  2).  To make a change in line 2, you
could say






The choice is dictated only by convenience. You could  print
all three lines by, for instance




or by any number of similar combinations. The first  one  of
these  might  be better if you don't know how many lines are
involved. (Of course, if there were only three lines in  the
buffer, you'd use


but not if there were several hundred.)

  The basic rule is: a context search expression is the same
as  a  line number, so it can be used wherever a line number
is needed.

Exercise 6:

  Experiment with context searching. Try a body of text with
several  occurrences  of  the same string of characters, and
scan through it using the same context search.

  Try  using  context  searches  as  line  numbers  for  the

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substitute,  print,  and  delete commands. (They can also be
used with r, w, and a.)

  Try context searching using ?text? instead of /text/. This
scans  lines in the buffer in reverse order rather than nor-
mal. This is sometimes useful if you go too far while  look-
ing for some string of characters - it's an easy way to back

  (If you get funny results with any of the characters

     ^    .    $    [    *    \    &

read the section on ``Special Characters''.)

  Ed provides a shorthand for repeating a context search for
the same string. For example, the ed line number


will find the next occurrence of string.  It  often  happens
that  this  is  not  the desired line, so the search must be
repeated. This can be done by typing merely


This shorthand stands for ``the most recently  used  context
search expression.'' It can also be used as the first string
of the substitute command, as in


which will find the next occurrence of string1  and  replace
it by string2. This can save a lot of typing. Similarly


means ``scan backwards for the same expression.''

Change and Insert - ``c'' and ``i''

  This section discusses the change command


which is used to change or replace a group of  one  or  more
lines, and the insert command


which is used for inserting a group of one or more lines.

  ``Change'', written as

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is used to replace a number of lines with  different  lines,
which  are  typed in at the terminal. For example, to change
lines .+1 through $ to something else, type

     . . . type the lines of text you want here . . .

The lines you type between the c command and the . will take
the  place  of the original lines between start line and end
line. This is most useful in replacing  a  line  or  several
lines which have errors in them.

  If only one line is specified in the c command, then  just
that  line is replaced. (You can type in as many replacement
lines as you like.) Notice the use of . to end the  input  -
this  works  just  like the . in the append command and must
appear by itself on a new line. If no line number is  given,
line  dot  is  replaced. The value of dot is set to the last
line you typed in.

  ``Insert'' is similar to append - for instance

     . . . type the lines to be inserted here . . .

will insert the given text before the next  line  that  con-
tains  ``string''.  The  text  between  i  and . is inserted
before the specified line. If no line  number  is  specified
dot is used. Dot is set to the last line inserted.

Exercise 7:

  ``Change'' is rather like a combination of delete followed
by insert. Experiment to verify that

     start, end d
     . . . text . . .

is almost the same as

     start, end c
     . . . text . . .

These are not precisely the same if  line  $  gets  deleted.
Check this out. What is dot?

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  Experiment with a and i, to see that they are similar, but
not the same. You will observe that

     line-number a
     . . . text . . .

appends after the given line, while

     line-number i
     . . . text . . .

inserts before it. Observe that if no line number is  given,
i inserts before line dot, while a appends after line dot.

Moving text around: the ``m'' command

  The move command m is used for cutting and  pasting  -  it
lets  you move a group of lines from one place to another in
the buffer. Suppose you want to put the first three lines of
the buffer at the end instead. You could do it by saying:

     1,3w temp
     $r temp

(Do you see why?) but you can do it a lot easier with the  m


The general case is

     start line, end line m after this line

Notice that there is a third line  to  be  specified  -  the
place where the moved stuff gets put. Of course the lines to
be moved can be specified by context searches; if you had

     First paragraph
     . . .
     end of first paragraph.
     Second paragraph
     . . .
     end of second paragraph.

you could reverse the two paragraphs like this:

     /Second/,/end of second/m/First/-1

Notice the -1: the moved text goes after the line mentioned.
Dot gets set to the last line moved.

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The global commands ``g'' and ``v''

  The global command g is used to execute  one  or  more  ed
commands  on  all  those lines in the buffer that match some
specified string. For example


prints all lines that contain peling. More usefully,


makes the substitution everywhere on the line,  then  prints
each corrected line. Compare this to


which only prints the last line substituted. Another  subtle
difference is that the g command does not give a ? if peling
is not found where the s command will.

  There may be several commands (including a, c,  i,  r,  w,
but  not  g);  in that case, every line except the last must
end with a backslash \:


makes changes in the lines before and after each  line  that
contains xxx, then prints all three lines.

  The v command is the same as g, except that  the  commands
are  executed  on  every line that does not match the string
following v:

     v/ /d

deletes every line that does not contain a blank.

Special Characters

  You may have noticed that things  just  don't  work  right
when  you  used  some characters like ., *, $, and others in
context searches and the substitute command. The  reason  is
rather  complex,  although the cure is simple. Basically, ed
treats these characters as special, with  special  meanings.
For instance, in a context search or the first string of the
substitute command only, . means ``any  character,''  not  a
period, so


means ``a line with an x, any character, and a y,'' not just

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``a  line with an x, a period, and a y.'' A complete list of
the special characters that can cause trouble is the follow-

     ^    .    $    [    *    \    &

Warning: The backslash character \ is  special  to  ed.  For
safety's  sake,  avoid it where possible. If you have to use
one of the special characters in a substitute  command,  you
can  turn  off its magic meaning temporarily by preceding it
with the backslash. Thus

     s/\\\.\*/backslash dot star/

will change \.* into ``backslash dot star''.

  Here is a hurried synopsis of the  other  special  charac-
ters.  First,  the circumflex ^ signifies the beginning of a
line. Thus


finds string only if it is at the beginning of  a  line:  it
will find


but not

     the string...

The dollar-sign $ is just the opposite of the circumflex; it
means the end of a line:


will only find an occurrence of string that is at the end of
some line. This implies, of course, that


will find only a line that contains just string, and


finds a line containing exactly one character.

  The character ., as we mentioned above, matches anything;


matches any of

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     x y

This is useful in conjunction with *, which is a  repetition
character;  a*  is a shorthand for ``any number of a's,'' so
.* matches any number of anythings. This is used like this:


which changes an entire line, or


which deletes all characters in the line up to and including
the  last comma. (Since .* finds the longest possible match,
this goes up to the last comma.)

  [ is used with ] to form ``character classes''; for  exam-


matches any single digit - any one of the characters  inside
the  braces  will  cause a match. This can be abbreviated to

  Finally, the & is another shorthand character - it is used
only on the right-hand part of a substitute command where it
means ``whatever was matched on the left-hand side''. It  is
used to save typing. Suppose the current line contained

     Now is the time

and you wanted to put parentheses around it. You could  just
retype the line, but this is tedious. Or you could say


using your knowledge of ^ and $. But the  easiest  way  uses
the &:


This says ``match the whole line, and replace it  by  itself
surrounded by parentheses.'' The & can be used several times
in a line; consider using

     s/.*/&?  &!!/

to produce

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     Now is the time?  Now is the time!!

  You don't have to match the whole line, of course: if  the
buffer contains

     the end of the world

you could type

     /world/s//& is at hand/

to produce

     the end of the world is at hand

Observe this expression carefully, for it illustrates how to
take  advantage  of  ed  to  save typing. The string /world/
found the desired line; the shorthand // found the same word
in the line; and the & saves you from typing it again.

  The & is a special character only within  the  replacement
text  of  a  substitute  command, and has no special meaning
elsewhere. You can turn off the  special  meaning  of  &  by
preceding it with a \:


will convert the word ``ampersand'' into the literal  symbol
& in the current line.

Summary of Commands and Line Numbers

  The general form of  ed  commands  is  the  command  name,
perhaps  preceded  by  one  or two line numbers, and, in the
case of e, r, and w, followed by a file name. Only one  com-
mand  is  allowed  per  line, but a p command may follow any
other command (except for e, r, w, and q).

a: Append, that is, add lines to the buffer  (at  line  dot,
unless  a  different line is specified). Appending continues
until . is typed on a new line. Dot is set to the last  line

c: Change the specified lines to the new text which follows.
The  new lines are terminated by a ., as with a. If no lines
are specified, replace line dot. Dot is set to the last line

d: Delete the lines specified. If none are specified, delete
line  dot.  Dot is set to the first undeleted line, unless $

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is deleted, in which case dot is set to $.

e: Edit new file. Any previous contents of  the  buffer  are
thrown away, so issue a w beforehand.

f: Print remembered filename. If a name follows f the remem-
bered name will be set to it.

g: The command


will execute the commands on those lines that  contain  ---,
which can be any context search expression.

i: Insert lines before specified line (or dot) until a .  is
typed on a new line. Dot is set to last line inserted.

m: Move lines specified to after the line named after m. Dot
is set to the last line moved.

p: Print specified lines. If none specified, print line dot.
A  single line number is equivalent to line-number p. A sin-
gle return prints .+1, the next line.

q: Quit ed. Wipes out all text in  buffer  if  you  give  it
twice in a row without first giving a w command.

r: Read a file into buffer (at end  unless  specified  else-
where.) Dot set to last line read.

s: The command


substitutes the  characters  string1  into  string2  in  the
specified lines. If no lines are specified, make the substi-
tution in line dot. Dot is set to the last line in  which  a
substitution took place, which means that if no substitution
took place, dot is not changed. s  changes  only  the  first
occurrence of string1 on a line; to change all of them, type
a g after the final slash.

v: The command


executes commands on those lines that do not contain ---.

w: Write out buffer onto a file. Dot is not changed.

.=: Print value of dot. (= by itself prints the value of $.)

!: The line

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causes command-line to be executed as a UNIX command.

/-----/: Context search. Search for next line which contains
this  string of characters. Print it. Dot is set to the line
where string was found. Search starts at .+1,  wraps  around
from $ to 1, and continues to dot, if necessary.

?-----?: Context search in reverse direction.  Start  search
at .-1, scan to 1, wrap around to $.

                      December 7, 2021

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