MirOS Manual: 01.setup(SMM)

                       April 3, 2017

SMM:1-4                 Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

            Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX
                       July 27, 1993

                   Marshall Kirk McKusick

                        Keith Bostic

                     Michael J. Karels

                     Samuel J. Leffler

              Computer Systems Research Group
 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
             University of California, Berkeley
                Berkeley, California  94720
                       (415) 642-7780

                        Mike Hibler

                Center for Software Science
               Department of Computer Science
                     University of Utah
                Salt Lake City, Utah  84112
                       (801) 581-5017


          This document contains instructions  for  the
     installation  and  operation of the 4.4BSD release
     of UNIX[1] as distributed  by  The  University  of
     California at Berkeley.

          It discusses procedures for  installing  UNIX
     on  a  new  machine, and for upgrading an existing
     4.3BSD UNIX system to the new release. An explana-
     tion  of  how  to lay out filesystems on available
     disks and the space requirements for various parts
     of  the  system are given. A brief overview of the
     major changes to the  system  between  4.3BSD  and
     4.4BSD  are outlined. An explanation of how to set
     up terminal lines and user accounts, and how to do
     system-specific  tailoring is provided. A descrip-
  [1] UNIX  is a registered trademark of USL in the USA
and some other countries.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                 SMM:1-5

     tion of how to install and  configure  the  4.4BSD
     networking  facilities  is  included. Finally, the
     document  details  system  operation   procedures:
     shutdown   and  startup,  filesystem  backup  pro-
     cedures, resource control, performance monitoring,
     and  procedures  for  recompiling and reinstalling
     system software.

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-6                 Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

1. Introduction
     This document explains how to install the 4.4BSD Berke-
ley version of UNIX on your system. The filesystem format is
compatible with 4.3BSD and it will only be necessary for you
to  do  a full bootstrap procedure if you are installing the
release on a new machine. The object file formats  are  com-
pletely  different  from  the  System V release, so the most
straightforward procedure for upgrading a System V system is
to do a full bootstrap.
     The full bootstrap procedure is outlined in section  2;
the  process  starts  with copying a filesystem image onto a
new disk. This filesystem is then booted and used to extract
the  remainder  of  the system binaries and sources from the
archives on the tape(s).
     The  technique  for  upgrading  a  4.3BSD   system   is
described  in  section  3 of this document. The upgrade pro-
cedure involves extracting system binaries onto new root and
/usr  filesystems and merging local configuration files into
the new system. User filesystems may be upgraded  in  place.
Most  4.3BSD  binaries may be used with 4.4BSD in the course
of the  conversion.  It  is  desirable  to  recompile  local
sources after the conversion, as the new compiler (GCC) pro-
vides superior code optimization. Consult section 3.5 for  a
description  of  some  of the differences between 4.3BSD and

1.1. Distribution format
     The distribution comes in two formats:

        (3)   6250bpi 2400' 9-track magnetic tapes, or
        (1)   8mm Exabyte tape

     If you have the facilities, we strongly recommend copy-
ing  the  magnetic  tape(s) in the distribution kit to guard
against disaster.  The  tapes  contain  10240-byte  records.
There  are  interspersed tape marks; end-of-tape is signaled
by a double end-of-file. The  first  file  on  the  tape  is
architecture dependent. Additional files on the tape(s) con-
tain tape archive images of the system binaries and  sources
(see tar(1)[2]). See the tape label for a description of the
contents and format of each individual tape.

1.2. UNIX device naming
     Device names  have  a  different  syntax  depending  on
whether  you  are talking to the standalone system or a run-
ning UNIX kernel. The standalone system syntax is  currently
architecture  dependent  and  is  described  in  the various
architecture specific sections as applicable. When not  run-
ning  standalone,  devices  are  available  via files in the
/dev/ directory. The file name typically encodes the  device
  [2] References of the form X(Y) mean the entry  named
X in section Y of the ``UNIX Programmer's Manual''.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                 SMM:1-7

type, its logical unit and a partition within that unit. For
example, /dev/sd2b refers to the second partition (``b'') of
SCSI (``sd'') drive number ``2'', while /dev/rmt0 refers  to
the  raw  (``r'')  interface  of  9-track tape (``mt'') unit
     The mapping of physical  addressing  information  (e.g.
controller, target) to a logical unit number is dependent on
the system configuration. In all simple cases, where only  a
single  controller  is  present,  a drive with physical unit
number 0 (e.g., as determined  by  its  unit  specification,
either  unit  plug  or  other  selection  mechanism) will be
called unit 0 in its UNIX file name. This is  not,  however,
strictly necessary, since the system has a level of indirec-
tion in this naming. If there are multiple controllers,  the
disk  unit  numbers  will  normally  be counted sequentially
across controllers.  This can be taken advantage of to  make
the  system less dependent on the interconnect topology, and
to make reconfiguration after hardware failure easier.
     Each UNIX physical disk is divided into at most 8 logi-
cal  disk  partitions, each of which may occupy any consecu-
tive cylinder range on the physical device.   The  cylinders
occupied  by the 8 partitions for each drive type are speci-
fied initially in the  disk  description  file  /etc/disktab
(c.f. disktab(5)). The partition information and description
of the drive geometry are written in one of the  first  sec-
tors  of each disk with the disklabel(8) program.  Each par-
tition may be used for either a raw data area such as a pag-
ing  area  or to store a UNIX filesystem. It is conventional
for the first partition on a disk to be used to store a root
filesystem,  from which UNIX may be bootstrapped. The second
partition is traditionally used as a paging  area,  and  the
rest  of  the  disk  is  divided  into spaces for additional
``mounted filesystems'' by use of  one  or  more  additional

1.3. UNIX devices: block and raw
     UNIX makes a distinction between ``block'' and  ``raw''
(character) devices.  Each disk has a block device interface
where the system makes the device byte addressable  and  you
can write a single byte in the middle of the disk.  The sys-
tem will read out the data from the disk sector, insert  the
byte  you gave it and put the modified data back.  The disks
with the names /dev/xx0[a-h], etc., are block devices. There
are  also  raw  devices  available.  These  have  names like
/dev/rxx0[a-h], the ``r'' here  standing  for  ``raw''.  Raw
devices bypass the buffer cache and use DMA directly to/from
the program's I/O buffers; they are normally  restricted  to
full-sector  transfers.  In the bootstrap procedures we will
often suggest using the raw devices, because these  tend  to
work  faster.  Raw devices are used when making new filesys-
tems, when checking unmounted filesystems,  or  for  copying
quiescent  filesystems.  The block devices are used to mount
     You should be aware  that  it  is  sometimes  important

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-8                 Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

whether  to use the character device (for efficiency) or not
(because it would not work, e.g. to write a single  byte  in
the  middle  of a sector). Do not change the instructions by
using the wrong type of device indiscriminately.

2. Bootstrap procedure
     This section explains the bootstrap procedure that  can
be  used  to  get the kernel supplied with this distribution
running on your machine. If you are  not  currently  running
4.3BSD  you  will  have  to  do  a full bootstrap. Section 3
describes how to upgrade a 4.3BSD system.  An  understanding
of  the  operations  used  in a full bootstrap is helpful in
doing an upgrade as well.  In  either  case,  it  is  highly
desirable to read and understand the remainder of this docu-
ment before proceeding.
     The distribution  supports  a  somewhat  wider  set  of
machines  than  those  for which we have built binaries. The
architectures  that  are  supported  only  in  source   form
+    Intel 386/486-based machines (ISA/AT or EISA bus only)
+    Sony News MIPS-based workstations
+    Omron Luna 68000-based workstations
If you wish to run one of these architectures, you will have
to build a cross compilation environment. Note that the dis-
tribution does not include the machine support for the Tahoe
and  VAX  architectures found in previous BSD distributions.
Our primary development environment is the HP9000/300 series
machines.  The  other  architectures  are developed and sup-
ported by people outside the  university.  Consequently,  we
are not able to directly test or maintain these other archi-
tectures, so cannot comment on their  robustness,  reliabil-
ity, or completeness.

2.1. Bootstrapping from the tape
The set of files on the distribution tape are as follows:
1)   A  dd(1)  (HP300),  tar(1)  (DECstation),  or   dump(8)
     (SPARC) image of the root filesystem
2)   A tar image of the /var filesystem
3)   A tar image of the /usr filesystem
4)   A tar image of /usr/src/sys
5)   A tar image of /usr/src except sys and contrib
6)   A tar image of /usr/src/contrib
7)   (8mm Exabyte tape distributions only) A  tar  image  of
The tape bootstrap procedure used to create a working system
involves the following major steps:
1)   Transfer a bootable root filesystem from the tape to  a
     disk and get it booted and running.
2)   Build and restore the /var and  /usr  filesystems  from
     tape with tar(1).
3)   Extract the system and utility source files as desired.
     The following sections  describe  the  above  steps  in
detail. The details of the first step vary between architec-
tures.  The  specific  steps  for  the  HP300,  SPARC,   and

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                 SMM:1-9

DECstation  are  given  in  the  next three sections respec-
tively. You should follow the instructions for your particu-
lar architecture. In all sections, commands you are expected
to type are shown in italics, while that information printed
by the system is shown emboldened.

2.2. Booting the HP300

2.2.1. Supported hardware
The hardware supported by 4.4BSD for  the  HP300/400  is  as

 | CPU's        68020 based  (318,  319,  320,  330  and|
 |              350),  68030  based (340, 345, 360, 370,|
 |              375, 400) and  68040  based  (380,  425,|
 |              433).                                   |
 | DISK's       HP-IB/CS80  (7912,  7914,  7933,   7936,|
 |              7945,  7957, 7958, 7959, 2200, 2203) and|
 |              SCSI-I (including magneto-optical).     |
 | TAPE's       Low-density CS80 cartridge (7914,  7946,|
 |              9144),   high-density   CS80   cartridge|
 |              (9145), HP SCSI DAT and SCSI Exabyte.   |
 | RS232        98644 built-in single-port, 98642 4-port|
 |              and 98638 8-port interfaces.            |
 | NETWORK      98643 internal and external LAN cards.  |
 | GRAPHICS     Terminal emulation and raw frame  buffer|
 |              support  for 98544 / 98545 / 98547 (Top-|
 |              cat color & monochrome), 98548 / 98549 /|
 |              98550   (Catseye  color  &  monochrome),|
 |              98700 / 98710 (Gatorbox), 98720 /  98721|
 |              (Renaissance),  98730  / 98731 (DaVinci)|
 |              and A1096A (Hyperion monochrome).       |
 | INPUT        General  interface  supporting  all  HIL|
 |              devices.  (e.g. keyboard, 2 and 3 button|
 |              mice, ID module, ...)                   |
 | MISC         Battery-backed real time clock,  builtin|
 |              and  98625A/B  HP-IB interfaces, builtin|
 |              and  98658A  SCSI   interfaces,   serial|
 |              printers and plotters on HP-IB, and SCSI|
 |              autochanger device.                     |

Major items that are not supported include the 310  and  332
CPU's,  400  series  machines configured for Domain/OS, EISA
and VME bus adaptors, audio, the centronics port, 1/2"  tape
drives   (7980),  CD-ROM,  and  the  PVRX/TVRX  3D  graphics

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-10                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX


2.2.2. Standalone device file naming
The standalone system device name syntax on the HP300 is  of
the form:


where xx is the device type, a specifies the adaptor to use,
c  the controller, u the unit, and p a partition. The device
type differentiates the various disks and tapes and  is  one
of:  ``rd'' for HP-IB CS80 disks, ``ct'' for HP-IB CS80 car-
tridge tapes, or ``sd'' for SCSI-I disks (SCSI-I  tapes  are
currently  not  supported).  The  adaptor field is a logical
HP-IB or SCSI bus adaptor card number. This  will  typically
be  0  for  SCSI  disks, 0 for devices on the ``slow'' HP-IB
interface (usually tapes) and 1 for devices on the  ``fast''
HP-IB  interface  (usually disks). To get a complete mapping
of physical (select-code) to logical card numbers just  type
a  ^C  at the standalone prompt. The controller field is the
disk or tape's target number on the HP-IB or SCSI  bus.  For
SCSI  the range is 0 to 6 (7 is the adaptor address) and for
HP-IB the range is 0 to 7. The  unit  field  is  unused  and
should  be 0. The partition field is interpreted differently
for tapes and disks: for disks it is a  disk  partition  (in
the  range 0-7), and for tapes it is a file number offset on
the tape. Thus, partition 2 of a SCSI disk drive at target 3
on SCSI bus 1 would be ``sd(1,3,0,2)''. If you have only one
of any type bus adaptor, you may omit the adaptor  and  con-
troller  numbers;  e.g. ``sd(0,2)'' could be used instead of
``sd(0,0,0,2)''. The following examples always use the  full
syntax for clarity.

2.2.3. The procedure
The basic steps involved in bringing up  the  HP300  are  as
1)   Obtain a second disk and format it, if necessary.
2)   Copy a root filesystem from the tape onto the beginning
     of the disk.
3)   Boot the UNIX system on the new disk.
4)   (Optional) Build a root filesystem optimized  for  your
5)   Label the disks with the disklabel(8) program. Step 1: selecting and formatting a disk
     For your first system you will have to obtain a format-
ted  disk of a type given in the ``supported hardware'' list
above. If you want to load an entire  binary  system  (i.e.,
everything  except  /usr/src),  on  the single disk you will
need a minimum of 290MB, ruling out anything smaller than  a
7959B/S  disk.  The disklabel included in the bootstrap root
image is laid out to accommodate this scenario. Note that an
HP  SCSI  magneto-optical disk will work fine for this case.
4.4BSD will boot and run (albeit slowly) using one.  If  you

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-11

want  to  load source on a single disk system, you will need
at least 640MB (at least a 2213A SCSI or 2203A HP-IB  disk).
A  disk  as  small  as  the 7945A (54MB) can be used for the
bootstrap procedure but will hold only the root and  primary
swap partitions. If you plan to use multiple disks, refer to
section 2.5 for suggestions on partitioning.
     After selecting a disk, you  may  need  to  format  it.
Since most HP disk drives come pre-formatted (except optical
media) you probably will not, but if necessary, you can for-
mat a disk under HP-UX using the mediainit(1m) program. Once
you have 4.4BSD up and running on one machine  you  can  use
the  scsiformat(8)  program to format additional SCSI disks.
Any additional HP-IB disks will have to be  formatted  using
HP-UX. Step 2: copying the root filesystem  from  tape  to
     Once you have a formatted second disk you can  use  the
dd(1)  command under HP-UX to copy the root filesystem image
from the tape to the beginning of the second disk. For HP's,
the  root filesystem image is the first file on the tape. It
includes a disklabel  and  bootblock  along  with  the  root
filesystem.  An  example command to copy the image from tape
to the beginning of a disk is:

        dd if=/dev/rmt/0m of=/dev/rdsk/1s0 bs=20b

The actual special file syntax may vary  depending  on  unit
numbers  and  the  version of HP-UX that is running. Consult
the HP-UX mt(7) and disk(7) man pages for details.
     Note that if you have a SCSI  disk,  you  don't  neces-
sarily have to use HP-UX (or an HP) to create the boot disk.
Any machine and operating system that will allow you to copy
the raw disk image out to block 0 of the disk will do.
     If you have only a single machine with a  single  disk,
you may still be able to install and boot 4.4BSD if you have
an HP-IB cartridge tape drive. If so, you  can  use  a  more
difficult approach of booting a standalone copy program from
the tape, and using that to copy the root  filesystem  image
from  the  tape to the disk. To do this, you need to extract
the first file of the distribution tape  (the  root  image),
copy  it  over  to a machine with a cartridge drive and then
copy the image onto tape. For example:

        dd if=/dev/rst0 of=bootimage bs=20b
        rcp bootimage foo:/tmp/bootimage
        <login to foo>
        dd if=/tmp/bootimage of=/dev/rct/0m bs=20b

Once this tape is created you can boot  and  run  the  stan-
dalone tape copy program from it. The copy program is loaded
just as any other program would be loaded by the bootrom  in
``attended''  mode:  reset  the CPU, hold down the space bar
until  the  word  ``Keyboard''  appears  in  the   installed

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-12                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

interface  list, and enter the menu selection for SYS_TCOPY.
Once loaded and running:

        From: ^C                              (control-C to see logical adaptor assignments)
        hpib0 at sc7
        scsi0 at sc14
        From: ct(0,7,0,0)                     (HP-IB tape, target 7, first tape file)
        To: sd(0,0,0,2)                       (SCSI disk, target 0, third partition)
        Copy completed: 1728 records copied

This copy will likely take 30 minutes or more. Step 3: booting the root filesystem
     You now have a bootable root filesystem on the disk. If
you were previously running with two disks, it would be best
if you shut down the machine and turn off power on the HP-UX
drive.  It  will be less confusing and it will eliminate any
chance of accidentally destroying the  HP-UX  disk.  If  you
used a cartridge tape for booting you should also unload the
tape at this point. Whether you booted from tape  or  copied
from  disk  you should now reboot the machine and do another
attended  boot  (see  previous  section),  this  time   with
SYS_TBOOT.  Once  loaded  and  running the boot program will
display the CPU type and prompt for a kernel file to boot:

        HP433 CPU
        : /vmunix

After providing the  kernel  name,  the  machine  will  boot
4.4BSD with output that looks about like this:

        597480+34120+139288 start 0xfe8019ec
        Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                The Regents of the University of California.
        Copyright (c) 1992 Hewlett-Packard Company
        Copyright (c) 1992 Motorola Inc.
        All rights reserved.

        4.4BSD UNIX #1: Tue Jul 20 11:40:36 PDT 1993
        HP9000/433 (33MHz MC68040 CPU+MMU+FPU, 4k on-chip physical I/D caches)
        real mem = xxx
        avail mem = ###
        using ### buffers containing ### bytes of memory
        (... information about available devices ...)
        root device?

     The  first  three  numbers  are  printed  out  by   the
bootstrap  program  and  are the sizes of different parts of
the system (text, initialized and uninitialized data).   The
system  also  allocates several system data structures after

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-13

it starts running.  The sizes of these structures are  based
on  the  amount of available memory and the maximum count of
active users expected, as declared in a system configuration
description.  This will be discussed later.
     UNIX itself then runs for the first time and begins  by
printing out a banner identifying the release and version of
the system that is in use and the date that it was compiled.
     Next the mem messages give the amount of  real  (physi-
cal)  memory  and  the  memory available to user programs in
bytes. For example,  if  your  machine  has  16Mb  bytes  of
memory, then xxx will be 16777216.
     The messages that come out next show what devices  were
found   on   the  current  processor.   These  messages  are
described in autoconf(4). The  distributed  system  may  not
have  found  all  the communications devices you have or all
the mass storage peripherals you  have,  especially  if  you
have  more than two of anything.  You will correct this when
you create a description of your machine from which to  con-
figure  a  site-dependent  version  of  UNIX.  The  messages
printed at boot here contain much of  the  information  that
will  be  used in creating the configuration. In a correctly
configured system most of the  information  present  in  the
configuration description is printed out at boot time as the
system verifies that each device is present.
     The ``root device?'' prompt was printed by  the  system
to  ask you for the name of the root filesystem to use. This
happens because the distribution system is a generic system,
i.e.,  it  can be bootstrapped on a cpu with its root device
and paging area on any available disk drive. You  will  most
likely  respond  to the root device question with ``sd0'' if
you are booting from a SCSI disk, or with ``rd0'' if you are
booting  from  an  HP-IB  disk. This response shows that the
disk it is running on is drive 0 of type  ``sd''  or  ``rd''
respectively.  If  you have other disks attached to the sys-
tem, it is possible that the drive you are using will not be
configured  as  logical drive 0. Check the autoconfiguration
messages printed out by the kernel to make sure. These  mes-
sages  will  show  the type of every logical drive and their
associated controller and slave addresses.  You  will  later
build  a system tailored to your configuration that will not
prompt you for a root device when it is bootstrapped.

        root device? sd0
        WARNING: preposterous time in filesystem -- CHECK AND RESET THE DATE!
        erase ^?, kill ^U, intr ^C

     The ``erase ...'' message is part of the /.profile that
was  executed  by the root shell when it started.  This mes-
sage tells you about the settings of  the  character  erase,
line erase, and interrupt characters.
     UNIX is now running, and the UNIX  Programmer's  Manual
applies.  The ``#'' is the prompt from the Bourne shell, and
lets you know that you are the super-user, whose login  name

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-14                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

is ``root''.
     At this point, the root  filesystem  is  mounted  read-
only.  Before  continuing  the  installation, the filesystem
needs to be ``updated'' to allow writing and device  special
files  for  the  following steps need to be created. This is
done as follows:

        # mount_mfs -s 1000 -T type /dev/null /tmp                (create a writable filesystem)
        (type is the disk type as determined from /etc/disktab)
        # cd /tmp                                                 (connect to that directory)
        # ../dev/MAKEDEV sd#                                      (create special files for root disk)
        (sd is the disk type, # is the unit number)
        (ignore warning from ``sh'')
        # mount -uw /tmp/sd#a /                                   (read-write mount root filesystem)
        # cd /dev                                                 (go to device directory)
        # ./MAKEDEV sd#                                           (create permanent special files for root disk)
        (again, ignore warning from ``sh'') Step 4: (optional) restoring the root filesystem
     The root filesystem that you are currently  running  on
is  complete,  however it probably is not optimally laid out
for the disk on which you are running. If you will be  clon-
ing  copies  of  the  system  onto  multiple disks for other
machines, you are advised to connect one of these  disks  to
this machine, and build and restore a properly laid out root
filesystem onto it. If this is the only machine on which you
will  be running 4.4BSD or peak performance is not an issue,
you can skip this step and proceed directly to step 5.
     Connect  a  second  disk  to  your  machine.   If   you
bootstrapped  using  the  two disk method, you can overwrite
your initial HP-UX disk, as it  will  no  longer  be  needed
(assuming you have no plans to run HP-UX again).
     To really create the root filesystem  on  drive  1  you
should  first  label  the disk as described in step 5 below.
Then run the following commands:

        # cd /dev
        # ./MAKEDEV sd1a
        #newfs /dev/rsd1a
        #mount /dev/sd1a /mnt
        #cd /mnt
        #dump 0f - /dev/rsd0a | restore xf -
        (Note: restore will ask if you want to ``set owner/mode for '.'''
        to which you should reply ``yes''.)

     When this completes, you should then shut down the sys-
tem,  and  boot  on the disk that you just created following
the procedure in step (3) above.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-15 Step 5: placing labels on the disks
     For each disk on the HP300, 4.4BSD  places  information
about  the geometry of the drive and the partition layout at
byte offset 1024. This information is written  with  diskla-
     The root image just loaded includes a ``generic'' label
intended to allow easy installation of the root and /usr and
may not be suitable for the actual  disk  on  which  it  was
installed.  In  particular,  it  may  make  your disk appear
larger or smaller than its real size. In  the  former  case,
you  lose  some  capacity. In the latter, some of the parti-
tions may map non-existent  sectors  leading  to  errors  if
those  partitions  are  used.  It  is also possible that the
defined geometry will interact poorly  with  the  filesystem
code  resulting  in reduced performance. However, as long as
you are willing to give up a little space, not  use  certain
partitions  or  suffer  minor  performance  degradation, you
might want to avoid this step; especially if you do not know
how to use ed(1).
     If you choose to edit  this  label,  you  can  fill  in
correct geometry information from /etc/disktab. You may also
want to rework the ``e'' and ``f'' partitions used for load-
ing  /usr and /var. You should not attempt to, and disklabel
will not let you, modify the ``a'', ``b'' and  ``d''  parti-
tions. To edit a label:

        # EDITOR=ed
        # export EDITOR
        # disklabel  -r  -e  /dev/rXX#d

where XX is the type and # is the logical drive number; e.g.
/dev/rsd0d or /dev/rrd0d. Note the explicit use of the ``d''
partition. This partition includes  the  bootblock  as  does
``c'' and using it allows you to change the size of ``c''.
     If you wish to label any additional disks, run the fol-
lowing command for each:

        #disklabel  -rw  XX#  type  "optional_pack_name"

where XX# is the same as in the previous command and type is
the  HP300  disk  device name as listed in /etc/disktab. The
optional information may contain any  descriptive  name  for
the contents of a disk, and may be up to 16 characters long.
This procedure will place the label on the  disk  using  the
information  found  in /etc/disktab for the disk type named.
If you have changed the disk partition sizes, you  may  wish
to   add   entries   for   the   modified  configuration  in
/etc/disktab before labeling the affected disks.
     You have now completed the HP300 specific part  of  the
installation. Now proceed to the generic part of the instal-
lation described starting in section 2.5  below.  Note  that
where  the  disk name ``sd'' is used throughout section 2.5,
you should substitute the name ``rd'' if you are running  on
an  HP-IB  disk.  Also,  if you are loading on a single disk

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-16                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

with the default disklabel, /var should be restored  to  the
``f'' partition and /usr to the ``e'' partition.

2.3. Booting the SPARC

2.3.1. Supported hardware
The hardware supported by 4.4BSD for the SPARC  is  as  fol-

 | CPU's        SPARCstation 1 series (1, 1+, SLC,  IPC)|
 |              and SPARCstation 2 series (2, IPX).     |
 | DISK's       SCSI.                                   |
 | TAPE's       none.                                   |
 | NETWORK      SPARCstation Lance (le).                |
 | GRAPHICS     bwtwo and cgthree.                      |
 | INPUT        Keyboard and mouse.                     |
 | MISC         Battery-backed real time clock, built-in|
 |              serial  devices,  Sbus  SCSI controller,|
 |              and audio device.                       |

Major items that are not  supported  include  anything  VME-
based,  the  GX  (cgsix)  display, the floppy disk, and SCSI

2.3.2. Limitations
There are several important limitations on the  4.4BSD  dis-
tribution for the SPARC:
1)   You must have  SunOS  4.1.x  or  Solaris  to  bring  up
     4.4BSD. There is no SPARCstation bootstrap code in this
     distribution.  The Sun-supplied  boot  loader  will  be
     used to boot 4.4BSD; you must copy this from your SunOS
     distribution.  This imposes several restrictions on the
     system, as detailed below.
2)   The 4.4BSD SPARC kernel does not  remap  SCSI  IDs.   A
     SCSI  disk  at  target  0 will become ``sd0'', where in
     SunOS the same disk will normally  be  called  ``sd3''.
     If  your  existing  SunOS system is diskful, it will be
     least painful to have SunOS running on the disk on tar-
     get  0 lun 0 and put 4.4BSD on the disk on target 3 lun
     0.  Both systems will then think they  are  running  on
     ``sd0'',  and you can boot either system as needed sim-
     ply by changing the EEPROM's boot device.
3)   There is no SCSI tape driver.  You  must  have  another
     system for tape reading and backups.
4)   Although the 4.4BSD SPARC kernel will  handle  existing
     SunOS  shared libraries, it does not use or create them

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-17

     itself, and therefore requires  much  more  disk  space
     than SunOS does.
5)   It is currently difficult (though not completely impos-
     sible)  to  run  4.4BSD  diskless.   These instructions
     assume you will have  a  local  boot,  swap,  and  root
6)   When using a serial port rather than a graphics display
     as the console, only port ttya can be used. Attempts to
     use port ttyb will fail when the kernel tries to  print
     the boot up messages to the console.

2.3.3. The procedure
     You must have a spare disk on which  to  place  4.4BSD.
The  steps  involved  in bootstrapping this tape are as fol-
1)   Bring up SunOS (preferably SunOS 4.1.x or Solaris  1.x,
     although Solaris 2 may work - this is untested).
2)   Attach auxiliary SCSI disk(s).  Format and label  using
     the  SunOS  formatting and labeling programs as needed.
     Note that the root  filesystem  currently  requires  at
     least  10 MB; 16 MB or more is recommended.  The b par-
     tition will be used for swap; this should be  at  least
     32 MB.
3)   Use the SunOS newfs to build the root filesystem.   You
     may  also  want  to build other filesystems at the same
     time.  (By default, the 4.4BSD newfs builds a  filesys-
     tem  that  SunOS will not handle; if you plan to switch
     OSes back and forth you may want to sacrifice the  per-
     formance gain from the new filesystem format for compa-
     tibility.) You can build an  old-format  filesystem  on
     4.4BSD by giving the -O option to newfs(8). Fsck(8) can
     convert old format filesystems to new  format  filesys-
     tems,  but not vice versa, so you may want to initially
     build old  format  filesystems  so  that  they  can  be
     mounted under SunOS, and then later convert them to new
     format filesystems when you are satisfied  that  4.4BSD
     is  running  properly.  In  any case, you must build an
     old-style root filesystem so that the SunOS  boot  pro-
     gram will work.
4)   Mount the new root, then  copy  the  SunOS  /boot  into
     place  and  use  the  SunOS  ``installboot'' program to
     enable disk-based booting.  Note  that  the  filesystem
     must be mounted when you do the ``installboot'':

             # mount /dev/sd3a /mnt
             # cp /boot /mnt/boot
             # cd /usr/kvm/mdec
             # installboot /mnt/boot bootsd /dev/rsd3a

     The SunOS /boot will load 4.4BSD kernels; there  is  no
     SPARCstation  bootstrap code on the distribution.  Note
     that the SunOS /boot does not  handle  the  new  4.4BSD
     filesystem format.
5)   Restore the contents of the 4.4BSD root filesystem.

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-18                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

             # cd /mnt
             # rrestore xf tapehost:/dev/nrst0

6)   Boot the supplied kernel:

             # halt
             ok boot sd(0,3)vmunix -s                [for old proms] OR
             ok boot disk3 -s                        [for new proms]
             ... [4.4BSD boot messages]

To install the  remaining  filesystems,  use  the  procedure
described  starting  in  section 2.5. In these instructions,
/usr should be loaded into the ``e'' partition and  /var  in
the ``f'' partition.
After completing the filesystem installation you may want to
set up 4.4BSD to reboot automatically:

        # halt
        ok setenv boot-from sd(0,3)vmunix       [for old proms] OR
        ok setenv boot-device disk3             [for new proms]

If you build backwards-compatible filesystems,  either  with
the  SunOS  newfs  or with the 4.4BSD ``-O'' option, you can
mount these under SunOS.   The  SunOS  fsck  will,  however,
always  think that these filesystems are corrupted, as there
are several new (previously unused) superblock  fields  that
are updated in 4.4BSD.  Running ``fsck -b32'' and letting it
``fix'' the superblock will take care of this.
If you wish to run SunOS  binaries  that  use  SunOS  shared
libraries,  you  simply  need to copy all the dynamic linker
files from an existing SunOS system:

        # rcp sunos-host:/etc/ld.so.cache /etc/
        # rcp sunos-host:'/usr/lib/*.so*' /usr/lib/

The SunOS compiler and linker  should  be  able  to  produce
SunOS  binaries  under 4.4BSD, but this has not been tested.
If you plan to try it you  will  need  the  appropriate  .sa
files as well.

2.4. Booting the DECstation

2.4.1. Supported hardware
The hardware supported by 4.4BSD for the  DECstation  is  as

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-19

 | CPU's        R2000  based  (3100)  and  R3000   based|
 |              (5000/200, 5000/20, 5000/25, 5000/1xx). |
 | DISK's       SCSI-I (tested RZ23, RZ55, RZ57,  Maxtor|
 |              8760S).                                 |
 | TAPE's       SCSI-I (tested DEC  TK50,  Archive  DAT,|
 |              Emulex MT02).                           |
 | RS232        Internal DEC dc7085 and AMD  8530  based|
 |              interfaces.                             |
 | NETWORK      TURBOchannel PMAD-AA and internal  LANCE|
 |              based interfaces.                       |
 | GRAPHICS     Terminal emulation and raw frame  buffer|
 |              support  for  3100 (color & monochrome),|
 |              TURBOchannel PMAG-AA, PMAG-BA, PMAG-DV. |
 | INPUT        Standard DEC keyboard (LK201) and mouse.|
 | MISC         Battery-backed real time clock, internal|
 |              and  TURBOchannel  PMAZ-AA  SCSI  inter-|
 |              faces.                                  |

Major items that are  not  supported  include  the  5000/240
(there  is  code but not compiled in or tested), R4000 based
machines, FDDI and audio interfaces. Diskless  machines  are
not supported but booting kernels and bootstrapping over the
network is supported on the 5000 series.

2.4.2. The procedure
     The first file on the distribution tape is a  tar  file
that  contains four files. The first step requires a running
UNIX (or ULTRIX) system that can be used to extract the  tar
archive from the first file on the tape. The command:

        tar xf /dev/rmt0

will extract the following four files:

        A) root.image: dd image of the root filesystem
        B) vmunix.tape: dd image for creating boot tapes
        C) vmunix.net: file for booting over the network
        D) root.dump: dump image of the root filesystem

There are three basic ways  a  system  can  be  bootstrapped
corresponding to the first three files. You may want to read
the section on bootstrapping the HP300  since  many  of  the
steps are similar. A spare, formatted SCSI disk is also use-

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-20                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX Procedure A: copy root filesystem to disk
     This procedure is similar to the HP300. If you have  an
extra  disk,  the  easiest  approach  is  to use dd(1) under
ULTRIX to copy the root filesystem image to the beginning of
the spare disk. The root filesystem image includes a diskla-
bel and bootblock along with the root filesystem. An example
command to copy the image to the beginning of a disk is:

        dd if=root.image of=/dev/rz1c bs=20b

The actual special file syntax will vary depending  on  unit
numbers and the version of ULTRIX that is running. This sys-
tem is now ready to boot. You can boot the kernel  with  one
of  the  following  PROM  commands.  If you are booting on a
3100, the disk must be SCSI id zero because of a bug.

        DEC 3100:    boot -f rz(0,0,0)vmunix
        DEC 5000:    boot 5/rz0/vmunix

You can then proceed to section  2.5  to  create  reasonable
disk  partitions  for your machine and then install the rest
of the system. Procedure B: bootstrap from tape
     If you have only a single machine with a  single  disk,
you  need  to  use  the more difficult approach of booting a
kernel and mini-root from tape or the network, and using  it
to restore the root filesystem.
     First, you will need to create a boot tape. This can be
done using dd as in the following example.

        dd if=vmunix.tape of=/dev/nrmt0 bs=1b
        dd if=root.dump of=/dev/nrmt0 bs=20b

The actual special file syntax for the tape drive will  vary
depending  on  unit  numbers, tape device and the version of
ULTRIX that is running.
     The first file on the boot tape contains a boot header,
kernel, and mini-root filesystem that the PROM can copy into
memory. Installing from tape has only been tested on a  3100
and a 5000/200 using a TK50 tape drive. Here are two example
PROM commands to boot from tape.

        DEC 3100:    boot -f tz(0,5,0) m    # 5 is the SCSI id of the TK50
        DEC 5000:    boot 5/tz6 m           # 6 is the SCSI id of the TK50

The `m' argument  tells  the  kernel  to  look  for  a  root
filesystem  in  memory.  Next  you should proceed to section
2.4.3 to build a disk-based root filesystem. Procedure C: bootstrap over the network
     You will need a host machine that is running the  bootp
server  with  the  vmunix.net  file installed in the default
directory defined by the configuration file for bootp.  Here

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-21

are two example PROM commands to boot across the net:

        DEC 3100:       boot -f tftp()vmunix.net m
        DEC 5000:       boot 6/tftp/vmunix.net m

This command should  load  the  kernel  and  mini-root  into
memory  and  run the same as the tape install (procedure B).
The rest of the steps are the same except you will  need  to
start  the  network  (if  you  are unsure how to fill in the
<name> fields below, see sections 4.4 and  5).  Execute  the
following to start the networking:

        # mount -uw /
        # echo localhost >> /etc/hosts
        # echo <your.host.inet.number> myname.my.domain myname >> /etc/hosts
        # echo <friend.host.inet.number> myfriend.my.domain myfriend >> /etc/hosts
        # ifconfig le0 inet myname

Next you should proceed to section 2.4.3 to  build  a  disk-
based root filesystem.

2.4.3. Label disk and create the root filesystem
There are five steps to create a disk-based root filesystem.
1)   Label the disk.

             # disklabel -W /dev/rrz?c               # This enables writing the label
             # disklabel -w -r -B /dev/rrz?c $DISKTYPE
             # newfs /dev/rrz?a
             # fsck /dev/rrz?a

     Supported disk types are listed in /etc/disktab.
2)   Restore the root filesystem.

             # mount -uw /
             # mount /dev/rz?a /a
             # cd /a

         If you are restoring locally (procedure B), run:

             # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 rew
             # restore -xsf 2 /dev/rmt0

         If you are restoring across the net (procedure  c),

             # rrestore xf myfriend:/path/to/root.dump

         When the restore finishes, clean up with:

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-22                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

             # cd /
             # sync
             # umount /a
             # fsck /dev/rz?a

3)   Reset the system and initialize  the  PROM  monitor  to
     boot automatically.

             DEC 3100:       setenv bootpath boot -f rz(0,?,0)vmunix
             DEC 5000:       setenv bootpath 5/rz?/vmunix -a

4)   After booting UNIX, you will need to create  /dev/mouse
     to run X windows as in the following example.

             rm /dev/mouse
             ln /dev/xx /dev/mouse

     The 'xx' should be one of the following:

             pm0     raw interface to PMAX graphics devices
             cfb0    raw interface to TURBOchannel PMAG-BA color frame buffer
             xcfb0   raw interface to maxine graphics devices
             mfb0    raw interface to mono graphics devices

     You can then proceed to section 2.5 to install the rest
     of  the system. Note that where the disk name ``sd'' is
     used throughout section 2.5, you should substitute  the
     name ``rz''.

2.5. Disk configuration
     All architectures now have a  root  filesystem  up  and
running and proceed from this point to layout filesystems to
make use of the available space and to balance disk load for
better system performance.

2.5.1. Disk naming and divisions
     Each physical disk drive can be divided into  up  to  8
partitions;  UNIX typically uses only 3 or 4 partitions. For
instance, the first partition, sd0a,  is  used  for  a  root
filesystem,  a  backup  thereof, or a small filesystem like,
/var/tmp; the second partition, sd0b, is used for paging and
swapping;  and  a  third  partition, typically sd0e, holds a
user filesystem.
     The space available on a disk varies per  device.  Each
disk  typically has a paging area of 30 to 100 megabytes and
a root filesystem of about  17  megabytes.  The  distributed
system  binaries occupy about 150 (180 with X11R5) megabytes
while the major sources occupy another 250 (340 with  X11R5)
megabytes.  The  /var filesystem as delivered on the tape is
only 2Mb, however it should have at least 50Mb allocated  to
it  just for normal system activity. Usually it is allocated
the last partition on the disk so that  it  can  provide  as
much  space  as  possible  to the /var/users filesystem. See

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-23

section 2.5.4 for further details on disk layouts.
     Be aware that the disks have their  sizes  measured  in
disk  sectors (usually 512 bytes), while the UNIX filesystem
blocks are variable sized. If BLOCKSIZE=1k  is  set  in  the
user's  environment,  all user programs report disk space in
kilobytes, otherwise, disk  sizes  are  always  reported  in
units of 512-byte sectors[3]. The /etc/disktab file used  in
labelling disks and making filesystems specifies disk parti-
tion sizes in sectors.

2.5.2. Layout considerations
     There are several considerations  in  deciding  how  to
adjust  the  arrangement  of  things on your disks. The most
important is making sure that there is  adequate  space  for
what  is  required; secondarily, throughput should be maxim-
ized. Paging space is an important parameter. The system, as
distributed, sizes the configured paging areas each time the
system is booted.  Further, multiple paging  areas  of  dif-
ferent sizes may be interleaved.
     Many common system programs (C, the editor, the  assem-
bler  etc.) create intermediate files in the /tmp directory,
so the filesystem where this is stored also should  be  made
large  enough  to  accommodate  most high-water marks. Typi-
cally, /tmp is constructed from  a  memory-based  filesystem
(see mount_mfs(8)). Programs that want their temporary files
to persist across system reboots (such  as  editors)  should
use  /var/tmp. If you plan to use a disk-based /tmp filesys-
tem to avoid loss across system reboots, it makes  sense  to
mount  this  in a ``root'' (i.e. first partition) filesystem
on another disk. All the programs that create files in  /tmp
take  care to delete them, but are not immune to rare events
and can leave dregs. The directory should be examined  every
so often and the old files deleted.
     The efficiency with which UNIX is able to use  the  CPU
is often strongly affected by the configuration of disk con-
trollers; it is critical for  good  performance  to  balance
disk  load.  There  are at least five components of the disk
load that you can divide between the available disks:
1)   The root filesystem.
2)   The /var and /var/tmp filesystems.
3)   The /usr filesystem.
4)   The user filesystems.
5)   The paging activity.
The following possibilities are ones we have used  at  times
when we had 2, 3 and 4 disks:

  [3] You can thank System V  intransigence  and  POSIX
duplicity for requiring that 512-byte blocks be the un-
its that programs report.

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-24                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

            |        |          disks        |
            | what   |  2    |  3    |  4    |
            | root   |  0    |  0    |  0    |
            | var    |  1    |  2    |  3    |
            | usr    |  1    |  1    |  1    |
            | paging |  0+1  |  0+2  |  0+2+3|
            | users  |  0    |  0+2  |  0+2  |
            | archive|  x    |  x    |  3    |

     The most important things to consider are to  even  out
the  disk load as much as possible, and to do this by decou-
pling filesystems (on separate  arms)  between  which  heavy
copying  occurs. Note that a long term average balanced load
is not important; it is  much  more  important  to  have  an
instantaneously balanced load when the system is busy.
     Intelligent  experimentation  with  a  few   filesystem
arrangements  can  pay off in much improved performance.  It
is particularly easy to move the root, the /var and /var/tmp
filesystems  and the paging areas.  Place the user files and
the /usr directory as space  needs  dictate  and  experiment
with the other, more easily moved filesystems.

2.5.3. Filesystem parameters
     Each filesystem is parameterized according to its block
size,  fragment  size, and the disk geometry characteristics
of the medium on which it resides.  Inaccurate specification
of  the  disk  characteristics  or  haphazard  choice of the
filesystem parameters can result in  substantial  throughput
degradation  or significant waste of disk space.  As distri-
buted, filesystems are configured according to the following

              Filesystem   Block size   Fragment size
              root         8 kbytes     1 kbytes
              usr          8 kbytes     1 kbytes
              users        4 kbytes     512 bytes

     The root filesystem block size is made large to  optim-
ize  bandwidth  to the associated disk. The large block size
is important as many of the most heavily used  programs  are
demand paged out of the /bin directory. The fragment size of
1 kbyte is a ``nominal'' value to  use  with  a  filesystem.
With a 1 kbyte fragment size disk space utilization is about
the same as with the earlier versions of the filesystem.
     The filesystems for users have a  4  kbyte  block  size
with  512  byte  fragment  size.  These parameters have been
selected based on observations of  the  performance  of  our
user  filesystems.  The 4 kbyte block size provides adequate

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-25

bandwidth while the 512 byte fragment size provides  accept-
able space compaction and disk fragmentation.
     Other parameters may be chosen in constructing filesys-
tems,  but the factors involved in choosing a block size and
fragment size are many and interact in complex ways.  Larger
block  sizes  result  in better throughput to large files in
the filesystem as larger I/O requests will then be  done  by
the  system.   However,  consideration  must be given to the
average file sizes found in the filesystem and  the  perfor-
mance  of  the  internal  system  buffer cache.   The system
currently provides space in the inode for  12  direct  block
pointers, 1 single indirect block pointer, 1 double indirect
block pointer, and 1 triple indirect  block  pointer.  If  a
file  uses  only  direct  blocks,  access time to it will be
optimized by maximizing the block size.  If  a  file  spills
over  into  an  indirect block, increasing the block size of
the filesystem may decrease the  amount  of  space  used  by
eliminating the need to allocate an indirect block. However,
if the block size is increased  and  an  indirect  block  is
still  required,  then  more  disk space will be used by the
file because indirect blocks are allocated according to  the
block size of the filesystem.
     In selecting a fragment size for a filesystem, at least
two  considerations  should be given.  The major performance
tradeoffs observed are between an 8 kbyte  block  filesystem
and  a  4 kbyte block filesystem.  Because of implementation
constraints, the block size versus fragment size  ratio  can
not  be greater than 8.  This means that an 8 kbyte filesys-
tem will always have a fragment size of at least  1  kbytes.
If a filesystem is created with a 4 kbyte block size and a 1
kbyte fragment size, then upgraded to an 8 kbyte block  size
and  1  kbyte fragment size, identical space compaction will
be observed.  However, if a filesystem has a 4  kbyte  block
size  and  512 byte fragment size, converting it to an 8K/1K
filesystem will result in 4-8% more space being used.   This
implies  that  4  kbyte  block  filesystems  that  might  be
upgraded to 8 kbyte blocks for higher performance should use
fragment  sizes  of at least 1 kbytes to minimize the amount
of work required in conversion.
     A second, more important, consideration when  selecting
the  fragment size for a filesystem is the level of fragmen-
tation on the disk.  With an 8:1 fragment  to  block  ratio,
storage  fragmentation occurs much sooner, particularly with
a busy filesystem  running  near  full  capacity.   By  com-
parison,  the  level  of  fragmentation in a 4:1 fragment to
block ratio filesystem is one tenth as severe.   This  means
that  on  filesystems  where  many  files  are  created  and
deleted, the 512 byte fragment size is more likely to result
in apparent space exhaustion because of fragmentation.  That
is, when the filesystem is nearly full, file expansion  that
requires  locating  a  contiguous area of disk space is more
likely to fail on a 512 byte filesystem than on  a  1  kbyte
filesystem.   To  minimize  fragmentation  problems  of this
sort, a parameter in the super  block  specifies  a  minimum

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-26                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

acceptable  free  space  threshold.  When normal users (i.e.
anyone but the super-user) attempt to  allocate  disk  space
and  the  free  space  threshold  is  exceeded,  the user is
returned an error as if the  filesystem  were  really  full.
This  parameter is nominally set to 5%; it may be changed by
supplying a parameter to newfs(8), or by updating the  super
block of an existing filesystem using tunefs(8).
     Finally, a third,  less  common  consideration  is  the
attributes of the disk itself.  The fragment size should not
be smaller than the physical sector size of the disk.  As an
example,  the HP magneto-optical disks have 1024 byte physi-
cal sectors.  Using a 512 byte fragment size on  such  disks
will work but is extremely inefficient.
     Note that the above discussion considers block sizes of
up to only 8k. As of the 4.4 release, the maximum block size
has been increased to 64k. This allows an entirely  new  set
of  block/fragment  combinations  for  which there is little
experience to date. In general though, unless  a  filesystem
is  to  be used for a special purpose application (for exam-
ple, storing image processing data), we recommend using  the
values supplied above. Remember that the current implementa-
tion limits the block size to at  most  64  kbytes  and  the
ratio of block size versus fragment size must be 1, 2, 4, or
     The disk geometry information used  by  the  filesystem
affects  the  block  layout  policies  employed.   The  file
/etc/disktab, as supplied, contains the data  for  most  all
drives  supported  by  the  system.   Before  constructing a
filesystem with newfs(8) you should label the  disk  (if  it
has  not  yet been labeled, and the driver supports labels).
If labels cannot be used, you must instead specify the  type
of  disk  on  which the filesystem resides; newfs then reads
/etc/disktab instead of the pack label. This file also  con-
tains  the  default  filesystem partition sizes, and default
block and fragment sizes.  To override any  of  the  default
values  you can modify the file, edit the disk label, or use
an option to newfs.

2.5.4. Implementing a layout
     To put a chosen disk layout into effect, you should use
the  newfs(8)  command  to  create each new filesystem. Each
filesystem must also be added to the file /etc/fstab so that
it   will   be  checked  and  mounted  when  the  system  is
     First we will consider a system  with  a  single  disk.
There  is  little  real  choice on how to do the layout; the
root filesystem goes in the ``a'' partition,  /usr  goes  in
the ``e'' partition, and /var fills out the remainder of the
disk in the ``f'' partition. This is the  organization  used
if you loaded the disk-image root filesystem. With the addi-
tion of a memory-based  /tmp  filesystem,  its  fstab  entry
would be as follows:

/dev/sd0a   /      ufs    rw                                     1   1

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-27

/dev/sd0b   none   swap   sw                                     0   0
/dev/sd0b   /tmp   mfs    rw,-s=14000,-b=8192,-f=1024,-T=sd660   0   0
/dev/sd0e   /usr   ufs    ro                                     1   2
/dev/sd0f   /var   ufs    rw                                     1   2

     If we had a  second  disk,  we  would  split  the  load
between  the  drives.  On the second disk, we place the /usr
and /var filesystems in their usual sd1e and sd1f partitions
respectively.  The  sd1b partition would be used as a second
paging area, and the sd1a partition left  as  a  spare  root
filesystem  (alternatively sd1a could be used for /var/tmp).
The first disk still holds the the root filesystem in  sd0a,
and  the  primary  swap  area in sd0b. The sd0e partition is
used to hold home directories in /var/users. The sd0f parti-
tion can be used for /usr/src or alternately the sd0e parti-
tion can be extended to cover the  rest  of  the  disk  with
disklabel(8).  As  before,  the  /tmp directory is a memory-
based filesystem. Note that to interleave the paging between
the  two  disks  you  must build a system configuration that

        config  vmunix  root on sd0 swap on sd0 and sd1

The /etc/fstab file would then contain

/dev/sd0a   /            ufs    rw                                     1   1
/dev/sd0b   none         swap   sw                                     0   0
/dev/sd1b   none         swap   sw                                     0   0
/dev/sd0b   /tmp         mfs    rw,-s=14000,-b=8192,-f=1024,-T=sd660   0   0
/dev/sd1e   /usr         ufs    ro                                     1   2
/dev/sd0f   /usr/src     ufs    rw                                     1   2
/dev/sd1f   /var         ufs    rw                                     1   2
/dev/sd0e   /var/users   ufs    rw                                     1   2

     To make the /var filesystem we would do:

        # cd /dev
        # MAKEDEV sd1
        # disklabel -wr sd1 "disk type" "disk name"
        # newfs sd1f
        (information about filesystem prints out)
        # mkdir /var
        # mount /dev/sd1f /var

2.6. Installing the rest of the system
     At this point you should have your  disks  partitioned.
The  next  step  is to extract the rest of the data from the
tape. At a minimum you need to set  up  the  /var  and  /usr
filesystems.  You  may  also want to extract some or all the
program sources. Since not all  architectures  support  tape
drives  or  don't  support the correct ones, you may need to
extract the files indirectly using rsh(1). For example,  for
a directly connected tape drive you might do:

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-28                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf
        # tar xbpf 20 /dev/nrmt0

The equivalent indirect procedure (where the tape  drive  is
on machine ``foo'') is:

        # rsh foo mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf
        # rsh foo dd if=/dev/nrmt0 bs=20b | tar xbpf 20 -

Obviously, the target machine must be connected to the local
network for this to work. To do this:

        # echo  localhost >> /etc/hosts
        # echo  your.host.inet.number  myname.my.domain  myname >> /etc/hosts
        # echo  friend.host.inet.number  myfriend.my.domain  myfriend >> /etc/hosts
        # ifconfig  le0  inet  myname

where the ``host.inet.number'' fields are the  IP  addresses
for  your  host  and  the  host  with the tape drive and the
``my.domain'' fields are the names of your machine  and  the
tape-hosting machine. See sections 4.4 and 5 for more infor-
mation on setting up the network.
     Assuming a directly connected tape drive, here  is  how
to extract and install /var and /usr:

# mount -uw /dev/sd#a /                                 (read-write mount root filesystem)
# date yymmddhhmm                                       (set date, see date(1))
# passwd -l root                                        (set password for super-user)
New password:                                           (password will not echo)
Retype new password:
# passwd -l toor                                        (set password for super-user)
New password:                                           (password will not echo)
Retype new password:
# hostname mysitename                                   (set your hostname)
# newfs rsd#p                                           (create empty user filesystem)
(sd is the disk type, # is the unit number,
p is the partition; this takes a few minutes)
# mount /dev/sd#p /var                                  (mount the var filesystem)
# cd /var                                               (make /var the current directory)
# mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf                                  (space to end of previous tape file)
# tar xbpf 20 /dev/nrmt0                                (extract all of var)
(this takes a few minutes)
# newfs rsd#p                                           (create empty user filesystem)
(as before sd is the disk type, # is the unit number,
p is the partition)
# mount /dev/sd#p /mnt                                  (mount the new /usr in temporary location)
# cd /mnt                                               (make /mnt the current directory)
# mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf                                  (space to end of previous tape file)
# tar xbpf 20 /dev/nrmt0                                (extract all of usr except usr/src)
(this takes about 15-20 minutes)
# cd /                                                  (make / the current directory)
# umount /mnt                                           (unmount from temporary mount point)

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-29

# rm -r /usr/*                                          (remove excess bootstrap binaries)
# mount /dev/sd#p /usr                                  (remount /usr)

If no disk label has been installed on the disk,  the  newfs
command  will  require  a third argument to specify the disk
type, using one of the names in /etc/disktab.  If  the  tape
had  been  rewound or positioned incorrectly before the tar,
to extract /var it may be repositioned by the following com-

        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 rew
        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf 1

The data on the second and third tape  files  has  now  been
extracted. If you are using 6250bpi tapes, the first reel of
the distribution is no longer needed; you should  now  mount
the second reel instead.  The installation procedure contin-
ues from this point on the 8mm tape. The  next  step  is  to
extract  the sources. As previously noted, /usr/src requires
about 250-340Mb of space. Ideally sources  should  be  in  a
separate  filesystem; if you plan to put them into your /usr
filesystem, it will need at least 500Mb of  space.  Assuming
that  you  will  be  using a separate filesystem on sd0f for
/usr/src, you will start by creating and mounting it:

        # newfs sd0f
        (information about filesystem prints out)
        # mkdir /usr/src
        # mount /dev/sd0f /usr/src

First you will extract the kernel source:

        # cd /usr/src
        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf                                (space to end of previous tape file)
        (this should only be done on Exabyte distributions)
        # tar xpbf 20 /dev/nrmt0                              (extract the kernel sources)
        (this takes about 15-30 minutes)

The next tar file contains the sources for the utilities. It
is extracted as follows:

        # cd /usr/src
        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf             (space to end of previous tape file)
        # tar xpbf 20 /dev/rmt12           (extract the utility source)
        (this takes about 30-60 minutes)

     If you are using 6250bpi tapes, the second reel of  the
distribution  is  no longer needed; you should now mount the
third reel instead.  The  installation  procedure  continues
from this point on the 8mm tape.

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-30                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

     The next tar file contains the sources for the  contri-
buted software. It is extracted as follows:

        # cd /usr/src
        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf                                (space to end of previous tape file)
        (this should only be done on Exabyte distributions)
        # tar xpbf 20 /dev/rmt12                              (extract the contributed software source)
        (this takes about 30-60 minutes)

     If you received a distribution  on  8mm  Exabyte  tape,
there  is  one additional tape file on the distribution tape
that has not been installed to this point; it  contains  the
sources  for  X11R5 in tar(1) format.  As distributed, X11R5
should be placed in /usr/src/X11R5.

        # cd /usr/src
        # mt -f /dev/nrmt0 fsf             (space to end of previous tape file)
        # tar xpbf 20 /dev/nrmt0           (extract the X11R5 source)
        (this takes about 30-60 minutes)

Many of the X11 utilities search using the path /usr/X11, so
be  sure  that  you  have a symbolic link that points at the
location of your X11 binaries (here, X11R5).
     Having now completed the extraction of the sources, you
may  want  to  verify  that your /usr/src filesystem is con-
sistent. To do so, you must unmount  it,  and  run  fsck(8);
assuming that you used sd0f you would proceed as follows:

        # cd /                 (change directory, back to the root)
        # umount /usr/src      (unmount /usr/src)
        # fsck /dev/rsd0f

The output from fsck should look something like:

        ** /dev/rsd0f
        ** Last Mounted on /usr/src
        ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes
        ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames
        ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity
        ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts
        ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups
        23000 files, 261000 used, 39000 free (2200 frags, 4600 blocks)

     If there are inconsistencies in the filesystem, you may
be  prompted  to apply corrective action; see the fsck(8) or
Fsck  The UNIX File System Check Program  (SMM:3)  for  more
     To use the /usr/src filesystem, you should now  remount

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-31

it with:

        # mount /dev/sd0f /usr/src

or if you have made an entry for it in  /etc/fstab  you  can
remount it with:

        # mount /usr/src

2.7. Additional conversion information
     After setting up the new 4.4BSD  filesystems,  you  may
restore the user files that were saved on tape before begin-
ning the conversion. Note that the  4.4BSD  restore  program
does  its  work  on a mounted filesystem using normal system
operations. This means that filesystem dumps may be restored
even  if  the  characteristics of the filesystem changed. To
restore a dump tape for, say, the  /a  filesystem  something
like the following would be used:

        # mkdir /a
        # newfs sd#p
        # mount /dev/sd#p /a
        # cd /a
        # restore x

     If tar images were written instead of doing a dump, you
should be sure to use its `-p' option when reading the files
back.  No matter how you restore a filesystem,  be  sure  to
unmount it and and check its integrity with fsck(8) when the
job is complete.

3. Upgrading a 4.3BSD system
     This section describes the procedure  for  upgrading  a
4.3BSD  system to 4.4BSD.  This procedure may vary according
to the version of the system running before  conversion.  If
you are converting from a System V system, some of this sec-
tion will still apply (in particular, the filesystem conver-
sion).   However, many of the system configuration files are
different, and the executable file  formats  are  completely
     In particular be wary when using  this  information  to
upgrade  a 4.3BSD HP300 system. There are at least four dif-
ferent versions of ``4.3BSD'' out there:
1)   HPBSD 1.x from Utah.
     This was the original version of 4.3BSD for HP300s from
     which  the  other variants (and 4.4BSD) are derived. It
     is largely a 4.3BSD system with Sun's NFS 3.0  filesys-
     tem  code and some 4.3BSD-Tahoe features (e.g. network-
     ing code). Since the filesystem code is 4.2/4.3 vintage
     and the filesystem hierarchy is largely 4.3BSD, most of
     this section should apply.
2)   MORE/bsd from Mt. Xinu.
     This is a 4.3BSD-Tahoe vintage system  with  Sun's  NFS

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-32                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

     4.0  filesystem  code upgraded with Tahoe UFS features.
     The instructions for 4.3BSD-Tahoe should largely apply.
3)   4.3BSD-Reno from CSRG.
     At least one site bootstrapped HP300 support  from  the
     Reno  distribution.  The Reno filesystem code was some-
     where between 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD:  the  VFS  switch  had
     been   added   but  many  of  the  UFS  features  (e.g.
     ``inline''  symlinks)  were  missing.  The   filesystem
     hierarchy   reorganization   first   appeared  in  this
     release. Be extremely careful following these  instruc-
     tions if you are upgrading from the Reno distribution.
4)   HPBSD 2.0 from Utah.
     As if things were not bad enough already, this  release
     has  the  4.4BSD filesystem and networking code as well
     as some utilities, but still has a 4.3BSD hierarchy. No
     filesystem  conversions are necessary for this upgrade,
     but files will still need to be moved around.

3.1. Installation overview
     If  you  are  running  4.3BSD,  upgrading  your  system
involves replacing your kernel and system utilities. In gen-
eral, there are three possible ways to  install  a  new  BSD
distribution:  (1) boot directly from the distribution tape,
use it to load new binaries onto empty disks, and then merge
or restore any existing configuration files and filesystems;
(2) use an existing 4.3BSD or later system  to  extract  the
root  and  /usr filesystems from the distribution tape, boot
from the new system, then merge or restore  existing  confi-
guration  files  and filesystems; or (3) extract the sources
from the distribution tape onto an existing system, and  use
that  system  to  cross-compile and install 4.4BSD. For this
release, the second alternative is  strongly  advised,  with
the third alternative reserved as a last resort. In general,
older binaries will continue to run under 4.4BSD, but  there
are  many  exceptions that are on the critical path for get-
ting the system running. Ideally, the  new  system  binaries
(root  and  /usr  filesystems)  should be installed on spare
disk partitions, then site-specific files should  be  merged
into  them.  Once the new system is up and fully merged, the
previous root and /usr  filesystems  can  be  reused.  Other
existing  filesystems  can be retained and used, except that
(as usual) the new  fsck  should  be  run  before  they  are
     It is STRONGLY advised that you make full dumps of each
filesystem  before beginning, especially any that you intend
to modify in place during the merge. It is also desirable to
run  filesystem checks of all filesystems to be converted to
4.4BSD before shutting down. This is an  excellent  time  to
review  your  disk  configuration for possible tuning of the
layout. Most systems will need to provide a  new  filesystem
for  system  use  mounted  on /var (see below). However, the
/tmp  filesystem  can  be  an  MFS   virtual-memory-resident
filesystem,  potentially freeing an existing disk partition.
(Additional swap space may be desirable as  a  consequence.)

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-33

See mount_mfs(8).
     The recommended  installation  procedure  includes  the
following steps. The order of these steps will probably vary
according to local needs.
+    Extract root and /usr filesystems from the distribution
+    Extract kernel and/or user-level sources from the  dis-
     tribution  tape if space permits. This can serve as the
     backup documentation as needed.
+    Configure and boot a kernel for the local system.  This
     can be delayed if the generic kernel from the distribu-
     tion supports enough hardware to proceed.
+    Build a skeletal /var filesystem (see mtree(8)).
+    Merge site-dependent configuration files from /etc  and
     /usr/lib  into  the  new /etc directory. Note that many
     file formats and contents have changed; see section 3.4
     of this document.
+    Copy  or  merge  files   from   /usr/adm,   /usr/spool,
     /usr/preserve, /usr/lib, and other locations into /var.
+    Merge local macros, dictionaries, etc. into /usr/share.
+    Merge and update local software to reflect  the  system
+    Take off the rest of the morning, you've earned it!
     Section 3.2 lists the files to be saved as part of  the
conversion process. Section 3.3 describes the bootstrap pro-
cess. Section 3.4 discusses the merger of  the  saved  files
back  into  the new system. Section 3.5 gives an overview of
the major bug fixes and changes between 4.3BSD  and  4.4BSD.
Section  3.6  provides general hints on possible problems to
be aware of when converting from 4.3BSD to 4.4BSD.

3.2. Files to save
     The following list enumerates the standard set of files
you  will  want  to  save  and suggests directories in which
site-specific files should be present. This list will likely
be  augmented with non-standard files you have added to your
system. If you do not have enough space to  create  parallel
filesystems,  you should create a tar image of the following
files before the new filesystems are created.  The  rest  of
this  subsection describes where theses files have moved and
how they have changed.

/.cshrc                  -   root csh startup script (moves to /root/.cshrc)
/.login                  -   root csh login script (moves to /root/.login)
/.profile                -   root sh startup script (moves to /root/.profile)
/.rhosts                 -   for trusted machines and users (moves to /root/.rhosts)
/etc/disktab             =   in case you changed disk partition sizes
/etc/fstab               *   disk configuration data
/etc/ftpusers            -   for local additions
/etc/gettytab            =   getty database
/etc/group               *   group data base
/etc/hosts               -   for local host information
/etc/hosts.equiv         -   for local host equivalence information
/etc/hosts.lpd           -   printer access file

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-34                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

/etc/inetd.conf          *   Internet services configuration data
/etc/named*              -   named configuration files
/etc/netstart            -   network initialization
/etc/networks            -   for local network information
/etc/passwd              *   user data base
/etc/printcap            *   line printer database
/etc/protocols           =   in case you added any local protocols
/etc/rc                  *   for any local additions
/etc/rc.local            *   site specific system startup commands
/etc/remote              -   auto-dialer configuration
/etc/services            =   for local additions
/etc/shells              =   list of valid shells
/etc/syslog.conf         *   system logger configuration
/etc/securettys          *   merged into ttys
/etc/ttys                *   terminal line configuration data
/etc/ttytype             *   merged into ttys
/etc/termcap             =   for any local entries that may have been added
/lib                     =   for any locally developed language processors
/usr/dict/*              =   for local additions to words and papers
/usr/include/*           =   for local additions
/usr/lib/aliases         *   mail forwarding data base (moves to /etc/aliases)
/usr/lib/crontab         *   cron daemon data base (moves to /etc/crontab)
/usr/lib/crontab.local   *   local cron daemon data base (moves to /etc/crontab.local)
/usr/lib/lib*.a          -   for local libraries
/usr/lib/mail.rc         -   system-wide mail(1) initialization (moves to /etc/mail.rc)
/usr/lib/sendmail.cf     *   sendmail configuration (moves to /etc/sendmail.cf)
/usr/lib/tmac/*          =   for locally developed troff/nroff macros (moves to /usr/share/tmac/*)
/usr/lib/uucp/*          -   for local uucp configuration files
/usr/man/manl            *   for manual pages for locally developed programs (moves to /usr/local/man)
/usr/spool/*             -   for current mail, news, uucp files, etc. (moves to /var/spool)
/usr/src/local           -   for source for locally developed programs
/sys/conf/HOST           -   configuration file for your machine (moves to /sys/<arch>/conf)
/sys/conf/files.HOST     -   list of special files in your kernel (moves to /sys/<arch>/conf)
/*/quotas                *   filesystem quota files (moves to /*/quotas.user)

        -Files that can be used from 4.3BSD without change.
        =Files that need local changes merged into 4.4BSD files.
        *Files that require special work to merge and are discussed in section 3.4.

3.3. Installing 4.4BSD
     The next step is to build a working 4.4BSD system. This
can  be  done  by  following  the steps in section 2 of this
document for extracting the root and /usr  filesystems  from
the  distribution  tape onto unused disk partitions. For the
SPARC, the root filesystem dump on the tape  could  also  be
extracted  directly.  For  the HP300 and DECstation, the raw
disk image can be copied into an unused partition  and  this
partition  can then be dumped to create an image that can be
restored. The exact procedure chosen will depend on the disk
configuration  and  the  number  of suitable disk partitions
that may be used. It is also  desirable  to  run  filesystem
checks  of  all filesystems to be converted to 4.4BSD before

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-35

shutting down. In any case, this is  an  excellent  time  to
review  your  disk  configuration for possible tuning of the
layout. Section 2.5 and config(8) are required reading.
The filesystem in 4.4BSD has been reorganized in  an  effort
to meet several goals:
1)   The root filesystem should be small.
2)   There should be a per-architecture  centrally-shareable
     read-only /usr filesystem.
3)   Variable per-machine directories should be concentrated
     below a single mount point named /var.
4)   Site-wide  machine  independent  shareable  text  files
     should  be  separated from architecture specific binary
     files and should be concentrated below a  single  mount
     point named /usr/share.
These goals are realized with the following general layouts.
The  reorganized  root  filesystem  has the following direc-

/etc     (config files)
/bin     (user binaries needed when single-user)
/sbin    (root binaries needed when single-user)
/local   (locally added binaries used only by this machine)
/tmp     (mount point for memory based filesystem)
/dev     (local devices)
/home    (mount point for AMD)
/var     (mount point for per-machine variable directories)
/usr     (mount point for multiuser binaries and files)

The reorganized /usr filesystem  has  the  following  direc-

/usr/bin       (user binaries)
/usr/contrib   (software contributed to 4.4BSD)
/usr/games     (binaries for games, score files in /var)
/usr/include   (standard include files)
/usr/lib       (lib*.a from old /usr/lib)
/usr/libdata   (databases from old /usr/lib)
/usr/libexec   (executables from old /usr/lib)
/usr/local     (locally added binaries used site-wide)
/usr/old       (deprecated binaries)
/usr/sbin      (root binaries)
/usr/share     (mount point for site-wide shared text)
/usr/src       (mount point for sources)

The reorganized  /usr/share  filesystem  has  the  following

/usr/share/calendar     (various useful calendar files)
/usr/share/dict         (dictionaries)
/usr/share/doc          (4.4BSD manual sources)
/usr/share/games        (games text files)
/usr/share/groff_font   (groff font information)
/usr/share/man          (typeset manual pages)
/usr/share/misc         (dumping ground for random text files)

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-36                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

/usr/share/mk           (templates for 4.4BSD makefiles)
/usr/share/skel         (template user home directory files)
/usr/share/tmac         (various groff macro packages)
/usr/share/zoneinfo     (information on time zones)

The reorganized /var filesystem  has  the  following  direc-

/var/account        (accounting files, formerly /usr/adm)
/var/at             (at(1) spooling area)
/var/backups        (backups of system files)
/var/crash          (crash dumps)
/var/db             (system-wide databases, e.g. tags)
/var/games          (score files)
/var/log            (log files)
/var/mail           (users mail)
/var/obj            (hierarchy to build /usr/src)
/var/preserve       (preserve area for vi)
/var/quotas         (directory to store quota files)
/var/run            (directory to store *.pid files)
/var/rwho           (rwho databases)
/var/spool/ftp      (home directory for anonymous ftp)
/var/spool/mqueue   (sendmail spooling directory)
/var/spool/news     (news spooling area)
/var/spool/output   (printer spooling area)
/var/spool/uucp     (uucp spooling area)
/var/tmp            (disk-based temporary directory)
/var/users          (root of per-machine user home directories)

     The 4.4BSD bootstrap routines pass the identity of  the
boot device through to the kernel. The kernel then uses that
device as its root filesystem. Thus,  for  example,  if  you
boot  from  /dev/sd1a,  the kernel will use sd1a as its root
filesystem. If /dev/sd1b is configured as a swap  partition,
it will be used as the initial swap area, otherwise the nor-
mal primary swap area (/dev/sd0b) will be used.  The  4.4BSD
bootstrap  is  backward  compatible  with 4.3BSD, so you can
replace your old bootstrap if you use it to boot your  first
4.4BSD  kernel.  However, the 4.3BSD bootstrap cannot access
4.4BSD filesystems, so if you plan to convert your  filesys-
tems  to  4.4BSD,  you  must  install a new bootstrap before
doing the conversion. Note that SPARC users cannot  build  a
4.4BSD compatible version of the bootstrap, so must not con-
vert their root filesystem to the new 4.4BSD format.
     Once you have extracted the 4.4BSD  system  and  booted
from it, you will have to build a kernel customized for your
configuration. If you have any local  device  drivers,  they
will  have  to be incorporated into the new kernel. See sec-
tion 4.1.3 and ``Building 4.3BSD UNIX Systems with  Config''
     If converting from 4.3BSD, your old filesystems  should
be  converted.  If  you've modified the partition sizes from
the original 4.3BSD ones, and  are  not  already  using  the
4.4BSD disk labels, you will have to modify the default disk

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-37

partition tables in the kernel.  Make  the  necessary  table
changes  and boot your custom kernel BEFORE trying to access
any of your old filesystems!  After doing  this,  if  neces-
sary, the remaining filesystems may be converted in place by
running the 4.4BSD version of fsck(8) on each filesystem and
allowing  it to make the necessary corrections. The new ver-
sion of fsck is more strict about the  size  of  directories
than  the  version supplied with 4.3BSD. Thus the first time
that it is run on a 4.3BSD filesystem, it will produce  mes-
sages of the form:


Length ``xx'' will be the size of the directory; it will  be
expanded  to  the  next  multiple of 512 bytes. The new fsck
will also set default interleave and npsect (number of  phy-
sical  sectors  per  track)  values on older filesystems, in
which these fields were unused spares; this correction  will
produce messages of the form:


Filesystems that have had their interleave and npsect values
set will be diagnosed by the old fsck as having a bad super-
block; the old fsck will run  only  if  given  an  alternate
superblock  (fsck -b32), in which case it will re-zero these
fields. The 4.4BSD kernel will internally set  these  fields
to  their  defaults if fsck has not done so; again, the -b32
option may be necessary for running the old fsck.
     In addition, 4.4BSD removes several limits on  filesys-
tem  sizes that were present in 4.3BSD. The limited filesys-
tems continue to work in 4.4BSD, but should be converted  as
soon  as  it  is  convenient  by  running fsck with the -c 2
option. The sequence fsck -p -c 2 will update them all,  fix
the  interleave  and npsect fields, fix any incorrect direc-
tory lengths, expand maximum uid's  and  gid's  to  32-bits,
place  symbolic  links  less than 60 bytes into their inode,
and fill in directory type  fields  all  at  once.  The  new
filesystem  formats  are incompatible with older systems. If
you wish to continue using these filesystems with the  older
systems  you  should  make only the compatible changes using
fsck -c 1.

3.4. Merging your files from 4.3BSD into 4.4BSD
     When your system is booting reliably and you  have  the
4.4BSD root and /usr filesystems fully installed you will be
ready to continue with  the  next  step  in  the  conversion
  [4] The defaults are  to  set  interleave  to  1  and
npsect to nsect. This is correct on most drives; it af-
fects only  performance  (usually  virtually  unmeasur-

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-38                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

process, merging your old files into the new system.
     If you saved the files on a tar tape, extract them into
a scratch directory, say /usr/convert:

        # mkdir /usr/convert
        # cd /usr/convert
        # tar xp

     The data files marked in  the  previous  table  with  a
dagger (-) may be used without change from the previous sys-
tem. Those data files marked with a double dagger  (=)  have
syntax changes or substantial enhancements. You should start
with the 4.4BSD version and carefully  integrate  any  local
changes  into  the new file. Usually these local changes can
be incorporated without conflict into  the  new  file;  some
exceptions  are noted below. The files marked with an aster-
isk (*)  require  particular  attention  and  are  discussed
     As described in section 3.3, the most immediately obvi-
ous  change  in  4.4BSD  is the reorganization of the system
filesystems. Users of certain recent  vendor  releases  have
seen  this  general  organization, although 4.4BSD takes the
reorganization a bit further. The directories most  affected
are /etc, that now contains only system configuration files;
/var, a new filesystem containing per-system spool  and  log
files;  and /usr/share, that contains most of the text files
shareable across architectures  such  as  documentation  and
macros.  System administration programs formerly in /etc are
now found in /sbin and /usr/sbin. Various programs and  data
files formerly in /usr/lib are now found in /usr/libexec and
/usr/libdata, respectively. Administrative files formerly in
/usr/adm  are  in /var/account and, similarly, log files are
now in /var/log. The directory /usr/ucb has been merged into
/usr/bin,  and  the  sources for programs in /usr/bin are in
/usr/src/usr.bin. Other source directories parallel the des-
tination   directories;   /usr/src/etc   has   been  greatly
expanded, and /usr/src/share is  new.  The  source  for  the
manual  pages,  in general, are with the source code for the
applications  they  document.  Manual  pages   not   closely
corresponding   to  an  application  program  are  found  in
/usr/src/share/man. The locations of all man pages is listed
in /usr/src/share/man/man0/man[1-8]. The manual page hier(7)
has been updated and made more detailed; it is  included  in
the printed documentation. You should review it to familiar-
ize yourself with the new layout.
     A new utility, mtree(8), is provided to build and check
filesystem  hierarchies with the proper contents, owners and
permissions.  Scripts  are  provided  in   /etc/mtree   (and
/usr/src/etc/mtree) for the root, /usr and /var filesystems.
Once a filesystem has been made for /var, mtree can be  used
to  create a directory hierarchy there or you can simply use
tar to extract the prototype from the  second  file  of  the
distribution tape.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-39

3.4.1. Changes in the /etc directory
     The /etc directory now contains nearly  all  the  host-
specific  configuration  files.  Note that some file formats
have changed, and those configuration files containing path-
names are nearly all affected by the reorganization. See the
examples provided in /etc (installed from /usr/src/etc) as a
guide.  The  following  table lists some of the local confi-
guration files whose locations and/or contents have changed.

4.3BSD and Earlier        4.4BSD                Comments
/etc/fstab                /etc/fstab            new format; see below
/etc/inetd.conf           /etc/inetd.conf       pathnames of executables changed
/etc/printcap             /etc/printcap         pathnames changed
/etc/syslog.conf          /etc/syslog.conf      pathnames of log files changed
/etc/ttys                 /etc/ttys             pathnames of executables changed
/etc/passwd               /etc/master.passwd    new format; see below
/usr/lib/sendmail.cf      /etc/sendmail.cf      changed pathnames
/usr/lib/aliases          /etc/aliases          may contain changed pathnames
/etc/*.pid                /var/run/*.pid

New in 4.3BSD-Tahoe       4.4BSD                Comments
/usr/games/dm.config      /etc/dm.conf          configuration for games (see dm(8))
/etc/zoneinfo/localtime   /etc/localtime        timezone configuration
/etc/zoneinfo             /usr/share/zoneinfo   timezone configuration

    New in 4.4BSD     Comments
    /etc/aliases.db   database version of the aliases file
    /etc/amd-home     location database of home directories
    /etc/amd-vol      location database of exported filesystems
    /etc/changelist   /etc/security files to back up
    /etc/csh.cshrc    system-wide csh(1) initialization file
    /etc/csh.login    system-wide csh(1) login file
    /etc/csh.logout   system-wide csh(1) logout file
    /etc/disklabels   directory for saving disklabels
    /etc/exports      NFS list of export permissions
    /etc/ftpwelcome   message displayed for ftp users; see ftpd(8)
    /etc/kerberosIV   Kerberos directory; see below
    /etc/man.conf     lists directories searched by man(1)
    /etc/mtree        directory for local mtree files; see mtree(8)
    /etc/netgroup     NFS group list used in /etc/exports
    /etc/pwd.db       non-secure hashed user data base file
    /etc/spwd.db      secure hashed user data base file
    /etc/security     daily system security checker

     System security  changes  require  adding  several  new
``well-known''  groups  to  /etc/group.  The groups that are
needed by the system as distributed are:

name       number   purpose

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-40                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

wheel         0     users allowed superuser privilege
daemon        1     processes that need less than wheel privilege
kmem          2     read access to kernel memory
sys           3     access to kernel sources
tty           4     access to terminals
operator      5     read access to raw disks
bin           7     group for system binaries
news          8     group for news
wsrc          9     write access to sources
games        13     access to games
staff        20     system staff
guest        31     system guests
nobody       39     the least privileged group
utmp         45     access to utmp files
dialer      117     access to remote ports and dialers

Only users in the ``wheel'' group are  permitted  to  su  to
``root''.   Most   programs   that   manage  directories  in
/var/spool now run set-group-id to ``daemon'' so that  users
cannot  directly  access the files in the spool directories.
The special files that access kernel memory,  /dev/kmem  and
/dev/mem, are made readable only by group ``kmem''. Standard
system programs that  require  this  access  are  made  set-
group-id  to  that  group.  The group ``sys'' is intended to
control access to kernel sources, and other  sources  belong
to  group ``wsrc.'' Rather than make user terminals writable
by all users, they are now placed in group ``tty'' and  made
only  group writable. Programs that should legitimately have
access to write on user terminals such as  talkd  and  write
now run set-group-id to ``tty''. The ``operator'' group con-
trols access to disks. By default,  disks  are  readable  by
group ``operator'', so that programs such as dump can access
the filesystem  information  without  being  set-user-id  to
``root''.  The  shutdown(8)  program  is  executable only by
group operator and is setuid to  root  so  that  members  of
group operator may shut down the system without root access.
     The  ownership  and  modes  of  some  directories  have
changed.  The  at  programs  now  run  set-user-id  ``root''
instead of ``daemon.'' Also, the uucp  directory  no  longer
needs  to be publicly writable, as tip reverts to privileged
status to remove its lock files. After copying your  version
of /var/spool, you should do:

        # chown -R root /var/spool/at
        # chown -R uucp:daemon /var/spool/uucp
        # chmod -R o-w /var/spool/uucp

     The format of the cron table,  /etc/crontab,  has  been
changed  to specify the user-id that should be used to run a
process. The userid  ``nobody''  is  frequently  useful  for
non-privileged  programs.  Local  changes  are  now put in a
separate file, /etc/crontab.local.
     Some of the commands previously in  /etc/rc.local  have
been moved to /etc/rc; several new functions are now handled

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-41

by /etc/rc, /etc/netstart and /etc/rc.local. You should look
closely at the prototype version of these files and read the
manual pages for the commands contained in it before  trying
to  merge  your local copy. Note in particular that ifconfig
has had many changes, and that  host  names  are  now  fully
specified       as       domain-style      names      (e.g.,
vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU) for the benefit of the name server.
     Some of the commands previously in /etc/daily have been
moved  to /etc/security, and several new functions have been
added to /etc/security to do nightly security checks on  the
system. The script /etc/daily runs /etc/security each night,
and mails the output to the super-user. Some of  the  checks
done by /etc/security are:

        + Syntax errors in the password and group files.
        + Duplicate user and group names and id's.
        + Dangerous search paths and umask values for the superuser.
        + Dangerous values in various initialization files.
        + Dangerous .rhosts files.
        + Dangerous directory and file ownership or permissions.
        + Globally exported filesystems.
        + Dangerous owners or permissions for special devices.

In addition, it reports any changes  to  setuid  and  setgid
files,  special  devices,  or  the  files in /etc/changelist
since the last run of /etc/security. Backup  copies  of  the
files   are  saved  in  /var/backups.  Finally,  the  system
binaries are checksummed  and  their  permissions  validated
against the mtree(8) specifications in /etc/mtree.
     The C-library and system binaries on  the  distribution
tape  are  compiled  with  new versions of gethostbyname and
gethostbyaddr that use the name  server,  named(8).  If  you
have  only  a small network and are not connected to a large
network,  you  can  use  the  distributed  library  routines
without  any  problems;  they  use a linear scan of the host
table /etc/hosts if the name server is not running.  If  you
are  on  the  Internet  or have a large local network, it is
recommend that you set up  and  use  the  name  server.  For
instructions  on  how  to set up the necessary configuration
files, refer to ``Name Server Operations  Guide  for  BIND''
(SMM:10). Several programs rely on the host name returned by
gethostname to determine the local domain name.
     If you are using the name server, your sendmail  confi-
guration  file will need some updates to accommodate it. See
the ``Sendmail Installation and  Operation  Guide''  (SMM:8)
and    the    sample   sendmail   configuration   files   in
/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf.     The     aliases     file,
/etc/aliases has also been changed to add certain well-known

3.4.2. Shadow password files
     The password file format  adds  change  and  expiration
fields and its location has changed to protect the encrypted
passwords stored there. The  actual  password  file  is  now

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-42                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

stored  in /etc/master.passwd. The hashed dbm password files
do not contain encrypted passwords,  but  contain  the  file
offset  to the entry with the password in /etc/master.passwd
(that is readable only by root). Thus,  the  getpwnam()  and
getpwuid()  functions  will  no  longer  return an encrypted
password string to non-root  callers.  An  old-style  passwd
file   is   created   in  /etc/passwd  by  the  vipw(8)  and
pwd_mkdb(8) programs. See also passwd(5).
     Several new users have also been added to the group  of
``well-known'' users in /etc/passwd. The current list is:

        name       number
        root         0
        daemon       1
        operator     2
        bin          3
        games        7
        uucp         66
        nobody     32767

The ``daemon'' user is used for daemon processes that do not
need root privileges. The ``operator'' user-id is used as an
account for dumpers so that they can log in  without  having
the  root  password.  By  placing  them  in the ``operator''
group, they can get read access to the disks.  The  ``uucp''
login has existed long before 4.4BSD, and is noted here just
to provide a common user-id. The password  entry  ``nobody''
has  been  added  to  specify the user with least privilege.
The ``games'' user is a pseudo-user that controls access  to
game programs.
     After installing your updated password file,  you  must
run  pwd_mkdb(8)  to create the password database. Note that
pwd_mkdb(8) is run whenever vipw(8) is run.

3.4.3. The /var filesystem
     The spooling directories saved on tape may be  restored
in  their  eventual resting places without too much concern.
Be sure to use the `-p' option to tar(1) so that  files  are
recreated  with  the same file modes. The following commands
provide a guide for copying spool  and  log  files  from  an
existing  system  into  a  new /var filesystem. At least the
following directories should already exist on /var:  output,
log, backups and db.


        cd $SRC; tar cf - msgs preserve | (cd /var && tar xpf -)

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-43

        # copy $SRC/spool to /var
        cd $SRC/spool
        tar cf - at mail rwho | (cd /var && tar xpf -)
        tar cf - ftp mqueue news secretmail uucp uucppublic | \
                (cd /var/spool && tar xpf -)

        # everything else in spool is probably a printer area
        mkdir .save
        mv at ftp mail mqueue rwho secretmail uucp uucppublic .save
        tar cf - * | (cd /var/spool/output && tar xpf -)
        mv .save/* .
        rmdir .save

        cd /var/spool/mqueue
        mv syslog.7 /var/log/maillog.7
        mv syslog.6 /var/log/maillog.6
        mv syslog.5 /var/log/maillog.5
        mv syslog.4 /var/log/maillog.4
        mv syslog.3 /var/log/maillog.3
        mv syslog.2 /var/log/maillog.2
        mv syslog.1 /var/log/maillog.1
        mv syslog.0 /var/log/maillog.0
        mv syslog /var/log/maillog

        # move $SRC/adm to /var
        cd $SRC/adm
        tar cf - . | (cd /var/account && tar  xpf -)
        cd /var/account
        rm -f msgbuf
        mv messages messages.[0-9] ../log
        mv wtmp wtmp.[0-9] ../log
        mv lastlog ../log

3.5. Bug fixes and changes between 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD
     The  major  new  facilities  available  in  the  4.4BSD
release  are  a  new  virtual memory system, the addition of
ISO/OSI networking support, a new virtual filesystem  inter-
face  supporting  filesystem stacking, a freely redistribut-
able implementation of  NFS,  a  log-structured  filesystem,
enhancement  of  the  local filesystems to support files and
filesystems that are up to  2^63  bytes  in  size,  enhanced
security  and  system management support, and the conversion
to and addition of the IEEE Std1003.1 (``POSIX'') facilities
and many of the IEEE Std1003.2 facilities. In addition, many
new utilities and additions to the C library are present  as
well.  The  kernel  sources have been reorganized to collect
all machine-dependent files for each architecture under  one
directory,  and  most of the machine-independent code is now
free of code conditional  on  specific  machines.  The  user

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-44                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

structure  and  process  structure  have been reorganized to
eliminate the statically-mapped user structure and  to  make
most   of   the  process  resources  shareable  by  multiple
processes. The system and include files have been  converted
to  be compatible with ANSI C, including function prototypes
for most of the exported functions. There are numerous other
changes throughout the system.

3.5.1. Changes to the kernel
     This release includes several important structural ker-
nel changes. The kernel uses a new internal system call con-
vention; the use of global (``u-dot'') variables for parame-
ters  and error returns has been eliminated, and interrupted
system  calls  no  longer  abort  using   non-local   goto's
(longjmp's). A new sleep interface separates signal handling
from scheduling priority, returning characteristic errors to
abort  or  restart  the current system call. This sleep call
also passes a string describing the process state,  that  is
used  by  the  ps(1) program. The old sleep interface can be
used only for non-interruptible sleeps. The sleep  interface
(tsleep)  can be used at any priority, but is only interrup-
tible if the PCATCH flag is set.  When  interrupted,  tsleep
returns EINTR or ERESTART.
     Many data structures that  were  previously  statically
allocated  are  now  allocated dynamically. These structures
include mount entries, file entries, user open file descrip-
tors,  the process entries, the vnode table, the name cache,
and the quota structures.
     To protect against indiscriminate reading or writing of
kernel  memory,  all writing and most reading of kernel data
structures must be done using a  new  ``sysctl''  interface.
The  information  to  be  accessed  is  described through an
extensible ``Management Information Base'' (MIB) style name,
described  as  a  dotted  set  of components. A new utility,
sysctl(8), retrieves kernel state and allows processes  with
appropriate privilege to set kernel state.

3.5.2. Security
     The kernel runs with four different levels of security.
Any superuser process can raise the security level, but only
init()(8) can lower it. Security levels are defined as  fol-
-1   Permanently insecure mode - always run system in  level
     0 mode.
  0  Insecure mode - immutable and append-only flags may  be
     turned  off. All devices may be read or written subject
     to their permissions.
  1  Secure mode - immutable and append-only flags  may  not
     be  cleared;  disks  for mounted filesystems, /dev/mem,
     and /dev/kmem are read-only.
  2  Highly secure mode - same as secure  mode,  plus  disks
     are always read-only whether mounted or not. This level
     precludes  tampering  with  filesystems  by  unmounting
     them,  but  also  inhibits  running  newfs(8) while the

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-45

     system is multi-user. See chflags(1) and the -o  option
     to  ls(1) for information on setting and displaying the
     immutable and append-only flags.
     Normally, the system runs in level 0 mode while  single
user  and  in  level  1 mode while multiuser. If the level 2
mode is desired while running multiuser, it can  be  set  in
the startup script /etc/rc using sysctl(1). If it is desired
to run the system in  level  0  mode  while  multiuser,  the
administrator   must   build  a  kernel  with  the  variable
securelevel     in     the      kernel      source      file
/sys/kern/kern_sysctl.c initialized to -1. Virtual memory changes
     The new virtual memory implementation is  derived  from
the  Mach operating system developed at Carnegie-Mellon, and
was ported to the BSD kernel at the University of  Utah.  It
is  based  on  the  2.0 release of Mach (with some bug fixes
from the 2.5 and 3.0  releases)  and  retains  many  of  its
essential  features  such  as  the separation of the machine
dependent and independent layers (the  ``pmap''  interface),
efficient  memory  utilization using copy-on-write and other
lazy-evaluation techniques, and support  for  large,  sparse
address  spaces.  It does not include the ``external pager''
interface instead using a primitive  internal  pager  inter-
face. The Mach virtual memory system call interface has been
replaced with the ``mmap''-based interface described in  the
``Berkeley   Software   Architecture   Manual''   (see  UNIX
Programmer's Manual, Supplementary  Documents,  PSD:5).  The
interface  is  similar  to the interfaces shipped by several
commercial vendors such as Sun,  USL,  and  Convex  Computer
Corp. The integration of the new virtual memory is function-
ally complete, but still has  serious  performance  problems
under heavy memory load. The internal kernel interfaces have
not yet been completed and the memory pool and buffer  cache
have not been merged. Some additional caveats:
+    Since the code is based on the  2.0  release  of  Mach,
     bugs  and  misfeatures of the BSD version should not be
     considered short-comings of the  current  Mach  virtual
     memory system.
+    Because of the disjoint virtual memory  (page)  and  IO
     (buffer)  caches, it is possible to see inconsistencies
     if using both the mmap and read/write interfaces on the
     same file simultaneously.
+    Swap space is allocated on-demand rather than up  front
     and  no allocation checks are performed so it is possi-
     ble to over-commit memory and eventually deadlock.
+    The semantics of the vfork(2) system call are  slightly
     different. The synchronization between parent and child
     is preserved, but the memory sharing aspect is not.  In
     practice  this has been enough for backward compatibil-
     ity, but newer code should just use fork(2).

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-46                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX Networking additions and changes
     The ISO/OSI Networking consists of a kernel implementa-
tion  of transport class 4 (TP-4), connectionless networking
protocol  (CLNP),   and   802.3-based   link-level   support
(hardware-compatible with Ethernet[5]). We also include sup-
port  for ISO Connection-Oriented Network Service, X.25, TP-
0. The session and presentation layers are provided  outside
the kernel using the ISO Development Environment by Marshall
Rose, that is  available  via  anonymous  FTP  (but  is  not
included   on  the  distribution  tape).  Included  in  this
development environment are  file  transfer  and  management
(FTAM),  virtual terminals (VT), a directory services imple-
mentation (X.500), and miscellaneous other utilities.
     Kernel support for the ISO  OSI  protocols  is  enabled
with  the  ISO  option in the kernel configuration file. The
iso(4) manual page describes the protocols  and  addressing;
see  also  clnp(4), tp(4) and cltp(4). The OSI equivalent to
ARP is ESIS (End System to Intermediate System Routing  Pro-
tocol);  running this protocol is mandatory, however one can
manually add translations for machines that do not  partici-
pate  by use of the route(8) command. Additional information
is provided in the manual page describing esis(4).
     The command route(8) has a new syntax and  several  new
capabilities:  it can install routes with a specified desti-
nation and mask, and can change route  characteristics  such
as hop count, packet size and window size.
     Several important enhancements have been added  to  the
TCP/IP  protocols including TCP header prediction and serial
line IP (SLIP) with header compression. The  routing  imple-
mentation  has been completely rewritten to use a hierarchi-
cal routing tree with a mask per route to support the  arbi-
trary  levels  of  routing  found  in the ISO protocols. The
routing table also stores and caches  route  characteristics
to  speed  the  adaptation  of the throughput and congestion
avoidance algorithms.
     The format of the  sockaddr  structure  (the  structure
used  to  describe a generic network address with an address
family and family-specific data) has changed  from  previous
releases,  as  have  the address family-specific versions of
this structure. The sa_family family field  has  been  split
into a length, sa_len, and a family, sa_family. System calls
that  pass  a  sockaddr  structure  into  the  kernel  (e.g.
sendto()  and  connect())  have  a  separate  parameter that
specifies the sockaddr length, and thus it is not  necessary
to  fill  in the sa_len field for those system calls. System
calls that pass a sockaddr structure back  from  the  kernel
(e.g.  recvfrom() and accept()) receive a completely filled-
in sockaddr structure,  thus  the  length  field  is  valid.
Because  this  would  not  work  for  old  binaries, the new
library uses a different system call number. Thus, most net-
working programs compiled under 4.4BSD are incompatible with
  [5] Ethernet is a trademark of the Xerox Corporation.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-47

older systems.
     Although this change is mostly source and binary compa-
tible  with  old  programs, there are three exceptions. Pro-
grams with statically initialized sockaddr structures  (usu-
ally  the  Internet form, a sockaddr_in) are not compatible.
Generally, such programs should be changed to  fill  in  the
structure  at  run  time, as C allows no way to initialize a
structure without assuming the order and number  of  fields.
Also,  programs  with  use  structures to describe a network
packet format that contain embedded sockaddr structures also
require  change;  a  definition of an osockaddr structure is
provided for this purpose. Finally, programs  that  use  the
SIOCGIFCONF  ioctl  to  get  a  complete  list  of interface
addresses need to check  the  sa_len  field  when  iterating
through  the  array  of  addresses  returned, as not all the
structures returned have the same length (this  variance  in
length  is  nearly  guaranteed by the presence of link-layer
address structures). Additions and changes to filesystems
     The 4.4BSD distribution contains most of the interfaces
specified  in  the IEEE Std1003.1 system interface standard.
Filesystem additions include  IEEE  Std1003.1  FIFOs,  byte-
range file locking, and saved user and group identifiers.
     A new virtual filesystem interface has  been  added  to
the  kernel  to  support multiple filesystems. In comparison
with other  interfaces,  the  Berkeley  interface  has  been
structured  for  more  efficient support of filesystems that
maintain state (such as the local filesystem). The interface
has  been  extended  with  support for stackable filesystems
done at UCLA. These extensions allow for filesystems  to  be
layered  on top of each other and allow new vnode operations
to be added without requiring changes to existing filesystem
implementations.  For  example,  the  umap  filesystem  (see
mount_umap(8)) is used to mount a sub-tree  of  an  existing
filesystem  that  uses a different set of uids and gids than
the local system. Such a filesystem could be mounted from  a
remote site via NFS or it could be a filesystem on removable
media brought from some foreign location that  uses  a  dif-
ferent password file.
     Other new filesystems that may be stacked  include  the
loopback  filesystem  mount_lofs(8),  the  kernel filesystem
mount_kernfs(8), and the portal filesystem mount_portal(8).
     The buffer cache in the kernel is now  organized  as  a
file  block  cache  rather  than  a device block cache. As a
consequence,  cached  blocks  from  a  file  and  from   the
corresponding  block  device  would  no  longer be kept con-
sistent. The block device thus has little  remaining  value.
Three changes have been made for these reasons:
1)   block devices may not be opened while they are mounted,
     and may not be mounted while open, so that the two ver-
     sions of cached file blocks cannot be created,
2)   filesystem checks of the root now use the raw device to
     access the root filesystem, and

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-48                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

3)   the root filesystem is initially mounted  read-only  so
     that  nothing  can  be  written  back to disk during or
     after change to the raw filesystem by fsck.
The root filesystem may be made writable  while  in  single-
user mode with the command:

        mount -uw /

The mount command has an option to update  the  flags  on  a
mounted  filesystem,  including  the  ability  to  upgrade a
filesystem from read-only to read-write or downgrade it from
read-write to read-only.
     In addition to the local ``fast filesystem'',  we  have
added an implementation of the network filesystem (NFS) that
fully interoperates with the NFS  shipped  by  Sun  and  its
licensees. Because our NFS implementation was implemented by
Rick Macklem of the University of Guelph using only the pub-
licly  available  NFS  specification,  it does not require a
license from Sun to use in source or binary form. By default
it runs over UDP to be compatible with Sun's implementation.
However, it can be configured on a per-mount  basis  to  run
over  TCP.  Using TCP allows it to be used quickly and effi-
ciently through gateways and over long-haul networks.  Using
an  extended protocol, it supports Leases to allow a limited
callback mechanism that greatly reduces the network  traffic
necessary  to  maintain cache consistency between the server
and its clients. Its use will be familiar to users of  other
implementations  of  NFS.  See  the  manual  pages mount(8),
mountd(8),  fstab(5),  exports(5),   netgroup(5),   nfsd(8),
nfsiod(8),  and nfssvc(8). and the document ``The 4.4BSD NFS
Implementation'' (SMM:6) for further information. The format
of  /etc/fstab  has  changed from previous BSD releases to a
blank-separated format to allow colons in pathnames.
     A new local filesystem, the  log-structured  filesystem
(LFS),  has been added to the system. It provides near disk-
speed output and fast crash recovery. This work is based, in
part, on the LFS filesystem created for the Sprite operating
system at  Berkeley.  While  the  kernel  implementation  is
almost  complete,  only some of the utilities to support the
filesystem have been written, so we do not recommend it  for
production    use.    See    newlfs(8),   mount_lfs(8)   and
lfs_cleanerd(8)  for  more  information.  For   a   in-depth
description  of  the  implementation and performance charac-
teristics of log-structured filesystems in general, and this
one  in particular, see Dr. Margo Seltzer's doctoral thesis,
available from the University of California Computer Science
     We have also added a memory-based filesystem that  runs
in  pageable  memory,  allowing  large temporary filesystems
without requiring dedicated physical memory.
     The local ``fast filesystem'' has been enhanced  to  do
clustering that allows large pieces of files to be allocated
contiguously  resulting  in  near  doubling  of   filesystem
throughput.  The  filesystem  interface has been extended to

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-49

allow files and filesystems to grow to 2^63 bytes  in  size.
The quota system has been rewritten to support both user and
group quotas (simultaneously if desired).  Quota  expiration
is  based  on time rather than the previous metric of number
of logins over quota. This change makes quotas  more  useful
on fileservers onto which users seldom login.
     The system security has been greatly  enhanced  by  the
addition  of  additional file flags that permit a file to be
marked as immutable or append only. Once  set,  these  flags
can  only  be  cleared  by the super-user when the system is
running in insecure mode (normally, single-user).  In  addi-
tion  to the immutable and append-only flags, the filesystem
supports a new user-settable flag  ``nodump''.  (File  flags
are  set  using the chflags(1) utility.) When set on a file,
dump(8) will omit the  file  from  incremental  backups  but
retain  them on full backups. See the ``-h'' flag to dump(8)
for details on how to change this  default.  The  ``nodump''
flag  is  usually set on core dumps, system crash dumps, and
object files generated by the compiler. Note that  the  flag
is not preserved when files are copied so that installing an
object file will cause it to be preserved.
     The filesystem format used in 4.4BSD has several  addi-
tions.  Directory  entries have an additional field, d_type,
that identifies the type of the entry (normally found in the
st_mode field of the stat structure). This field is particu-
larly useful for identifying directories without the need to
use stat(2).
     Short (less than sixty byte)  symbolic  links  are  now
stored  in  the  inode itself rather than in a separate data
block. This saves disk space and makes  access  of  symbolic
links  faster.  Short symbolic links are not given a special
type, so a user-level application is unaware of  their  spe-
cial treatment. Unlike pre-4.4BSD systems, symbolic links do
not have an owner, group, access mode, times, etc.  Instead,
these  attributes are taken from the directory that contains
the link. The only attributes returned from an lstat(2) that
refer  to  the  symbolic  link  itself  are  the  file  type
(S_IFLNK), size, blocks, and link count (always 1).
     An implementation of an auto-mounter daemon,  amd,  was
contributed  by  Jan-Simon Pendry of the Imperial College of
Science, Technology & Medicine. See the document ``AMD - The
4.4BSD Automounter'' (SMM:13) for further information.
     The directory /dev/fd contains special files 0  through
63  that,  when  opened,  duplicate  the  corresponding file
descriptor.   The   names   /dev/stdin,   /dev/stdout    and
/dev/stderr  refer to file descriptors 0, 1 and 2. See fd(4)
and mount_fdesc(8) for more information. POSIX terminal driver changes
     The 4.4BSD system uses the IEEE P1003.1 (POSIX.1)  ter-
minal interface rather than the previous BSD terminal inter-
face. The terminal driver is similar to the System V  termi-
nal  driver with the addition of the necessary extensions to
get the functionality previously  available  in  the  4.3BSD

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-50                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

terminal driver. Both the old ioctl calls and old options to
stty(1) are emulated. This emulation is expected to be  una-
vailable  in many vendors releases, so conversion to the new
interface is encouraged.
     4.4BSD also adds the IEEE Std1003.1 job control  inter-
face,  that  is similar to the 4.3BSD job control interface,
but adds a security model that was missing in the 4.3BSD job
control implementation. A new system call, setsid(), creates
a job-control session consisting of a single  process  group
with  one member, the caller, that becomes a session leader.
Only a session leader may acquire  a  controlling  terminal.
This  is  done  explicitly via a TIOCSCTTY ioctl() call, not
implicitly by an open() call. The call fails if the terminal
is  in use. Programs that allocate controlling terminals (or
pseudo-terminals) require change to work  in  this  environ-
ment.  The  versions  of xterm provided in the X11R5 release
includes the necessary changes.  New  library  routines  are
available  for  allocating and initializing pseudo-terminals
and   other   terminals   as   controlling   terminal;   see
/usr/src/lib/libutil/pty.c                               and
     The POSIX job control  model  formalizes  the  previous
conventions  used  in  setting  up  a  process group. Unfor-
tunately, this requires that changes be made  in  a  defined
order  and with some synchronization that were not necessary
in the past. Older job control shells (csh, ksh)  will  gen-
erally not operate correctly with the new system.
     Most of the other kernel interfaces have  been  changed
to correspond with the POSIX.1 interface, although that work
is not complete. See the relevant manual pages and the  IEEE
POSIX standard. Native operating system compatibility
     Both the HP300 and SPARC ports feature the  ability  to
run binaries built for the native operating system (HP-UX or
SunOS) by emulating their system calls.  Building  an  HP300
kernel  with  the  HPUXCOMPAT  and COMPAT_OHPUX options or a
SPARC kernel with the COMPAT_SUNOS option will  enable  this
feature (on by default in the generic kernel provided in the
root filesystem image). Though this native operating  system
compatibility  was  provided by the developers as needed for
their purposes and is by no means complete, it  is  complete
enough  to  run  several  non-trivial applications including
those that require HP-UX  or  SunOS  shared  libraries.  For
example,  the  vendor  supplied  X11  server  and  windowing
environment can be used on both the HP300 and SPARC.
     It is important to remember that merely copying over  a
native  binary  and  executing  it (or executing it directly
across NFS) does not imply that it will  run.  All  but  the
most trivial of applications are likely to require access to
auxiliary  files  that  do  not  exist  under  4.4BSD  (e.g.
/etc/ld.so.cache)  or have a slightly different format (e.g.
/etc/passwd). However, by  using  system  call  tracing  and
through  creative  use  of  symlinks,  many  problems can be

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-51

tracked down and corrected.
     The DECstation port also has code for ULTRIX  emulation
(kernel  option  ULTRIXCOMPAT, not compiled into the generic
kernel) but it was used primarily for  initially  bootstrap-
ping  the port and has not been used since. Hence, some work
may be required to make it generally useful.

3.5.3. Changes to the utilities
     We have been tracking  the  IEEE  Std1003.2  shell  and
utility  work  and  have  included prototypes of many of the
proposed utilities based on draft 12 of  the  POSIX.2  Shell
and  Utilities  document.  Because  most  of the traditional
utilities have been replaced with implementations conformant
to  the POSIX standards, you should realize that the utility
software may not be as stable, reliable or  well  documented
as  in  traditional Berkeley releases. In particular, almost
the entire manual suite has been rewritten  to  reflect  the
POSIX  defined interfaces, and in some instances it does not
correctly reflect the current state of the software.  It  is
also  worth noting that, in rewriting this software, we have
generally  been  rewarded   with   significant   performance
improvements.  Most  of  the libraries and header files have
been converted to be compliant with ANSI C. The shipped com-
piler  (gcc)  is  a  superset of ANSI C, but supports tradi-
tional C as a command-line option. The system libraries  and
utilities all compile with either ANSI or traditional C. Make and Makefiles
     This release uses a completely new version of the  make
program  derived  from  the  pmake  program developed by the
Sprite project at Berkeley. It supports existing  makefiles,
although certain incorrect makefiles may fail. The makefiles
for the 4.4BSD sources make extensive use of the new facili-
ties,  especially  conditionals  and file inclusion, and are
thus completely incompatible with  older  versions  of  make
(but  nearly  all the makefiles are now trivial!). The stan-
dard include files for make are in /usr/share/mk. There is a
bsd.README file in /usr/src/share/mk.
     Another global change supported  by  the  new  make  is
designed  to allow multiple architectures to share a copy of
the sources. If a subdirectory named obj is present  in  the
current  directory,  make  descends  into that directory and
creates all object and other files there.  We  use  this  by
building  a  directory  hierarchy in /var/obj that parallels
/usr/src. We then create the obj subdirectories in  /usr/src
as  symbolic  links  to  the  corresponding  directories  in
/var/obj. (This step is automated. The command ``make  obj''
in  /usr/src  builds  both  the local symlink and the shadow
directory, using /usr/obj, that may be a symbolic  link,  as
the root of the shadow tree. The use of /usr/obj is for his-
toric reasons only, and the system make configuration  files
in  /usr/share/mk  can trivially be modified to use /var/obj
instead.) We have one /var/obj hierarchy on the  local  sys-
tem,  and  another  on  each  system  that shares the source

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-52                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

filesystem.  All  the  sources  in   /usr/src   except   for
/usr/src/contrib and portions of /usr/src/old have been con-
verted to use the new  make  and  obj  subdirectories;  this
change  allows  compilation  for multiple architectures from
the same source tree (that may be mounted read-only). Kerberos
     The Kerberos authentication server from MIT (version 4)
is  included in this release. See kerberos(1) for a general,
if  MIT-specific,  introduction.  If   it   is   configured,
login(1),  passwd(1), rlogin(1) and rsh(1) will all begin to
use  it  automatically.  The   file   /etc/kerberosIV/README
describes  the  configuration.  Each  system  needs the file
/etc/kerberosIV/krb.conf to set its realm and local servers,
and  a  private  key  stored  in /etc/kerberosIV/srvtab (see
ext_srvtab(8)). The Kerberos server should be set  up  on  a
single,  physically  secure, server machine. Users and hosts
may  be  added  to  the  server   database   manually   with
kdb_edit(8), or users on authorized hosts can add themselves
and  a  Kerberos  password  after  verification   of   their
``local''  (passwd-file) password using the register(1) pro-
     Note that  by  default  the  password-changing  program
passwd(1)  changes  the  Kerberos password, that must exist.
The -l option to passwd(1) changes the ``local'' password if
one exists.
     Note that Version 5 of Kerberos will be released  soon;
Version 4 should probably be replaced at that time. Timezone support
     The timezone conversion code in the C library uses data
files  installed  in  /usr/share/zoneinfo  to  convert  from
``GMT'' to various timezones.  The data file for the default
timezone  for the system should be copied to /etc/localtime.
Other timezones can be selected by setting the  TZ  environ-
ment variable.
     The    data    files     initially     installed     in
/usr/share/zoneinfo  include  corrections  for  leap seconds
since the beginning of 1970. Thus, they assume that the ker-
nel will increment the time at a constant rate during a leap
second; that is, time just keeps on ticking.  The conversion
routines  will  then  name a leap second 23:59:60.  For pur-
ists, this effectively means that the kernel  maintains  TAI
(International  Atomic  Time)  rather  than UTC (Coordinated
Universal Time, aka GMT).
     For systems that run current NTP (Network  Time  Proto-
col)  implementations  or that wish to conform to the letter
of the POSIX.1 law, it is possible to rebuild  the  timezone
data files so that leap seconds are not counted. (NTP causes
the time to jump over a leap second, and  POSIX  effectively
requires  the  clock  to be reset by hand when a leap second
occurs. In this mode, the kernel effectively runs UTC rather
than TAI.)
     The data files  without  leap  second  information  are

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-53

constructed       from       the      source      directory,
/usr/src/share/zoneinfo.  Change  the   variable   REDO   in
Makefile from ``right'' to ``posix'', and then do

        make obj        (if necessary)
        make install

     You will then need to copy  the  correct  default  zone
file to /etc/localtime, as the old one would still have used
leap seconds, and because the Makefile  installs  a  default
/etc/localtime each time ``make install'' is done.
     It is possible to install both sets  of  timezone  data
files.        This       results      in      subdirectories
/usr/share/zoneinfo/right   and   /usr/share/zoneinfo/posix.
Each   contain   a   complete   set   of   zone  files.  See
/usr/src/share/zoneinfo/Makefile for details. Additions and changes to the libraries
     Notable additions to the libraries include functions to
traverse  a  filesystem  hierarchy,  database  interfaces to
btree and hashing functions, a new, faster implementation of
stdio and a radix and merge sort functions.
     The fts(3) functions will do either physical or logical
traversal  of a file hierarchy as well as handle essentially
infinite depth filesystems and filesystems with cycles.  All
the utilities in 4.4BSD which traverse file hierarchies have
been converted to use  fts(3).  The  conversion  has  always
resulted in a significant performance gain, often of four or
five to one in system time.
     The dbopen(3) functions are intended to be a family  of
database access methods. Currently, they consist of hash(3),
an extensible, dynamic hashing scheme, btree(3),  a  sorted,
balanced  tree  structure  (B+tree's), and recno(3), a flat-
file interface for fixed or variable length  records  refer-
enced  by  logical record number. Each of the access methods
stores associated key/data pairs and uses  the  same  record
oriented interface for access.
     The qsort(3) function has been rewritten for additional
performance.  In  addition, three new types of sorting func-
tions, heapsort(3), mergesort(3) and radixsort(3) have  been
added to the system. The mergesort function is optimized for
data with pre-existing order, in which case it usually  sig-
nificantly outperforms qsort. The radixsort(3) functions are
variants of most-significant-byte radix sorting.  They  take
time  linear  to  the  number of bytes to be sorted, usually
significantly outperforming qsort on data that can be sorted
in this fashion. An implementation of the POSIX 1003.2 stan-
dard  sort(1),  based   on   radixsort,   is   included   in
     Some additional comments about the 4.4BSD C library:
+    The floating point support in the C  library  has  been
     replaced and is now accurate.
+    The C functions specified by both ANSI C, POSIX  1003.1

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-54                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

     and 1003.2 are now part of the C library. This includes
     support for file name matching, shell globbing and both
     basic and extended regular expressions.
+    ANSI C multibyte and wide character  support  has  been
     integrated.  The rune functionality from the Bell Labs'
     Plan 9 system is provided as well.
+    The termcap(3)  functions  have  been  generalized  and
     replaced   with   a  general  purpose  interface  named
+    The stdio(3) routines have been replaced, and are  usu-
     ally much faster. In addition, the funopen(3) interface
     permits applications to provide their  own  I/O  stream
     function support.
     The  curses(3)  library  has  been  largely  rewritten.
Important  additional features include support for scrolling
and termios(3).
     An  application  front-end   editing   library,   named
libedit, has been added to the system.
     A superset implementation of the  SunOS  kernel  memory
interface library, libkvm, has been integrated into the sys-
tem. Additions and changes to other utilities
     There are many new utilities, offering many  new  capa-
bilities, in 4.4BSD. Skimming through the section 1 and sec-
tion 8 manual pages is sure to be useful. The  additions  to
the  utility suite include greatly enhanced versions of pro-
grams that display system  status  information,  implementa-
tions  of  various  traditional  tools described in the IEEE
Std1003.2 standard, new  tools  not  previous  available  on
Berkeley  UNIX  systems,  and many others. Also, with only a
very few exceptions, all  the  utilities  from  4.3BSD  that
included  proprietary  source  code  have been replaced, and
their 4.4BSD counterparts are freely  redistributable.  Nor-
mally,  this replacement resulted in significant performance
improvements and the increase of the limits imposed on  data
by the utility as well.
     A summary of specific additions and changes are as fol-

amd          An auto-mounter implementation.
ar           Replacement of the historic archive format with a new one.
awk          Replaced by gawk; see /usr/src/old/awk for the historic version.
bdes         Utility implementing DES modes of operation described in FIPS PUB 81.
calendar     Addition of an interface for system calendars.
cap_mkdb     Utility for building hashed versions of termcap style databases.
cc           Replacement of pcc with gcc suite.
chflags      A utility for setting the per-file user and system flags.
chfn         An editor based replacement for changing user information.
chpass       An editor based replacement for changing user information.
chsh         An editor based replacement for changing user information.
cksum        The POSIX 1003.2 checksum utility; compatible with sum.
column       A columnar text formatting utility.
cp           POSIX 1003.2 compatible, able to copy special files.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-55

csh          Freely redistributable and 8-bit clean.
date         User specified formats added.
dd           New EBCDIC conversion tables, major performance improvements.
dev_mkdb     Hashed interface to devices.
dm           Dungeon master.
find         Several new options and primaries, major performance improvements.
fstat        Utility displaying information on files open on the system.
ftpd         Connection logging added.
hexdump      A binary dump utility, superseding od.
id           The POSIX 1003.2 user identification utility.
inetd        Tcpmux added.
jot          A text formatting utility.
kdump        A system-call tracing facility.
ktrace       A system-call tracing facility.
kvm_mkdb     Hashed interface to the kernel name list.
lam          A text formatting utility.
lex          A new, freely redistributable, significantly faster version.
locate       A database of the system files, by name, constructed weekly.
logname      The POSIX 1003.2 user identification utility.
mail.local   New local mail delivery agent, replacing mail.
make         Replaced with a new, more powerful make, supporting include files.
man          Added support for man page location configuration.
mkdep        A new utility for generating make dependency lists.
mkfifo       The POSIX 1003.2 FIFO creation utility.
mtree        A new utility for mapping file hierarchies to a file.
nfsstat      An NFS statistics utility.
nvi          A freely redistributable replacement for the ex/vi editors.
pax          The POSIX 1003.2 replacement for cpio and tar.
printf       The POSIX 1003.2 replacement for echo.
roff         Replaced by groff; see /usr/src/old/roff for the historic versions.
rs           New utility for text formatting.
shar         An archive building utility.
sysctl       MIB-style interface to system state.
tcopy        Fast tape-to-tape copying and verification.
touch        Time and file reference specifications.
tput         The POSIX 1003.2 terminal display utility.
tr           Addition of character classes.
uname        The POSIX 1003.2 system identification utility.
vis          A filter for converting and displaying non-printable characters.
xargs        The POSIX 1003.2 argument list constructor utility.
yacc         A new, freely redistributable, significantly faster version.

     The new  versions  of  lex(1)  (``flex'')  and  yacc(1)
(``zoo'')  should  be  installed  early  on if attempting to
cross-compile 4.4BSD on another system. Note  that  the  new
lex  program is not completely backward compatible with his-
toric versions of lex, although  it  is  believed  that  all
documented features are supported.
     The find utility has two new options that are important
to  be aware of if you intend to use NFS. The ``fstype'' and
``prune'' options can be used together to prevent find  from
crossing  NFS mount points. See /etc/daily for an example of
their use.

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-56                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

3.6. Hints on converting from 4.3BSD to 4.4BSD
     This section  summarizes  changes  between  4.3BSD  and
4.4BSD  that  are  likely  to  cause difficulty in doing the
conversion. It does not include changes in the network;  see
section 5 for information on setting up the network.
     Since the stat st_size field is now 64-bits instead  of
32, doing something like:


and then  (improperly)  defining  foo  with  an  ``int''  or
``long'' parameter:

                int size;

will fail miserably (well, it might work on a little  endian
machine).  This  problem  showed  up  in emacs(1) as well as
several other programs.  A  related  problem  is  improperly
casting   (or  failing  to  cast)  the  second  argument  to
lseek(2), truncate(2), or ftruncate(2) ala:

        lseek(fd, (long)off, 0);


        lseek(fd, 0, 0);

The best solution is to include <unistd.h> which has  proto-
types that catch these types of errors.
     Determining the ``namelen'' parameter for a  connect(2)
call  on  a  unix  domain  socket should use the ``SUN_LEN''
macro from <sys/un.h>. One old way that was used:

        addrlen = strlen(unaddr.sun_path) + sizeof(unaddr.sun_family);

no longer works as there is an additional sun_len field.
     The kernel's limit on the number of open files has been
increased  from  20 to 64. It is now possible to change this
limit almost arbitrarily. The standard I/O library  autocon-
figures  to  the  kernel  limit.  Note  that file (``_iob'')
entries may be allocated by malloc from fopen; this  alloca-
tion has been known to cause problems with programs that use
their own memory  allocators.  Memory  allocation  does  not
occur  until after 20 files have been opened by the standard
I/O library.
     Select can be used with more  than  32  descriptors  by
using  arrays  of ints for the bit fields rather than single
ints. Programs that used getdtablesize as their first  argu-
ment  to  select  will no longer work correctly. Usually the
program can be modified to correctly specify the  number  of

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-57

bits in an int. Alternatively the program can be modified to
use an array of ints. There are a set of macros available in
<sys/types.h> to simplify this. See select(2).
     Old core files will not be intelligible by the  current
debuggers  because of numerous changes to the user structure
and because the kernel stack has been  enlarged.  The  a.out
header  that was in the user structure is no longer present.
Locally-written debuggers that try to check the magic number
will need to be changed.
     Files may not be deleted from  directories  having  the
``sticky''  (ISVTX)  bit  set  in  their modes except by the
owner of the file or of the directory, or by the  superuser.
This  is  primarily  to  protect  users'  files in publicly-
writable  directories  such  as  /tmp  and   /var/tmp.   All
publicly-writable  directories  should have their ``sticky''
bits set with ``chmod +t.''
     The following two  sections  contain  additional  notes
about  changes  in  4.4BSD  that  affect the installation of
local files; be sure to read them as well.

4. System setup
     This section describes procedures  used  to  set  up  a
4.4BSD  UNIX system. These procedures are used when a system
is first installed or when the system configuration changes.
Procedures  for normal system operation are described in the
next section.

4.1. Kernel configuration
     This section briefly describes the layout of the kernel
code  and how files for devices are made. For a full discus-
sion of configuring and building system images, consult  the
document   ``Building  4.3BSD  UNIX  Systems  with  Config''

4.1.1. Kernel organization
     As distributed, the kernel source is in a separate  tar
image.  The source may be physically located anywhere within
any filesystem so long as a symbolic link to the location is
created  for  the  file /sys (many files in /usr/include are
normally symbolic links relative to /sys). In  further  dis-
cussions  of  the system source all path names will be given
relative to /sys.
The kernel is made up of several large generic parts:

sys               main kernel header files
kern              kernel functions broken down as follows
         init     system startup, syscall dispatching, entry points
         kern     scheduling, descriptor handling and generic I/O
         sys      process management, signals
         tty      terminal handling and job control
         vfs      filesystem management
         uipc     interprocess communication (sockets)
         subr     miscellaneous support routines
vm                virtual memory management

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-58                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

ufs               local filesystems broken down as follows
         ufs      common local filesystem routines
         ffs      fast filesystem
         lfs      log-based filesystem
         mfs      memory based filesystem
nfs               Sun-compatible network filesystem
miscfs            miscellaneous filesystems broken down as follows
         deadfs   where rejected vnodes go to die
         fdesc    access to per-process file descriptors
         fifofs   IEEE Std1003.1 FIFOs
         kernfs   filesystem access to kernel data structures
         lofs     loopback filesystem
         nullfs   another loopback filesystem
         portal   associate processes with filesystem locations
         specfs   device special files
         umapfs   provide alternate uid/gid mappings
dev               generic device drivers (SCSI, vnode, concatenated disk)

The networking code is organized by protocol

net       routing and generic interface drivers
netinet   Internet protocols (TCP, UDP, IP, etc)
netiso    ISO protocols (TP-4, CLNP, CLTP, etc)
netns     Xerox network systems protocols (IDP, SPP, etc)
netx25    CCITT X.25 protocols (X.25 Packet Level, HDLC/LAPB)

A separate subdirectory is provided for each machine  archi-

hp300      HP 9000/300 series of Motorola 68000-based machines
hp         code common to both HP 68k and (non-existent) PA-RISC ports
i386       Intel 386/486-based PC machines
luna68k    Omron 68000-based workstations
news3400   Sony News MIPS-based workstations
pmax       Digital 3100/5000 MIPS-based workstations
sparc      Sun Microsystems SPARCstation 1, 1+, and 2
tahoe      (deprecated) CCI Power 6-series machines
vax        (deprecated) Digital VAX machines

Each machine directory is subdivided by function; for  exam-
ple the hp300 directory contains

include   exported machine-dependent header files
hp300     machine-dependent support code and private header files
dev       device drivers
conf      configuration files
stand     machine-dependent standalone code

Other kernel related directories

compile   area to compile kernels
conf      machine-independent configuration files
stand     machine-independent standalone code

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-59

4.1.2. Devices and device drivers
     Devices supported by UNIX are implemented in the kernel
by  drivers whose source is kept in /sys/<architecture>/dev.
These drivers are loaded into the system when included in  a
cpu  specific configuration file kept in the conf directory.
Devices are accessed through special files in  the  filesys-
tem,  made  by the mknod(8) program and normally kept in the
/dev directory. For all the devices supported by the distri-
bution  system,  the  files  in  /dev  are  created  by  the
/dev/MAKEDEV shell script.
     Determine the set of devices that you have and create a
new  /dev  directory  by  running  the MAKEDEV script. First
create a new directory /newdev, copy MAKEDEV into  it,  edit
the  file MAKEDEV.local to provide an entry for local needs,
and run it to generate a /newdevdirectory. For instance,

        # cd /
        # mkdir newdev
        # cp dev/MAKEDEV newdev/MAKEDEV
        # cd newdev
        # MAKEDEV sd0 pt0 std LOCAL

Note the ``std'' argument causes standard  devices  such  as
/dev/console, the machine console, to be created.
     You can then do

        # cd /
        # mv dev olddev ; mv newdev dev
        # sync

to install the new device directory.

4.1.3. Building new system images
     The  kernel  configuration  of  each  UNIX  system   is
described  by  a  single  configuration  file, stored in the
/sys/<architecture>/conf directory. To learn about the  for-
mat  of  this  file  and  the procedure used to build system
images, start by reading ``Building 4.3BSD UNIX Systems with
Config''  (SMM:2),  look at the manual pages in section 4 of
the UNIX manual for the devices you have, and  look  at  the
sample  configuration  files in the /sys/<architecture>/conf
     The configured system image vmunix should be copied  to
the  root, and then booted to try it out. It is best to name
it /newvmunix so as not to destroy the working system  until
you are sure it does work:

        # cp vmunix /newvmunix
        # sync

It is also a good idea to keep the  previous  system  around
under some other name.  In particular, we recommend that you
save the generic distribution version  of  the  system  per-
manently  as  /genvmunix for use in emergencies. To boot the

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-60                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

new version of the system you should  follow  the  bootstrap
procedures  outlined in section 6.1. After having booted and
tested the new system, it should  be  installed  as  /vmunix
before  going  into multiuser operation. A systematic scheme
for numbering and saving old versions of the system  may  be

4.2. Configuring terminals
     If  UNIX  is  to  support  simultaneous   access   from
directly-connected  terminals  other  than  the console, the
file /etc/ttys (see ttys(5)) must be edited.
     To add a new terminal device, be  sure  the  device  is
configured  into  the  system and that the special files for
the device have been made by /dev/MAKEDEV. Then, enable  the
appropriate  lines  of  /etc/ttys  by setting the ``status''
field to on (or add new lines). Note that lines in /etc/ttys
are  one-for-one  with  entries in the file of current users
(see /var/run/utmp),  and  therefore  it  is  best  to  make
changes while running in single-user mode and to add all the
entries for a new device at once.
     Each line in the /etc/ttys file is broken into four tab
separated  fields (comments are shown by a `#' character and
extend to the end of the line).  For each terminal line  the
four  fields  are:  the device (without a leading /dev), the
program /sbin/init should startup to service  the  line  (or
none  if  the  line  is to be left alone), the terminal type
(found  in  /usr/share/misc/termcap),  and  optional  status
information describing if the terminal is enabled or not and
if it is ``secure'' (i.e. the super user should  be  allowed
to  login  on  the  line).  If  the  console  is  marked  as
``insecure'', then the root password is  required  to  bring
the machine up single-user. All fields are character strings
with entries requiring embedded white space enclosed in dou-
ble  quotes. Thus a newly added terminal /dev/tty00 could be
added as

        tty00   "/usr/libexec/getty std.9600"   vt100   on secure       # mike's office

The std.9600 parameter  provided  to  /usr/libexec/getty  is
used  in  searching  the  file /etc/gettytab; it specifies a
terminal's characteristics (such as baud rate). To make cus-
tom  terminal  types,  consult  gettytab(5) before modifying
     Dialup terminals should be wired  so  that  carrier  is
asserted  only  when  the  phone line is dialed up. For non-
dialup terminals, from which modem control is not available,
you  must  wire back the signals so that the carrier appears
to always be present.  For further details, find your termi-
nal driver in section 4 of the manual.
     For network terminals (i.e. pseudo terminals), no  pro-
gram  should  be  started up on the lines.  Thus, the normal
entry in /etc/ttys would look like

        ttyp0   none    network

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-61

(Note, the fourth field is not needed here.)
     When the system is running  multi-user,  all  terminals
that  are listed in /etc/ttys as on have their line enabled.
If, during normal operations, you wish to disable a terminal
line,  you  can  edit  the  file  /etc/ttys  to  change  the
terminal's status to off and then send a  hangup  signal  to
the init process, by doing

        # kill -s HUP 1

Terminals can similarly be enabled by  changing  the  status
field from off to on and sending a hangup signal to init.
     Note that if a special file is inaccessible  when  init
tries to create a process for it, init will log a message to
the system error logging process (see syslogd(8)) and try to
reopen  the  terminal  every  minute, reprinting the warning
message every 10 minutes.  Messages of this  sort  are  nor-
mally printed on the console, though other actions may occur
depending  on  the  configuration   information   found   in
     Finally note that you should change the  names  of  any
dialup terminals to ttyd? where ? is in [0-9a-zA-Z], as some
programs use this property of the names to  determine  if  a
terminal  is  a  dialup. Shell commands to do this should be
put in the /dev/MAKEDEV.local script.
     While it is possible to use truly arbitrary strings for
terminal names, the accounting and noticeably the ps(1) com-
mand make good use of the  convention  that  tty  names  (by
default,  and  also  after  dialups  are  named as suggested
above) are distinct in the last 2  characters.  Change  this
and  you  may  be  sorry  later, as the heuristic ps(1) uses
based on these conventions will then break down and ps  will
run MUCH slower.

4.3. Adding users
     The procedure for adding a new  user  is  described  in
adduser(8).  You  should  add  accounts for the initial user
community, giving each a directory and a password, and  put-
ting  users  who  will  wish  to  share software in the same
     Several guest accounts have been provided on  the  dis-
tribution system; these accounts are for people at Berkeley,
Bell Laboratories, and others who have done  major  work  on
UNIX  in  the past.  You can delete these accounts, or leave
them on the system if you expect  that  these  people  would
have occasion to login as guests on your system.

4.4. Site tailoring
     All programs that require  the  site's  name,  or  some
similar  characteristic, obtain the information through sys-
tem calls or from files located in /etc. Aside from parts of
the  system  related to the network, to tailor the system to
your site you must simply select a site name, then edit  the

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-62                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX


The first lines in /etc/netstart use a variable to  set  the

        /bin/hostname $hostname

to define the value returned by  the  gethostname(2)  system
call.   If  you  are running the name server, your site name
should be your fully qualified domain name.   Programs  such
as  getty(8),  mail(1), wall(1), and uucp(1) use this system
call so that the binary images are site independent.
     You will also need to edit /etc/netstart to do the net-
work  interface initialization using ifconfig(8). If you are
not sure how to do this, see sections 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3.  If
you  are not running a routing daemon and have more than one
Ethernet in your environment you  will  need  to  set  up  a
default  route; see section 5.4 for details. Before bringing
your system up multiuser, you should ensure  that  the  net-
working  is  properly  configured. The network is started by
running /etc/netstart. Once started, you should test connec-
tivity  using ping(8). You should first test connectivity to
yourself, then another host on your Ethernet, and finally  a
host on another Ethernet. The netstat(8) program can be used
to inspect and debug your routes; see section 5.4.

4.5. Setting up the line printer system
     The line printer system consists of at least  the  fol-
lowing files and commands:

        /usr/bin/lpq     spooling queue examination program
        /usr/bin/lprm    program to delete jobs from a queue
        /usr/bin/lpr     program to enter a job in a printer queue
        /etc/printcap    printer configuration and capability database
        /usr/sbin/lpd    line printer daemon, scans spooling queues
        /usr/sbin/lpc    line printer control program
        /etc/hosts.lpd   list of host allowed to use the printers

     The file /etc/printcap is a master database  describing
line  printers  directly  attached  to  a machine and, also,
printers accessible  across  a  network.   The  manual  page
printcap(5)  describes  the format of this database and also
shows the default values for such things as the directory in
which  spooling  is performed.  The line printer system han-
dles multiple printers, multiple spooling queues, local  and
remote printers, and also printers attached via serial lines
that require line initialization  such  as  the  baud  rate.
Raster  output  devices  such  as  a Varian or Versatec, and
laser printers such as an Imagen, are also supported by  the
line printer system.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-63

     Remote spooling via the network  is  handled  with  two
spooling  queues,  one  on  the local machine and one on the
remote machine. When a remote printer job  is  started  with
lpr,  the job is queued locally and a daemon process created
to oversee the transfer of the job to  the  remote  machine.
If  the  destination  machine  is  unreachable, the job will
remain queued until it is possible to transfer the files  to
the  spooling  queue on the remote machine.  The lpq program
shows the contents of spool queues on  both  the  local  and
remote machines.
     To configure your line printers, consult  the  printcap
manual  page  and  the  accompanying document, ``4.3BSD Line
Printer Spooler Manual'' (SMM:7). A call to the lpd  program
should be present in /etc/rc.

4.6. Setting up the mail system
     The mail system consists of the following commands:

        /usr/bin/mail           UCB mail program, described in mail(1)
        /usr/sbin/sendmail      mail routing program
        /var/spool/mail         mail spooling directory
        /var/spool/secretmail   secure mail directory
        /usr/bin/xsend          secure mail sender
        /usr/bin/xget           secure mail receiver
        /etc/aliases            mail forwarding information
        /usr/bin/newaliases     command to rebuild binary forwarding database
        /usr/bin/biff           mail notification enabler
        /usr/libexec/comsat     mail notification daemon

Mail is normally sent and received using the mail(1) command
(found in /usr/bin/mail), which provides a front-end to edit
the messages sent and received, and passes the  messages  to
sendmail(8)   for   routing.   The  routing  algorithm  uses
knowledge of the network name syntax, aliasing and  forward-
ing  information,  and  network  topology, as defined in the
configuration file  /usr/lib/sendmail.cf,  to  process  each
piece  of  mail. Local mail is delivered by giving it to the
program /usr/libexec/mail.local that adds it  to  the  mail-
boxes  in  the directory /var/spool/mail/<username>, using a
locking  protocol  to  avoid  problems   with   simultaneous
updates.  After  the  mail  is  delivered,  the  local  mail
delivery daemon /usr/libexec/comsat is  notified,  which  in
turn  notifies  users  who  have issued a ``biff y'' command
that mail has arrived.
     Mail queued in the directory  /var/spool/mail  is  nor-
mally  readable  only by the recipient. To send mail that is
secure against perusal (except by a code-breaker) you should
use the secret mail facility, which encrypts the mail.
     To set  up  the  mail  facility  you  should  read  the
instructions   in   the   file   READ_ME  in  the  directory
/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail and  then  adjust  the  necessary
configuration  files.  You  should  also  set  up  the  file

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-64                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

/etc/aliases for your installation, creating mail groups  as
appropriate.  For more informations see ``Sendmail Installa-
tion and Operation  Guide''  (SMM:8)  and  ``Sendmail  -  An
Internetwork Mail Router'' (SMM:9).

4.6.1. Setting up a UUCP connection
The version of uucp included in  4.4BSD  has  the  following
+  support for many auto call units and dialers in  addition
   to the DEC DN11,
+  breakup of the  spooling  area  into  multiple  subdirec-
+  addition of an L.cmds file to control the set of commands
   that may be executed by a remote site,
+  enhanced ``expect-send'' sequence capabilities when  log-
   ging in to a remote site,
+  new commands to be used in polling  sites  and  obtaining
   snap shots of uucp activity,
+  additional protocols for different communication media.
This section gives a brief overview of uucp and  points  out
the most important steps in its installation.
     To connect two UNIX machines with a uucp  network  link
using  modems, one site must have an automatic call unit and
the other must have a dialup port.  It  is  better  if  both
sites have both.
     You should first read the  paper  in  the  UNIX  System
Manager's   Manual:   ``Uucp   Implementation  Description''
(SMM:14). It describes in detail the file formats  and  con-
ventions,  and  will give you a little context. In addition,
the  document  ``setup.tblms'',  located  in  the  directory
/usr/src/usr.bin/uucp/UUAIDS, may be of use in tailoring the
software to your needs.
     The uucp support is located in three major directories:
/usr/bin,  /usr/lib/uucp, and /var/spool/uucp. User commands
are kept in /usr/bin, operational commands in /usr/lib/uucp,
and /var/spool/uucp is used as a spooling area. The commands
in /usr/bin are:

        /usr/bin/uucp       file-copy command
        /usr/bin/uux        remote execution command
        /usr/bin/uusend     binary file transfer using mail
        /usr/bin/uuencode   binary file encoder (for uusend)
        /usr/bin/uudecode   binary file decoder (for uusend)
        /usr/bin/uulog      scans session log files
        /usr/bin/uusnap     gives a snap-shot of uucp activity
        /usr/bin/uupoll     polls remote system until an answer is received
        /usr/bin/uuname     prints a list of known uucp hosts
        /usr/bin/uuq        gives information about the queue

The important files and commands in /usr/lib/uucp are:

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-65

        /usr/lib/uucp/L-devices     list of dialers and hard-wired lines
        /usr/lib/uucp/L-dialcodes   dialcode abbreviations
        /usr/lib/uucp/L.aliases     hostname aliases
        /usr/lib/uucp/L.cmds        commands remote sites may execute
        /usr/lib/uucp/L.sys         systems to communicate with, how to connect, and when
        /usr/lib/uucp/SEQF          sequence numbering control file
        /usr/lib/uucp/USERFILE      remote site pathname access specifications
        /usr/lib/uucp/uucico        uucp protocol daemon
        /usr/lib/uucp/uuclean       cleans up garbage files in spool area
        /usr/lib/uucp/uuxqt         uucp remote execution server

while the spooling area  contains  the  following  important
files and directories:

        /var/spool/uucp/C.           directory for command, ``C.'' files
        /var/spool/uucp/D.           directory for data, ``D.'', files
        /var/spool/uucp/X.           directory for command execution, ``X.'', files
        /var/spool/uucp/D.machine    directory for local ``D.'' files
        /var/spool/uucp/D.machineX   directory for local ``X.'' files
        /var/spool/uucp/TM.          directory for temporary, ``TM.'', files
        /var/spool/uucp/LOGFILE      log file of uucp activity
        /var/spool/uucp/SYSLOG       log file of uucp file transfers

     To install uucp on your system, start  by  selecting  a
site  name (shorter than 14 characters). A uucp account must
be created in the password file and a password set up. Then,
create  the  appropriate  spooling directories with mode 755
and owned by user uucp, group daemon.
     If you have an auto-call unit, the L.sys,  L-dialcodes,
and L-devices files should be created. The L.sys file should
contain the phone numbers and login  sequences  required  to
establish  a  connection  with  a  uucp  daemon  on  another
machine. For example, our L.sys file looks something like:

        adiron Any ACU 1200 out0123456789- ogin-EOT-ogin uucp
        cbosg Never Slave 300
        cbosgd Never Slave 300
        chico Never Slave 1200 out2010123456

The first field is the name of a site, the second shows when
the machine may be called, the third field specifies how the
host is connected (through an ACU, a hard-wired line, etc.),
then  comes the phone number to use in connecting through an
auto-call unit, and finally  a  login  sequence.  The  phone
number  may contain common abbreviations that are defined in
the L-dialcodes file. The device specification should  refer
to devices specified in the L-devices file. Listing only ACU
causes the uucp daemon, uucico, to search for any  available
auto-call  unit in L-devices. Our L-dialcodes file is of the

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-66                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX


        ucb 2
        out 9%

while our L-devices file is:

        ACU cul0 unused 1200 ventel

Refer to the README file in the uucp  source  directory  for
more information about installation.
     As uucp operates it creates (and  removes)  many  small
files  in  the directories underneath /var/spool/uucp. Some-
times files are left undeleted; these are most easily purged
with  the  uuclean  program.  The log files can grow without
bound unless trimmed back; uulog maintains these files. Many
useful  aids  in  maintaining  your  uucp  installation  are
included    in     a     subdirectory     UUAIDS     beneath
/usr/src/usr.bin/uucp.  Peruse  this  directory and read the
``setup'' instructions also located there.

5. Network setup
     4.4BSD provides support for the standard Internet  pro-
tocols  IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP.  These protocols may be used
on top of a variety of hardware devices ranging from  serial
lines  to  local  area network controllers for the Ethernet.
Network services are split between the kernel (communication
protocols)  and  user programs (user services such as TELNET
and FTP).  This section describes how to configure your sys-
tem to use the Internet networking support. 4.4BSD also sup-
ports the Xerox Network Systems (NS) protocols. IDP and  SPP
are  implemented  in the kernel, and other protocols such as
Courier run at the user level. 4.4BSD provides some  support
for  the  ISO  OSI protocols CLNP TP4, and ESIS.  User level
process complete the application protocols such as X.400 and

5.1. System configuration
     To configure the kernel to include the Internet commun-
ication  protocols, define the INET option. Xerox NS support
is enabled with the NS option. ISO OSI  support  is  enabled
with  the  ISO  option.  In either case, include the pseudo-
devices ``pty'', and ``loop'' in your  machine's  configura-
tion  file. The ``pty'' pseudo-device forces the pseudo ter-
minal device driver to be configured into  the  system,  see
pty(4), while the ``loop'' pseudo-device forces inclusion of
the software loopback interface driver. The loop  driver  is
used  in  network testing and also by the error logging sys-
     If you are planning to use the Internet network facili-
ties  on  a  10Mb/s  Ethernet,  the  pseudo-device ``ether''
should also be included in the  configuration;  this  forces
inclusion  of the Address Resolution Protocol module used in
mapping  between  48-bit  Ethernet   and   32-bit   Internet

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-67

     Before configuring the appropriate networking hardware,
you  should  consult  the  manual  pages in section 4 of the
Programmer's Manual selecting the appropriate interfaces for
your architecture.
     All network interface drivers  including  the  loopback
interface, require that their host address(es) be defined at
boot time. This is done with ifconfig(8)  commands  included
in  the  /etc/netstart  file.  Interfaces  that  are able to
dynamically deduce the host part of  an  address  may  check
that  the  host  part  of the address is correct. The manual
page for each network interface describes the method used to
establish  a host's address. Ifconfig(8) can also be used to
set options for the interface at boot time. Options are  set
independently  for  each interface, and apply to all packets
sent using that interface. Alternatively,  translations  for
such  hosts  may  be  set  in  advance or ``published'' by a
4.4BSD host by use of the arp(8) command. Note that the  use
of trailer link-level is now negotiated between 4.4BSD hosts
using ARP, and it is thus no longer necessary to disable the
use of trailers with ifconfig.
     The OSI equivalent to ARP is ESIS (End System to Inter-
mediate  System  Routing Protocol); running this protocol is
mandatory, however one can  manually  add  translations  for
machines that do not participate by use of the route(8) com-
mand. Additional information is provided in the manual  page
describing ESIS(4).
     To use the pseudo  terminals  just  configured,  device
entries must be created in the /dev directory.  To create 32
pseudo terminals (plenty, unless you have  a  heavy  network
load) execute the following commands.

        # cd /dev
        # MAKEDEV pty0 pty1

More pseudo terminals may be made by specifying pty2,  pty3,
etc.   The  kernel  normally  includes support for 32 pseudo
terminals unless the configuration  file  specifies  a  dif-
ferent  number.  Each pseudo terminal really consists of two
files in /dev: a master and a slave.  The master pseudo ter-
minal  file  is  named  /dev/ptyp?,  while the slave side is
/dev/ttyp?. Pseudo terminals are also used by  several  pro-
grams  not  related  to the network. In addition to creating
the pseudo  terminals,  be  sure  to  install  them  in  the
/etc/ttys  file  (with  a  `none' in the second column so no
getty is started).

5.2. Local subnets
     In 4.4BSD the Internet support includes the  notion  of
``subnets''.   This  is  a mechanism by which multiple local
networks may appears as a single Internet  network  to  off-
site  hosts.   Subnetworks  are  useful because they allow a
site to hide their local topology, requiring only  a  single
route in external gateways; it also means that local network

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-68                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

numbers may be locally administered. The standard describing
this change in Internet addressing is RFC-950.
     To set up local subnets one must first decide  how  the
available  address  space (the Internet ``host part'' of the
32-bit address) is to be partitioned. Sites with a  class  A
network  number  have a 24-bit host address space with which
to work, sites with a class B network number have  a  16-bit
host  address  space,  while  sites  with  a class C network
number have an 8-bit host address space[6]. To define  local
subnets you must steal some bits from the local host address
space for use in extending the network portion of the Inter-
net address.  This reinterpretation of Internet addresses is
done only for local networks; i.e.  it  is  not  visible  to
hosts  off-site.   For  example,  if your site has a class B
network number, hosts  on  this  network  have  an  Internet
address  that  contains the network number, 16 bits, and the
host number, another 16 bits.  To define 254 local  subnets,
each  possessing at most 255 hosts, 8 bits may be taken from
the local part. (The use of subnets 0 and  all-1's,  255  in
this example, is discouraged to avoid confusion about broad-
cast addresses.) These new network  numbers  are  then  con-
structed by concatenating the original 16-bit network number
with the extra 8 bits containing the local subnet number.
     The existence of local subnets is communicated  to  the
system  at  the  time a network interface is configured with
the netmask option to the  ifconfig  program.   A  ``network
mask''  is  specified  to define the portion of the Internet
address that is to be considered the network part  for  that
network.  This mask normally contains the bits corresponding
to the standard network part as well as the portion  of  the
local  part that has been assigned to subnets. If no mask is
specified when the address is set, it will be set  according
to the class of the network. For example, at Berkeley (class
B network 128.32)  8  bits  of  the  local  part  have  been
reserved    for    defining    subnets;   consequently   the
/etc/netstart file contains lines of the form

        /sbin/ifconfig le0 netmask 0xffffff00

This specifies that for interface ``le0'', the upper 24 bits
of  the  Internet address should be used in calculating net-
work  numbers  (netmask  0xffffff00),  and  the  interface's
Internet  address  is  ``''  (host  7  on  network
128.32.1).  Hosts m on sub-network n of this  network  would
then  have  addresses of the form ``128.32.n.m'';  for exam-
ple,  host  99  on  network  129  would  have   an   address
``''.  For  hosts with multiple interfaces, the
network mask should be set for each interface,  although  in
  [6] If you are unfamiliar with the Internet  address-
ing  structure,  consult ``Address Mappings'', Internet
RFC-796, J. Postel; available from the Internet Network
Information Center at SRI.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-69

practice only the mask of the first interface on  each  net-
work is really used.

5.3. Internet broadcast addresses
     The address defined as the broadcast address for Inter-
net networks according to RFC-919 is the address with a host
part of all 1's. The address used by 4.2BSD was the  address
with  a  host  part of 0. 4.4BSD uses the standard broadcast
address (all 1's)  by  default,  but  allows  the  broadcast
address  to  be set (with ifconfig) for each interface. This
allows networks consisting of both 4.2BSD, 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD
hosts  to coexist while the upgrade process proceeds. In the
presence of subnets, the broadcast address uses  the  subnet
field  as for normal host addresses, with the remaining host
part set to 1's (or 0's, on a network that has not yet  been
converted).  4.4BSD  hosts recognize and accept packets sent
to the logical-network broadcast address as  well  as  those
sent  to  the  subnet  broadcast  address, and when using an
all-1's broadcast, also recognize and receive  packets  sent
to host 0 as a broadcast.

5.4. Routing
     If your  environment  allows  access  to  networks  not
directly attached to your host you will need to set up rout-
ing information to allow packets to be properly routed.  Two
schemes  are  supported  by  the  system.   The first scheme
employs a routing table management  daemon.  Optimally,  you
should  use  the routing daemon gated available from Cornell
university. We use it on our  systems  and  it  works  well,
especially  for  multi-homed  hosts  using  Serial  Line  IP
(SLIP). Unfortunately, we were not able to obtain permission
to include it on 4.4BSD.
     If you do not wish to or cannot obtain gated, the  dis-
tribution  does  include  routed(8)  to  maintain the system
routing tables.  The routing daemon uses a  variant  of  the
Xerox  Routing  Information  Protocol to maintain up to date
routing tables in a cluster  of  local  area  networks.   By
using the /etc/gateways file, the routing daemon can also be
used to initialize static routes to  distant  networks  (see
the  next  section for further discussion). When the routing
daemon  is  started  up  (usually  from  /etc/rc)  it  reads
/etc/gateways if it exists and installs those routes defined
there, then broadcasts on each local network  to  which  the
host is attached to find other instances of the routing dae-
mon.  If any responses are  received,  the  routing  daemons
cooperate in maintaining a globally consistent view of rout-
ing in the local environment.  This view can be extended  to
include remote sites also running the routing daemon by set-
ting up suitable entries in /etc/gateways; consult routed(8)
for a more thorough discussion.
     The second approach is to define a default or  wildcard
route  to  a smart gateway and depend on the gateway to pro-
vide ICMP routing redirect information to dynamically create
a routing data base.  This is done by adding an entry of the

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-70                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX


        /sbin/route add default smart-gateway 1

to /etc/netstart; see route(8) for  more  information.   The
default  route  will  be  used  by  the  system  as a ``last
resort'' in routing packets to their destination.   Assuming
the  gateway  to  which packets are directed is able to gen-
erate the proper routing redirect messages, the system  will
then add routing table entries based on the information sup-
plied.  This approach has certain advantages over the  rout-
ing  daemon, but is unsuitable in an environment where there
are only bridges (i.e. pseudo gateways that,  for  instance,
do not generate routing redirect messages).  Further, if the
smart gateway goes down there is no alternative, save manual
alteration  of  the routing table entry, to maintaining ser-
     The  system  always  listens,  and  processes,  routing
redirect  information,  so it is possible to combine both of
the  above  facilities.   For  example,  the  routing  table
management  process  might  be  used  to maintain up to date
information about routes to geographically  local  networks,
while  employing  the wildcard routing techniques for ``dis-
tant'' networks.  The netstat(1)  program  may  be  used  to
display  routing  table  contents as well as various routing
oriented statistics.  For example,

        # netstat -r

will display the contents of the routing tables, while

        # netstat -r -s

will show the number of routing  table  entries  dynamically
created as a result of routing redirect messages, etc.

5.5. Use of 4.4BSD machines as gateways
     Several changes have been made in 4.4BSD in the area of
gateway  support  (or  packet forwarding, if one prefers). A
new configuration option, GATEWAY, is used when  configuring
a machine to be used as a gateway. This option increases the
size of the routing hash tables in the kernel.  Unless  con-
figured  with  that  option,  hosts  with only a single non-
loopback interface never attempt to forward  packets  or  to
respond  with  ICMP  error  messages to misdirected packets.
This change reduces the problems that may  occur  when  dif-
ferent  hosts on a network disagree on the network number or
broadcast address. Another change is  that  4.4BSD  machines
that  forward  packets  back  through  the same interface on
which they arrived will send ICMP redirects  to  the  source
host  if  it  is  on  the  same  network.  This improves the
interaction of 4.4BSD gateways  with  hosts  that  configure
their routes via default gateways and redirects. The genera-
tion of redirects may be  disabled  with  the  configuration

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-71

option  IPSENDREDIRECTS=0  or while the system is running by
using the command:

        sysctl net.inet.ip.redirect=0

in environments where it may cause difficulties.

5.6. Network databases
     Several data files are used by the network library rou-
tines  and  server  programs.   Most of these files are host
independent and updated only rarely.

File               Manual reference   Use
/etc/hosts         hosts(5)           local host names
/etc/networks      networks(5)        network names
/etc/services      services(5)        list of known services
/etc/protocols     protocols(5)       protocol names
/etc/hosts.equiv   rshd(8)            list of ``trusted'' hosts
/etc/netstart      rc(8)              command script for initializing network
/etc/rc            rc(8)              command script for starting standard servers
/etc/rc.local      rc(8)              command script for starting local servers
/etc/ftpusers      ftpd(8)            list of ``unwelcome'' ftp users
/etc/hosts.lpd     lpd(8)             list of hosts allowed to access printers
/etc/inetd.conf    inetd(8)           list of servers started by inetd

The files distributed are set up for Internet  hosts.  Local
networks  and  hosts  should  be added to describe the local
configuration; the Berkeley entries may  serve  as  examples
(see  also  the section on /etc/hosts). Network numbers will
have to be chosen for each Ethernet. For sites connected  to
the Internet, the normal channels should be used for alloca-
tion of network numbers  (contact  hostmaster@SRI-NIC.ARPA).
For  other  sites,  these could be chosen more or less arbi-
trarily, but it is  generally  better  to  request  official
numbers  to avoid conversion if a connection to the Internet
(or others on the Internet) is ever established.

5.6.1. Network servers
     Most network servers are automatically  started  up  at
boot  time  by  the  command file /etc/rc or by the Internet
daemon (see below). These include the following:

Program                Server                            Started by
/usr/sbin/syslogd      error logging server              /etc/rc
/usr/sbin/named        Internet name server              /etc/rc
/sbin/routed           routing table management daemon   /etc/rc
/usr/sbin/rwhod        system status daemon              /etc/rc
/usr/sbin/timed        time synchronization daemon       /etc/rc
/usr/sbin/sendmail     SMTP server                       /etc/rc
/usr/libexec/rshd      shell server                      inetd
/usr/libexec/rexecd    exec server                       inetd
/usr/libexec/rlogind   login server                      inetd

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-72                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

/usr/libexec/telnetd   TELNET server                     inetd
/usr/libexec/ftpd      FTP server                        inetd
/usr/libexec/fingerd   Finger server                     inetd
/usr/libexec/tftpd     TFTP server                       inetd

Consult the  manual  pages  and  accompanying  documentation
(particularly  for  named  and  sendmail)  for details about
their operation.
     The use of routed and  rwhod  is  controlled  by  shell
variables  set in /etc/netstart. By default, routed is used,
but rwhod is not; they are enabled by setting the  variables
routedflags  and  rwhod  to  strings  other than ``NO.'' The
value  of  routedflags  provides  host-specific  options  to
routed. For example,


would run routed -q and would not run rwhod.
     To have other network servers started as well, commands
of the following sort should be placed in the site-dependent
file /etc/rc.local.

        if [ -f /usr/sbin/timed ]; then
                /usr/sbin/timed & echo -n ' timed'                      >/dev/console

5.6.2. Internet daemon
     In 4.4BSD most of the servers for user-visible services
are  started  up by a ``super server'', the Internet daemon.
The Internet  daemon,  /usr/sbin/inetd,  acts  as  a  master
server  for  programs  specified  in its configuration file,
/etc/inetd.conf, listening for service  requests  for  these
servers,  and starting up the appropriate program whenever a
request is received. The configuration file  contains  lines
containing  a  service name (as found in /etc/services), the
type of socket the server expects (e.g.  stream  or  dgram),
the  protocol  to  be  used  with  the  socket  (as found in
/etc/protocols), whether to wait for each server to complete
before  starting  up  another,  the  user  name by which the
server should run, the server program's name,  and  at  most
five  arguments  to pass to the server program. Some trivial
services are implemented  internally  in  inetd,  and  their
servers  are  listed  as ``internal.'' For example, an entry
for the file transfer protocol server would appear as

        ftp     stream  tcp     nowait  root    /usr/libexec/ftpd       ftpd

Consult inetd(8) for more detail on the format of the confi-
guration file and the operation of the Internet daemon.

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-73

5.6.3. The /etc/hosts.equiv file
     The remote login and shell servers use  an  authentica-
tion  scheme  based  on trusted hosts.  The hosts.equiv file
contains a list of hosts that are  considered  trusted  and,
under a single administrative control.  When a user contacts
a remote login  or  shell  server  requesting  service,  the
client  process passes the user's name and the official name
of the host on which the client is located.  In  the  simple
case,  if  the host's name is located in hosts.equiv and the
user has an account on the server's machine, then service is
rendered (i.e. the user is allowed to log in, or the command
is executed).  Users  may  expand  this  ``equivalence''  of
machines  by installing a .rhosts file in their login direc-
tory. The root login is  handled  specially,  bypassing  the
hosts.equiv file, and using only the /.rhosts file.
     Thus, to create a class  of  equivalent  machines,  the
hosts.equiv file should contain the official names for those
machines. If you are running the name server, you  may  omit
the  domain part of the host name for machines in your local
domain. For example, four machines on our local network  are
considered trusted, so the hosts.equiv file is of the form:


5.6.4. The /etc/ftpusers file
     The FTP server included in the system provides  support
for an anonymous FTP account.  Because of the inherent secu-
rity problems with such a facility you should read this sec-
tion carefully if you consider providing such a service.
     An anonymous account is enabled by creating a user ftp.
When  a client uses the anonymous account a chroot(2) system
call is performed by the server to restrict the client  from
moving  outside  that  part of the filesystem where the user
ftp home directory is located.  Because  a  chroot  call  is
used,  certain programs and files used by the server process
must be placed in the ftp home directory. Further, one  must
be  sure  that  all  directories  and  executable images are
unwritable. The following directory  setup  is  recommended.
The  use  of  the  awk  commands to copy the /etc/passwd and
/etc/group files are STRONGLY recommended.

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-74                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

        # cd ~ftp
        # chmod 555 .; chown ftp .; chgrp ftp .
        # mkdir bin etc pub
        # chown root bin etc
        # chmod 555 bin etc
        # chown ftp pub
        # chmod 777 pub
        # cd bin
        # cp /bin/sh /bin/ls .
        # chmod 111 sh ls
        # cd ../etc
        # awk -F: '{$2="*";print$1":"$2":"$3":"$4":"$5":"$6":"}' < /etc/passwd > passwd
        # awk -F: '{$2="*";print$1":"$2":"}' < /etc/group > group
        # chmod 444 passwd group

When local users wish to place files in the anonymous  area,
they  must  be placed in a subdirectory.  In the setup here,
the directory ~ftp/pub is used.
     Aside from the problems of directory  modes  and  such,
the  ftp  server  may  provide a loophole for interlopers if
certain user accounts are allowed. The file /etc/ftpusers is
checked  on  each  connection. If the requested user name is
located in the file, the  request  for  service  is  denied.
This file normally has the following names on our systems.


Accounts without passwords need not be listed in  this  file
as  the  ftp  server  will  refuse  service  to these users.
Accounts  with  nonstandard  shells  (any  not   listed   in
/etc/shells) will also be denied access via ftp.

6. System operation
     This section describes procedures  used  to  operate  a
4.4BSD  UNIX  system.  Procedures  described  here  are used
periodically, to reboot the system, analyze  error  messages
from  devices,  do disk backups, monitor system performance,
recompile system software and control local changes.

6.1. Bootstrap and shutdown procedures
     In a normal reboot, the system  checks  the  disks  and
comes  up  multi-user  without  intervention at the console.
Such a reboot can be stopped (after it prints the date) with
a  ^C (interrupt). This will leave the system in single-user
mode, with only the console terminal active. (If the console
has been marked ``insecure'' in /etc/ttys you must enter the
root password to bring the machine to single-user mode.)  It
is  also possible to allow the filesystem checks to complete
and then to return to single-user mode by signaling  fsck(8)
with a QUIT signal (^\).
     To bring the system up to  a  multi-user  configuration
from the single-user status, all you have to do is hit ^D on

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-75

the console.   The  system  will  then  execute  /etc/rc,  a
multi-user  restart  script (and /etc/rc.local), and come up
on the terminals listed as active in the file /etc/ttys. See
init(8)  and ttys(5) Note, however, that this does not cause
a filesystem check to be done. Unless the system  was  taken
down  cleanly,  you should run ``fsck -p'' or force a reboot
with reboot(8) to have the disks checked.
     To take the system down to a single user state you  can

        # kill 1

or use the shutdown(8) command (which is much  more  polite,
if  there  are  other  users logged in) when you are running
multi-user. Either command will kill all processes and  give
you  a  shell  on  the  console,  as if you had just booted.
Filesystems  remain  mounted  after  the  system  is   taken
single-user.   If  you wish to come up multi-user again, you
should do this by:

        # cd /
        # /sbin/umount -a
        # ^D

     Each system shutdown, crash, processor halt and  reboot
is recorded in the system log with its cause.

6.2. Device errors and diagnostics
     When serious errors occur on peripherals or in the sys-
tem,  the system prints a warning diagnostic on the console.
These messages are collected by  the  system  error  logging
process  syslogd(8) and written into a system error log file
/var/log/messages. Less serious errors are sent directly  to
syslogd, which may log them on the console. The error prior-
ities that are logged and the locations to  which  they  are
logged  are  controlled  by /etc/syslog.conf. See syslogd(8)
for further details.
     Error messages printed by the devices in the system are
described  with  the drivers for the devices in section 4 of
the programmer's manual. If errors occur suggesting hardware
problems,  you should contact your hardware support group or
field service.  It is a good idea to examine the  error  log
file    regularly   (e.g.   with   the   command   tail   -r

6.3. Filesystem checks, backups, and disaster recovery
     Periodically (say every week or so in  the  absence  of
any  problems)  and  always  (usually automatically) after a
crash, all the filesystems should be checked for consistency
by  fsck(1).  The  procedures of reboot(8) should be used to
get the system to a state where a filesystem  check  can  be
done manually or automatically.
     Dumping of the filesystems should  be  done  regularly,
since  once  the  system  is  going  it  is  easy  to become

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-76                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

complacent. Complete and incremental dumps are  easily  done
with  dump(8).  You  should  arrange to do a towers-of-hanoi
dump sequence; we tune ours so that  almost  all  files  are
dumped  on  two  tapes  and kept for at least a week in most
every case.  We take full dumps every month (and keep  these
indefinitely).  Operators  can  execute  ``dump w'' at login
that will tell them what needs to be dumped  (based  on  the
/etc/fstab  information). Be sure to create a group operator
in the file /etc/group so that  dump  can  notify  logged-in
operators when it needs help.
     More precisely, we have three sets of  dump  tapes:  10
daily  tapes,  5  weekly  sets of 2 tapes, and fresh sets of
three tapes monthly. We do daily  dumps  circularly  on  the
daily  tapes with sequence `3 2 5 4 7 6 9 8 9 9 9 ...'. Each
weekly is a level 1 and the daily dump sequence  level  res-
tarts after each weekly dump. Full dumps are level 0 and the
daily sequence restarts after each full dump also.
     Thus a typical dump sequence would be:

 tape name   level number       date         opr      size
   FULL           0         Nov 24, 1992   operator   137K
     D1           3         Nov 28, 1992   operator   29K
     D2           2         Nov 29, 1992   operator   34K
     D3           5         Nov 30, 1992   operator   19K
     D4           4          Dec 1, 1992   operator   22K
     W1           1          Dec 2, 1992   operator   40K
     D5           3          Dec 4, 1992   operator   15K
     D6           2          Dec 5, 1992   operator   25K
     D7           5          Dec 6, 1992   operator   15K
     D8           4          Dec 7, 1992   operator   19K
     W2           1          Dec 9, 1992   operator   118K
     D9           3         Dec 11, 1992   operator   15K
    D10           2         Dec 12, 1992   operator   26K
     D1           5         Dec 15, 1992   operator   14K
     W3           1         Dec 17, 1992   operator   71K
     D2           3         Dec 18, 1992   operator   13K
   FULL           0         Dec 22, 1992   operator   135K

We do weekly dumps often enough that daily dumps always  fit
on one tape.
     Dumping of files by name is best done by tar(1) but the
amount of data that can be moved in this way is limited to a
single tape. Finally if there are enough drives entire disks
can  be copied with dd(1) using the raw special files and an
appropriate blocking factor; the number of sectors per track
is usually a good value to use, consult /etc/disktab.
     It is desirable that full dumps of the root  filesystem
be  made  regularly.  This  is especially true when only one
disk is available. Then, if the root filesystem  is  damaged
by  a  hardware or software failure, you can rebuild a work-
able disk doing a restore in the same way that  the  initial
root filesystem was created.
     Exhaustion of user-file space is certain to  occur  now

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-77

and  then;  disk  quotas  may be imposed, or if you prefer a
less fascist approach, try using the programs du(1),  df(1),
and  quot(8), combined with threatening messages of the day,
and personal letters.

6.4. Moving filesystem data
     If you have the resources,  the  best  way  to  move  a
filesystem  is  to  dump  it  to  a spare disk partition, or
magtape, using dump(8),  use  newfs(8)  to  create  the  new
filesystem,  and  restore  the  filesystem using restore(8).
Filesystems may also be moved by piping the output  of  dump
to  restore.  The restore program uses an ``in-place'' algo-
rithm that allows filesystem dumps to  be  restored  without
concern  for  the original size of the filesystem.  Further,
portions of a filesystem may be selectively restored using a
method similar to the tape archive program.
     If you have to merge a filesystem into another,  exist-
ing one, the best bet is to use tar(1). If you must shrink a
filesystem, the best bet is to dump the original and restore
it onto the new filesystem. If you are playing with the root
filesystem and only have one drive, the  procedure  is  more
complicated.  If  the  only drive is a Winchester disk, this
procedure may not be used without overwriting  the  existing
root or another partition. What you do is the following:
2.   Dump the root filesystem to tape using dump(8).
3.   Bring the system down.
4.   Mount the new pack in the correct disk drive, if  using
     removable media.
5.   Load the distribution tape and  install  the  new  root
     filesystem as you did when first installing the system.
     Boot normally using the newly created disk filesystem.
     Note that if you change the disk  partition  tables  or
add  new disk drivers they should also be added to the stan-
dalone system in /sys/<architecture>/stand, and the  default
disk partition tables in /etc/disktab should be modified.

6.5. Monitoring system performance
     The systat program provided with the system is designed
to be an aid to monitoring systemwide activity.  The default
``pigs'' mode shows a dynamic  ``ps''.  By  running  in  the
``vmstat''  mode when the system is active you can judge the
system activity in  several  dimensions:  job  distribution,
virtual  memory  load,  paging and swapping activity, device
interrupts, and disk and  cpu  utilization.  Ideally,  there
should  be few blocked (b) jobs, there should be little pag-
ing  or  swapping  activity,  there  should   be   available
bandwidth  on the disk devices (most single arms peak out at
20-30 tps in practice), and the user  cpu  utilization  (us)
should be high (above 50%).
     If the system is busy, then the count  of  active  jobs
may be large, and several of these jobs may often be blocked
(b).  If the virtual memory is active, then the paging demon
will  be  running  (sr will be non-zero).  It is healthy for

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-78                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

the paging demon to free pages when the virtual memory  gets
active;  it  is triggered by the amount of free memory drop-
ping below a threshold and increases its pace as free memory
goes to zero.
     If you run in the ``vmstat'' mode when  the  system  is
busy, you can find imbalances by noting abnormal job distri-
butions.  If many processes are blocked (b), then  the  disk
subsystem  is overloaded or imbalanced.  If you have several
non-dma devices or open teletype lines that are ``ringing'',
or  user  programs  that  are  doing high-speed non-buffered
input/output, then the system time may go  high  (60-70%  or
higher).  It is often possible to pin down the cause of high
system time by looking to see if there is excessive  context
switching  (cs),  interrupt  activity  (in)  and  per-device
interrupt counts, or system  call  activity  (sy).   Cumula-
tively  on one of our large machines we average about 60-200
context switches and interrupts per second and about  50-500
system calls per second.
     If the system is heavily loaded, or if you have  little
memory  for  your load (2M is little in most any case), then
the system may be forced to swap.   This  is  likely  to  be
accompanied  by a noticeable reduction in system performance
and pregnant pauses when interactive jobs  such  as  editors
swap  out.  If you expect to be in a memory-poor environment
for an extended period you might  consider  administratively
limiting system load.

6.6. Recompiling and reinstalling system software
     It is easy to regenerate either the entire system or  a
single  utility,  and  it  is  a good idea to try rebuilding
pieces of the system to build confidence in the procedures.
In general, there are six well-known  targets  supported  by
all the makefiles on the system:
all      This entry is the default target, the same as if no
         target is specified. This target builds the kernel,
         binary or library, as well as its associated manual
         pages.  This  target  does not build the dependency
         files. Some of the utilities require  that  a  make
         depend be done before a make all can succeed.
depend   Build   the   include   file    dependency    file,
         ``.depend'',  which  is  read by make. See mkdep(1)
         for further details.
install  Install the kernel, binary or library, as  well  as
         its  associated  manual  pages.  See install(1) for
         further details.
clean    Remove the kernel, binary or library,  as  well  as
         any object files created when building it.
cleandir The same as clean, except that the dependency files
         and formatted manual pages are removed as well.
obj      Build a shadow  directory  structure  in  the  area
         referenced  by  /usr/obj and create a symbolic link
         in the current source directory to  referenced  it,
         named  ``obj''. Once this shadow structure has been
         created, all the files created by make will live in

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-79

         the  shadow  structure, and /usr/src may be mounted
         read-only by multiple machines. Doing a make obj in
         /usr/src  will build the shadow directory structure
         for everything on the system except for the contri-
         buted, old, and kernel software.
     The system consists of three major  parts:  the  kernel
itself,  found  in  /usr/src/sys,  the  libraries , found in
/usr/src/lib, and the user programs (the rest of /usr/src).
     Deprecated software, found in /usr/src/old,  often  has
old  style  makefiles;  some  of  it  does not compile under
4.4BSD at all.
     Contributed software, found in  /usr/src/contrib,  usu-
ally  does  not  support  the  ``cleandir'',  ``depend'', or
``obj'' targets.
     The kernel does not support the ``obj''  shadow  struc-
ture.   All   kernels  are  compiled  in  subdirectories  of
/usr/src/sys/compile  which  is   usually   abbreviated   as
/sys/compile.  If  you  want to mount your source tree read-
only, /usr/src/sys/compile will have to  be  on  a  separate
filesystem  from  /usr/src.  Separation from /usr/src can be
done by making /usr/src/sys/compile  a  symbolic  link  that
references  /usr/obj/sys/compile.  If it is a symbolic link,
the S variable in the kernel Makefile must be  changed  from
../..  to  the absolute pathname needed to locate the kernel
sources, usually /usr/src/sys. The symbolic link created  by
config(8)  for  machine  must also be manually changed to an
absolute  pathname.  Finally,  the  /usr/src/sys/libkern/obj
directory must be located in /usr/obj/sys/libkern.
     Each of the standard utilities  and  libraries  may  be
built and installed by changing directories into the correct
location and doing:

        # make
        # make install

Note, if system include files have changed between compiles,
make will not do the correct dependency checks if the depen-
dency files have not been built using the ``depend'' target.
     The entire library and utility suite for the system may
be recompiled from scratch by changing directory to /usr/src
and doing:

        # make build

This target installs the system include  files,  cleans  the
source  tree,  builds and installs the libraries, and builds
and installs the system utilities.
     To recompile a specific program, first determine  where
the  binary resides with the whereis(1) command, then change
to the corresponding source directory and build it with  the
Makefile  in  the  directory.  For  instance,  to  recompile
``passwd'', all one has to do is:

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-80                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

        # whereis passwd
        # cd /usr/src/usr.bin/passwd
        # make
        # make install

this will compile and install the passwd utility.
     If you wish to recompile and install all programs  into
a  particular  target area you can override the default path
prefix by doing:

        # make
        # make DESTDIR=pathname install

Similarly, the mode, owner, group, and other characteristics
of  the  installed  object can be modified by changing other
default       make       variables.       See       make(1),
/usr/src/share/mk/bsd.README, and the ``.mk'' scripts in the
/usr/share/mk directory for more information.
     If you modify the C library or system include files, to
change  a  system  call for example, and want to rebuild and
install everything, you have to be  a  little  careful.  You
must ensure that the include files are installed before any-
thing is compiled, and  that  the  libraries  are  installed
before  the  remainder  of  the source, otherwise the loaded
images will not contain the new routine from the library. If
include  files  have  been  modified, the following commands
should be done first:

        # cd /usr/src/include
        # make install

Then, if, for example, C library files have  been  modified,
the following commands should be executed:

        # cd /usr/src/lib/libc
        # make depend
        # make
        # make install
        # cd /usr/src
        # make depend
        # make
        # make install

Alternatively, the make build command described  above  will
accomplish  the  same  tasks.  This takes several hours on a
reasonably configured machine.

6.7. Making local modifications
     The source for locally  written  commands  is  normally
stored  in  /usr/src/local,  and  their binaries are kept in
/usr/local/bin. This  isolation  of  local  binaries  allows
/usr/bin,  and  /bin  to correspond to the distribution tape

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-81

(and to the manuals that people can buy). People using local
commands  should be made aware that they are not in the base
manual. Manual pages for local commands should be  installed
in /usr/local/man/cat[1-8]. The man(1) command automatically
finds manual  pages  placed  in  /usr/local/man/cat[1-8]  to
encourage this practice (see man.conf(5)).

6.8. Accounting
     UNIX optionally records two kinds of accounting  infor-
mation:   connect   time  accounting  and  process  resource
accounting.  The  connect  time  accounting  information  is
stored in the file /var/log/wtmp, which is summarized by the
program ac(8). The process time  accounting  information  is
stored  in the file /var/account/acct after it is enabled by
accton(8), and is analyzed and  summarized  by  the  program
     If you need to recharge for  computing  time,  you  can
develop  procedures  based  on  the  information provided by
these commands. A convenient way to do this is to give  com-
mands  to  the  clock  daemon  /usr/sbin/cron to be executed
every day at a specified time. This is done by adding  lines
to /etc/crontab.local; see cron(8) for details.

6.9. Resource control
     Resource control in the current version of UNIX is more
elaborate than in most UNIX systems.  The disk quota facili-
ties developed at the  University  of  Melbourne  have  been
incorporated in the system and allow control over the number
of files and amount of disk space each user and/or group may
use on each filesystem.  In addition, the resources consumed
by any single process can be limited by  the  mechanisms  of
setrlimit(2). As distributed, the latter mechanism is volun-
tary, though sites may choose to modify the login  mechanism
to impose limits not covered with disk quotas.
     To use the disk quota facilities, the  system  must  be
configured  with ``options QUOTA''.  Filesystems may then be
placed under the quota mechanism by  creating  a  null  file
quota.user and/or quota.group at the root of the filesystem,
running quotacheck(8), and modifying /etc/fstab to show that
the filesystem is to run with disk quotas (options userquota
and/or groupquota). The quotaon(8) program may then  be  run
to enable quotas.
     Individual quotas are applied by using the quota editor
edquota(8).  Users  may  view their quotas (but not those of
other users) with the quota(1) program. The repquota(8) pro-
gram  may  be used to summarize the quotas and current space
usage on a particular filesystem or filesystems.
     Quotas are enforced with soft and hard limits.  When  a
user  and/or group first reaches a soft limit on a resource,
a message is generated  on  their  terminal.   If  the  user
and/or  group  fails  to  lower the resource usage below the
soft limit for longer than the time  limit  established  for
that  filesystem (default seven days) the system then treats
the soft limit as a hard limit and disallows any allocations

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-82                Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

until  enough  space  is  reclaimed to bring the user and/or
group back below the soft limit. Hard  limits  are  enforced
strictly  resulting in errors when a user and/or group tries
to create or write a  file.   Each  time  a  hard  limit  is
exceeded  the  system  will generate a message on the user's
     Consult the auxiliary document, ``Disc Quotas in a UNIX
Environment'' (SMM:4) and the appropriate manual entries for
more information.

6.10. Network troubleshooting
     If you have anything more than a trivial network confi-
guration,  from time to time you are bound to run into prob-
lems.  Before blaming the software, first check your network
connections.  On networks such as the Ethernet a loose cable
tap  or  misplaced  power  cable  can  result  in   severely
deteriorated  service.  The netstat(1) program may be of aid
in tracking down hardware malfunctions. In particular,  look
at the -i and -s options in the manual page.
     Should you believe  a  communication  protocol  problem
exists,  consult  the protocol specifications and attempt to
isolate the problem in a packet trace.  The SO_DEBUG  option
may  be  supplied  before  establishing  a  connection  on a
socket, in which case the system will trace all traffic  and
internal  actions  (such  as  timers expiring) in a circular
trace buffer. This buffer may then be printed out  with  the
trpt(8)  program.  Most  of the servers distributed with the
system accept a -d option forcing all sockets to be  created
with  debugging  turned  on.  Consult the appropriate manual
pages for more information.

6.11. Files that need periodic attention
     We conclude the  discussion  of  system  operations  by
listing  the  files  that  require periodic attention or are
system specific:

/etc/fstab           how disk partitions are used
/etc/disktab         default disk partition sizes/labels
/etc/printcap        printer database
/etc/gettytab        terminal type definitions
/etc/remote          names and phone numbers of remote machines for tip(1)
/etc/group           group memberships
/etc/motd            message of the day
/etc/master.passwd   password file; each account has a line
/etc/rc.local        local system restart script; runs reboot; starts daemons
/etc/inetd.conf      local internet servers
/etc/hosts           local host name database
/etc/networks        network name database
/etc/services        network services database
/etc/hosts.equiv     hosts under same administrative control
/etc/syslog.conf     error log configuration for syslogd(8)
/etc/ttys            enables/disables ports
/etc/crontab         commands that are run periodically
/etc/crontab.local   local commands that are run periodically

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                SMM:1-83

/etc/aliases         mail forwarding and distribution groups
/var/account/acct    raw process account data
/var/log/messages    system error log
/var/log/wtmp        login session accounting

                       July 27, 1993

SMM:1-2                 Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX

                     Table of Contents

1.    Introduction ....................................    6
1.1.  Distribution format .............................    6
1.2.  UNIX device naming ..............................    6
1.3.  UNIX devices: block and raw .....................    7
2.    Bootstrap procedure .............................    8
2.1.  Bootstrapping from the tape .....................    8
2.2.  Booting the HP300 ...............................    9
2.2.1.Supported hardware ..............................    9
2.2.2.Standalone device file naming ...................   10
2.2.3.The procedure ...................................   10 1: selecting and formatting a disk .......   10 2: copying the root filesystem from
tape to disk ..........................................   11 3: booting the root filesystem ...........   12 4: (optional) restoring the root
filesystem ............................................   14 5: placing labels on the disks ...........   15
2.3.  Booting the SPARC ...............................   16
2.3.1.Supported hardware ..............................   16
2.3.2.Limitations .....................................   16
2.3.3.The procedure ...................................   17
2.4.  Booting the DECstation ..........................   18
2.4.1.Supported hardware ..............................   18
2.4.2.The procedure ...................................   19 A: copy root filesystem to disk .....   20 B: bootstrap from tape ..............   20 C: bootstrap over the network .......   20
2.4.3.Label disk and create the root filesystem .......   21
2.5.  Disk configuration ..............................   22
2.5.1.Disk naming and divisions .......................   22
2.5.2.Layout considerations ...........................   23
2.5.3.Filesystem parameters ...........................   24
2.5.4.Implementing a layout ...........................   26
2.6.  Installing the rest of the system ...............   27
2.7.  Additional conversion information ...............   31
3.    Upgrading a 4.3BSD system .......................   31
3.1.  Installation overview ...........................   32
3.2.  Files to save ...................................   33
3.3.  Installing 4.4BSD ...............................   34
3.4.  Merging your files from 4.3BSD into 4.4BSD ......   37
3.4.1.Changes in the /etc directory ...................   39
3.4.2.Shadow password files ...........................   41
3.4.3.The /var filesystem .............................   42
3.5.  Bug fixes and changes between 4.3BSD and
4.4BSD ................................................   43
3.5.1.Changes to the kernel ...........................   44
3.5.2.Security ........................................   44

                       July 27, 1993

Installing and Operating 4.4BSD UNIX                 SMM:1-3 memory changes ........................   45 additions and changes ..............   46 and changes to filesystems ..........   47 terminal driver changes .................   49 operating system compatibility .........   50
3.5.3.Changes to the utilities ........................   51 and Makefiles ............................   51 ......................................   52 support ..............................   52 and changes to the libraries ........   53 and changes to other utilities ......   54
3.6.  Hints on converting from 4.3BSD to 4.4BSD .......   56
4.    System setup ....................................   57
4.1.  Kernel configuration ............................   57
4.1.1.Kernel organization .............................   57
4.1.2.Devices and device drivers ......................   59
4.1.3.Building new system images ......................   59
4.2.  Configuring terminals ...........................   60
4.3.  Adding users ....................................   61
4.4.  Site tailoring ..................................   61
4.5.  Setting up the line printer system ..............   62
4.6.  Setting up the mail system ......................   63
4.6.1.Setting up a UUCP connection ....................   64
5.    Network setup ...................................   66
5.1.  System configuration ............................   66
5.2.  Local subnets ...................................   67
5.3.  Internet broadcast addresses ....................   69
5.4.  Routing .........................................   69
5.5.  Use of 4.4BSD machines as gateways ..............   70
5.6.  Network databases ...............................   71
5.6.1.Network servers .................................   71
5.6.2.Internet daemon .................................   72
5.6.3.The /etc/hosts.equiv file .......................   73
5.6.4.The /etc/ftpusers file ..........................   73
6.    System operation ................................   74
6.1.  Bootstrap and shutdown procedures ...............   74
6.2.  Device errors and diagnostics ...................   75
6.3.  Filesystem checks, backups, and disaster
recovery ..............................................   75
6.4.  Moving filesystem data ..........................   77
6.5.  Monitoring system performance ...................   77
6.6.  Recompiling and reinstalling system software
6.7.  Making local modifications ......................   80
6.8.  Accounting ......................................   81
6.9.  Resource control ................................   81
6.10. Network troubleshooting .........................   82
6.11. Files that need periodic attention ..............   82

                       July 27, 1993

Generated on 2017-04-03 16:26:17 by $MirOS: src/scripts/roff2htm,v 1.88 2017/01/29 00:51:06 tg Exp $

These manual pages and other documentation are copyrighted by their respective writers; their source is available at our CVSweb, AnonCVS, and other mirrors. The rest is Copyright © 2002–2017 The MirOS Project, Germany.
This product includes material provided by mirabilos.

This manual page’s HTML representation is supposed to be valid XHTML/1.1; if not, please send a bug report — diffs preferred.