MirOS Manual: sendmail.cf(DOCS)


This document describes the sendmail configuration files.  It
explains how to create a sendmail.cf file for use with sendmail.
It also describes how to set options for sendmail which are explained
in the Sendmail Installation and Operation guide (doc/op/op.me).

To get started, you may want to look at tcpproto.mc (for TCP-only
sites) and clientproto.mc (for clusters of clients using a single
mail host), or the generic-*.mc files as operating system-specific

Table of Content:



Configuration files are contained in the subdirectory "cf", with a
suffix ".mc".  They must be run through "m4" to produce a ".cf" file.
You must pre-load "cf.m4":

	m4 ${CFDIR}/m4/cf.m4 config.mc > config.cf

Alternatively, you can simply:

	cd ${CFDIR}/cf
	./Build config.cf

where ${CFDIR} is the root of the cf directory and config.mc is the
name of your configuration file.  If you are running a version of M4
that understands the __file__ builtin (versions of GNU m4 >= 0.75 do
this, but the versions distributed with 4.4BSD and derivatives do not)
or the -I flag (ditto), then ${CFDIR} can be in an arbitrary directory.
For "traditional" versions, ${CFDIR} ***MUST*** be "..", or you MUST
use -D_CF_DIR_=/path/to/cf/dir/ -- note the trailing slash!  For example:

	m4 -D_CF_DIR_=${CFDIR}/ ${CFDIR}/m4/cf.m4 config.mc > config.cf

Let's examine a typical .mc file:

	# Copyright (c) 1998-2005 Proofpoint, Inc. and its suppliers.
	#	All rights reserved.
	# Copyright (c) 1983 Eric P. Allman.  All rights reserved.
	# Copyright (c) 1988, 1993
	#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
	# By using this file, you agree to the terms and conditions set
	# forth in the LICENSE file which can be found at the top level of
	# the sendmail distribution.

	#  This is a Berkeley-specific configuration file for HP-UX 9.x.
	#  It applies only to the Computer Science Division at Berkeley,
	#  and should not be used elsewhere.   It is provided on the sendmail
	#  distribution as a sample only.  To create your own configuration
	#  file, create an appropriate domain file in ../domain, change the
	#  `DOMAIN' macro below to reference that file, and copy the result
	#  to a name of your own choosing.

The divert(-1) will delete the crud in the resulting output file.
The copyright notice can be replaced by whatever your lawyers require;
our lawyers require the one that is included in these files.  A copyleft
is a copyright by another name.  The divert(0) restores regular output.

	VERSIONID(`<SCCS or RCS version id>')

VERSIONID is a macro that stuffs the version information into the
resulting file.  You could use SCCS, RCS, CVS, something else, or
omit it completely.  This is not the same as the version id included
in SMTP greeting messages -- this is defined in m4/version.m4.


You must specify an OSTYPE to properly configure things such as the
pathname of the help and status files, the flags needed for the local
mailer, and other important things.  If you omit it, you will get an
error when you try to build the configuration.  Look at the ostype
directory for the list of known operating system types.


This example is specific to the Computer Science Division at Berkeley.
You can use "DOMAIN(`generic')" to get a sufficiently bland definition
that may well work for you, or you can create a customized domain
definition appropriate for your environment.


These describe the mailers used at the default CS site.  The local
mailer is always included automatically.  Beware: MAILER declarations
should only be followed by LOCAL_* sections.  The general rules are
that the order should be:

	local macro definitions

There are a few exceptions to this rule.  Local macro definitions which
influence a FEATURE() should be done before that feature.  For example,
a define(`PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH', ...) should be done before

***  BE SURE YOU CUSTOMIZE THESE FILES!  They have some		***
***  Berkeley-specific assumptions built in, such as the name	***
***  of their UUCP-relay.  You'll want to create your own	***
***  domain description, and use that in place of		***
***  domain/Berkeley.EDU.m4.					***


Sendmail uses the M4 macro processor to ``compile'' the configuration
files.  The most important thing to know is that M4 is stream-based,
that is, it doesn't understand about lines.  For this reason, in some
places you may see the word ``dnl'', which stands for ``delete
through newline''; essentially, it deletes all characters starting
at the ``dnl'' up to and including the next newline character.  In
most cases sendmail uses this only to avoid lots of unnecessary
blank lines in the output.

Other important directives are define(A, B) which defines the macro
``A'' to have value ``B''.  Macros are expanded as they are read, so
one normally quotes both values to prevent expansion.  For example,

	define(`SMART_HOST', `smart.foo.com')

One word of warning:  M4 macros are expanded even in lines that appear
to be comments.  For example, if you have

	# See FEATURE(`foo') above

it will not do what you expect, because the FEATURE(`foo') will be
expanded.  This also applies to

	# And then define the $X macro to be the return address

because ``define'' is an M4 keyword.  If you want to use them, surround
them with directed quotes, `like this'.

Since m4 uses single quotes (opening "`" and closing "'") to quote
arguments, those quotes can't be used in arguments.  For example,
it is not possible to define a rejection message containing a single
quote. Usually there are simple workarounds by changing those
messages; in the worst case it might be ok to change the value
directly in the generated .cf file, which however is not advised.


This package requires a post-V7 version of m4; if you are running the
4.2bsd, SysV.2, or 7th Edition version.  SunOS's /usr/5bin/m4 or
BSD-Net/2's m4 both work.  GNU m4 version 1.1 or later also works.
Unfortunately, the M4 on BSDI 1.0 doesn't work -- you'll have to use a
Net/2 or GNU version.  GNU m4 is available from
ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/m4/m4-1.4.tar.gz (check for the latest version).
EXCEPTIONS: DEC's m4 on Digital UNIX 4.x is broken (3.x is fine).  Use GNU
m4 on this platform.


sendmail 8.9 has introduced a new configuration directory for sendmail
related files, /etc/mail.  The new files available for sendmail 8.9 --
the class {R} /etc/mail/relay-domains and the access database
/etc/mail/access -- take advantage of this new directory.  Beginning with
8.10, all files will use this directory by default (some options may be
set by OSTYPE() files).  This new directory should help to restore
uniformity to sendmail's file locations.

Below is a table of some of the common changes:

Old filename			New filename
------------			------------
/etc/bitdomain			/etc/mail/bitdomain
/etc/domaintable		/etc/mail/domaintable
/etc/genericstable		/etc/mail/genericstable
/etc/uudomain			/etc/mail/uudomain
/etc/virtusertable		/etc/mail/virtusertable
/etc/userdb			/etc/mail/userdb

/etc/aliases			/etc/mail/aliases
/etc/sendmail/aliases		/etc/mail/aliases
/etc/ucbmail/aliases		/etc/mail/aliases
/usr/adm/sendmail/aliases	/etc/mail/aliases
/usr/lib/aliases		/etc/mail/aliases
/usr/lib/mail/aliases		/etc/mail/aliases
/usr/ucblib/aliases		/etc/mail/aliases

/etc/sendmail.cw		/etc/mail/local-host-names
/etc/mail/sendmail.cw		/etc/mail/local-host-names
/etc/sendmail/sendmail.cw	/etc/mail/local-host-names

/etc/sendmail.ct		/etc/mail/trusted-users

/etc/sendmail.oE		/etc/mail/error-header

/etc/sendmail.hf		/etc/mail/helpfile
/etc/mail/sendmail.hf		/etc/mail/helpfile
/usr/ucblib/sendmail.hf		/etc/mail/helpfile
/etc/ucbmail/sendmail.hf	/etc/mail/helpfile
/usr/lib/sendmail.hf		/etc/mail/helpfile
/usr/share/lib/sendmail.hf	/etc/mail/helpfile
/usr/share/misc/sendmail.hf	/etc/mail/helpfile
/share/misc/sendmail.hf		/etc/mail/helpfile

/etc/service.switch		/etc/mail/service.switch

/etc/sendmail.st		/etc/mail/statistics
/etc/mail/sendmail.st		/etc/mail/statistics
/etc/mailer/sendmail.st		/etc/mail/statistics
/etc/sendmail/sendmail.st	/etc/mail/statistics
/usr/lib/sendmail.st		/etc/mail/statistics
/usr/ucblib/sendmail.st		/etc/mail/statistics

Note that all of these paths actually use a new m4 macro MAIL_SETTINGS_DIR
to create the pathnames.  The default value of this variable is
`/etc/mail/'.  If you set this macro to a different value, you MUST include
a trailing slash.

Notice: all filenames used in a .mc (or .cf) file should be absolute
(starting at the root, i.e., with '/').  Relative filenames most
likely cause surprises during operations (unless otherwise noted).


You MUST define an operating system environment, or the configuration
file build will puke.  There are several environments available; look
at the "ostype" directory for the current list.  This macro changes
things like the location of the alias file and queue directory.  Some
of these files are identical to one another.

It is IMPERATIVE that the OSTYPE occur before any MAILER definitions.
In general, the OSTYPE macro should go immediately after any version
information, and MAILER definitions should always go last.

Operating system definitions are usually easy to write.  They may define
the following variables (everything defaults, so an ostype file may be
empty).  Unfortunately, the list of configuration-supported systems is
not as broad as the list of source-supported systems, since many of
the source contributors do not include corresponding ostype files.

ALIAS_FILE		[/etc/mail/aliases] The location of the text version
			of the alias file(s).  It can be a comma-separated
			list of names (but be sure you quote values with
			commas in them -- for example, use
				define(`ALIAS_FILE', `a,b')
			to get "a" and "b" both listed as alias files;
			otherwise the define() primitive only sees "a").
HELP_FILE		[/etc/mail/helpfile] The name of the file
			containing information printed in response to
			the SMTP HELP command.
QUEUE_DIR		[/var/spool/mqueue] The directory containing
			queue files.  To use multiple queues, supply
			a value ending with an asterisk.  For
			example, /var/spool/mqueue/qd* will use all of the
			directories or symbolic links to directories
			beginning with 'qd' in /var/spool/mqueue as queue
			directories.  The names 'qf', 'df', and 'xf' are
			reserved as specific subdirectories for the
			corresponding queue file types as explained in
			doc/op/op.me.  See also QUEUE GROUP DEFINITIONS.
MSP_QUEUE_DIR		[/var/spool/clientmqueue] The directory containing
			queue files for the MSP (Mail Submission Program,
			see sendmail/SECURITY).
STATUS_FILE		[/etc/mail/statistics] The file containing status
LOCAL_MAILER_PATH	[/bin/mail] The program used to deliver local mail.
LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS	[Prmn9] The flags used by the local mailer.  The
			flags lsDFMAw5:/|@q are always included.
LOCAL_MAILER_ARGS	[mail -d $u] The arguments passed to deliver local
LOCAL_MAILER_MAX	[undefined] If defined, the maximum size of local
			mail that you are willing to accept.
LOCAL_MAILER_MAXMSGS	[undefined] If defined, the maximum number of
			messages to deliver in a single connection.  Only
			useful for LMTP local mailers.
LOCAL_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to the
			local mailer and which are converted to MIME will be
			labeled with this character set.
LOCAL_MAILER_EOL	[undefined] If defined, the string to use as the
			end of line for the local mailer.
			[X-Unix] The DSN Diagnostic-Code value for the
			local mailer.  This should be changed with care.
LOCAL_SHELL_PATH	[/bin/sh] The shell used to deliver piped email.
LOCAL_SHELL_FLAGS	[eu9] The flags used by the shell mailer.  The
			flags lsDFM are always included.
LOCAL_SHELL_ARGS	[sh -c $u] The arguments passed to deliver "prog"
LOCAL_SHELL_DIR		[$z:/] The directory search path in which the
			shell should run.
LOCAL_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the local mailer.
USENET_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/lib/news/inews] The name of the program
			used to submit news.
USENET_MAILER_FLAGS	[rsDFMmn] The mailer flags for the usenet mailer.
USENET_MAILER_ARGS	[-m -h -n] The command line arguments for the
			usenet mailer.  NOTE: Some versions of inews
			(such as those shipped with newer versions of INN)
			use different flags.  Double check the defaults
			against the inews man page.
USENET_MAILER_MAX	[undefined] The maximum size of messages that will
			be accepted by the usenet mailer.
USENET_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the usenet mailer.
SMTP_MAILER_FLAGS	[undefined] Flags added to SMTP mailer.  Default
			flags are `mDFMuX' for all SMTP-based mailers; the
			"esmtp" mailer adds `a'; "smtp8" adds `8'; and
			"dsmtp" adds `%'.
RELAY_MAILER_FLAGS	[undefined] Flags added to the relay mailer.  Default
			flags are `mDFMuX' for all SMTP-based mailers; the
			relay mailer adds `a8'.  If this is not defined,
			then SMTP_MAILER_FLAGS is used.
SMTP_MAILER_MAX		[undefined] The maximum size of messages that will
			be transported using the smtp, smtp8, esmtp, or dsmtp
SMTP_MAILER_MAXMSGS	[undefined] If defined, the maximum number of
			messages to deliver in a single connection for the
			smtp, smtp8, esmtp, or dsmtp mailers.
SMTP_MAILER_MAXRCPTS	[undefined] If defined, the maximum number of
			recipients to deliver in a single connection for the
			smtp, smtp8, esmtp, or dsmtp mailers.
SMTP_MAILER_ARGS	[TCP $h] The arguments passed to the smtp mailer.
			About the only reason you would want to change this
			would be to change the default port.
ESMTP_MAILER_ARGS	[TCP $h] The arguments passed to the esmtp mailer.
SMTP8_MAILER_ARGS	[TCP $h] The arguments passed to the smtp8 mailer.
DSMTP_MAILER_ARGS	[TCP $h] The arguments passed to the dsmtp mailer.
RELAY_MAILER_ARGS	[TCP $h] The arguments passed to the relay mailer.
SMTP_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the smtp mailer.
ESMTP_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the esmtp mailer.
SMTP8_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the smtp8 mailer.
DSMTP_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the dsmtp mailer.
RELAY_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the relay mailer.
RELAY_MAILER_MAXMSGS	[undefined] If defined, the maximum number of
			messages to deliver in a single connection for the
			relay mailer.
SMTP_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to one of
			the SMTP mailers and which are converted to MIME will
			be labeled with this character set.
SMTP_MAILER_LL		[990] The maximum line length for SMTP mailers
			(except the relay mailer).
RELAY_MAILER_LL		[2040] The maximum line length for the relay mailer.
UUCP_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/bin/uux] The program used to send UUCP mail.
UUCP_MAILER_FLAGS	[undefined] Flags added to UUCP mailer.  Default
			flags are `DFMhuU' (and `m' for uucp-new mailer,
			minus `U' for uucp-dom mailer).
UUCP_MAILER_ARGS	[uux - -r -z -a$g -gC $h!rmail ($u)] The arguments
			passed to the UUCP mailer.
UUCP_MAILER_MAX		[100000] The maximum size message accepted for
			transmission by the UUCP mailers.
UUCP_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to one of
			the UUCP mailers and which are converted to MIME will
			be labeled with this character set.
UUCP_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the UUCP mailers.
FAX_MAILER_PATH		[/usr/local/lib/fax/mailfax] The program used to
			submit FAX messages.
FAX_MAILER_ARGS		[mailfax $u $h $f] The arguments passed to the FAX
FAX_MAILER_MAX		[100000] The maximum size message accepted for
			transmission by FAX.
POP_MAILER_PATH		[/usr/lib/mh/spop] The pathname of the POP mailer.
POP_MAILER_FLAGS	[Penu] Flags added to POP mailer.  Flags lsDFMq
			are always added.
POP_MAILER_ARGS		[pop $u] The arguments passed to the POP mailer.
POP_MAILER_QGRP		[undefined] The queue group for the pop mailer.
PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/local/bin/procmail] The path to the procmail
			program.  This is also used by
PROCMAIL_MAILER_FLAGS	[SPhnu9] Flags added to Procmail mailer.  Flags
			DFM are always set.  This is NOT used by
			FEATURE(`local_procmail'); tweak LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS
PROCMAIL_MAILER_ARGS	[procmail -Y -m $h $f $u] The arguments passed to
			the Procmail mailer.  This is NOT used by
			FEATURE(`local_procmail'); tweak LOCAL_MAILER_ARGS
PROCMAIL_MAILER_MAX	[undefined] If set, the maximum size message that
			will be accepted by the procmail mailer.
PROCMAIL_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the procmail mailer.
MAIL11_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/etc/mail11] The path to the mail11 mailer.
MAIL11_MAILER_FLAGS	[nsFx] Flags for the mail11 mailer.
MAIL11_MAILER_ARGS	[mail11 $g $x $h $u] Arguments passed to the mail11
MAIL11_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the mail11 mailer.
PH_MAILER_PATH		[/usr/local/etc/phquery] The path to the phquery
PH_MAILER_FLAGS		[ehmu] Flags for the phquery mailer.  Flags nrDFM
			are always set.
PH_MAILER_ARGS		[phquery -- $u] -- arguments to the phquery mailer.
PH_MAILER_QGRP		[undefined] The queue group for the ph mailer.
CYRUS_MAILER_FLAGS	[Ah5@/:|] The flags used by the cyrus mailer.  The
			flags lsDFMnPq are always included.
CYRUS_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/cyrus/bin/deliver] The program used to deliver
			cyrus mail.
CYRUS_MAILER_ARGS	[deliver -e -m $h -- $u] The arguments passed
			to deliver cyrus mail.
CYRUS_MAILER_MAX	[undefined] If set, the maximum size message that
			will be accepted by the cyrus mailer.
CYRUS_MAILER_USER	[cyrus:mail] The user and group to become when
			running the cyrus mailer.
CYRUS_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the cyrus mailer.
CYRUS_BB_MAILER_FLAGS	[u] The flags used by the cyrusbb mailer.
			The flags lsDFMnP are always included.
CYRUS_BB_MAILER_ARGS	[deliver -e -m $u] The arguments passed
			to deliver cyrusbb mail.
CYRUSV2_MAILER_FLAGS	[A@/:|m] The flags used by the cyrusv2 mailer.  The
			flags lsDFMnqXz are always included.
CYRUSV2_MAILER_MAXMSGS	[undefined] If defined, the maximum number of
			messages to deliver in a single connection for the
			cyrusv2 mailer.
CYRUSV2_MAILER_MAXRCPTS	[undefined] If defined, the maximum number of
			recipients to deliver in a single connection for the
			cyrusv2 mailer.
CYRUSV2_MAILER_ARGS	[FILE /var/imap/socket/lmtp] The arguments passed
			to the cyrusv2 mailer.  This can be used to
			change the name of the Unix domain socket, or
			to switch to delivery via TCP (e.g., `TCP $h lmtp')
CYRUSV2_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the cyrusv2 mailer.
CYRUSV2_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to one the
			Cyrus mailer and which are converted to MIME will
			be labeled with this character set.
confEBINDIR		[/usr/libexec] The directory for executables.
			Currently used for FEATURE(`local_lmtp') and
QPAGE_MAILER_FLAGS	[mDFMs] The flags used by the qpage mailer.
QPAGE_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/local/bin/qpage] The program used to deliver
			qpage mail.
QPAGE_MAILER_ARGS	[qpage -l0 -m -P$u] The arguments passed
			to deliver qpage mail.
QPAGE_MAILER_MAX	[4096] If set, the maximum size message that
			will be accepted by the qpage mailer.
QPAGE_MAILER_QGRP	[undefined] The queue group for the qpage mailer.
LOCAL_PROG_QGRP		[undefined] The queue group for the prog mailer.

Note: to tweak Name_MAILER_FLAGS use the macro MODIFY_MAILER_FLAGS:
MODIFY_MAILER_FLAGS(`Name', `change') where Name is the first part
of the macro Name_MAILER_FLAGS (note: that means Name is entirely in
upper case) and change can be: flags that should be used directly
(thus overriding the default value), or if it starts with `+' (`-')
then those flags are added to (removed from) the default value.


will add the flag `e' to LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS.  Notice: there are
several smtp mailers all of which are manipulated individually.
See the section MAILERS for the available mailer names.
WARNING: The FEATUREs local_lmtp and local_procmail set LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS
unconditionally, i.e., without respecting any definitions in an
OSTYPE setting.


You will probably want to collect domain-dependent defines into one
file, referenced by the DOMAIN macro.  For example, the Berkeley
domain file includes definitions for several internal distinguished

UUCP_RELAY	The host that will accept UUCP-addressed email.
		If not defined, all UUCP sites must be directly
BITNET_RELAY	The host that will accept BITNET-addressed email.
		If not defined, the .BITNET pseudo-domain won't work.
DECNET_RELAY	The host that will accept DECNET-addressed email.
		If not defined, the .DECNET pseudo-domain and addresses
		of the form node::user will not work.
FAX_RELAY	The host that will accept mail to the .FAX pseudo-domain.
		The "fax" mailer overrides this value.
LOCAL_RELAY	The site that will handle unqualified names -- that
		is, names without an @domain extension.
		Normally MAIL_HUB is preferred for this function.
		LOCAL_RELAY is mostly useful in conjunction with
		FEATURE(`stickyhost') -- see the discussion of
		stickyhost below.  If not set, they are assumed to
		belong on this machine.  This allows you to have a
		central site to store a company- or department-wide
		alias database.  This only works at small sites,
		and only with some user agents.
LUSER_RELAY	The site that will handle lusers -- that is, apparently
		local names that aren't local accounts or aliases.  To
		specify a local user instead of a site, set this to

Any of these can be either ``mailer:hostname'' (in which case the
mailer is the internal mailer name, such as ``uucp-new'' and the hostname
is the name of the host as appropriate for that mailer) or just a
``hostname'', in which case a default mailer type (usually ``relay'',
a variant on SMTP) is used.  WARNING: if you have a wildcard MX
record matching your domain, you probably want to define these to
have a trailing dot so that you won't get the mail diverted back
to yourself.

The domain file can also be used to define a domain name, if needed
(using "DD<domain>") and set certain site-wide features.  If all hosts
at your site masquerade behind one email name, you could also use

You do not have to define a domain -- in particular, if you are a
single machine sitting off somewhere, it is probably more work than
it's worth.  This is just a mechanism for combining "domain dependent
knowledge" into one place.


There are fewer mailers supported in this version than the previous
version, owing mostly to a simpler world.  As a general rule, put the
MAILER definitions last in your .mc file.

local		The local and prog mailers.  You will almost always
		need these; the only exception is if you relay ALL
		your mail to another site.  This mailer is included

smtp		The Simple Mail Transport Protocol mailer.  This does
		not hide hosts behind a gateway or another other
		such hack; it assumes a world where everyone is
		running the name server.  This file actually defines
		five mailers: "smtp" for regular (old-style) SMTP to
		other servers, "esmtp" for extended SMTP to other
		servers, "smtp8" to do SMTP to other servers without
		converting 8-bit data to MIME (essentially, this is
		your statement that you know the other end is 8-bit
		clean even if it doesn't say so), "dsmtp" to do on
		demand delivery, and "relay" for transmission to the

uucp		The UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program mailer.  Actually, this
		defines two mailers, "uucp-old" (a.k.a. "uucp") and
		"uucp-new" (a.k.a. "suucp").  The latter is for when you
		know that the UUCP mailer at the other end can handle
		multiple recipients in one transfer.  If the smtp mailer
		is included in your configuration, two other mailers
		("uucp-dom" and "uucp-uudom") are also defined [warning: you
		MUST specify MAILER(`smtp') before MAILER(`uucp')].  When you
		include the uucp mailer, sendmail looks for all names in
		class {U} and sends them to the uucp-old mailer; all
		names in class {Y} are sent to uucp-new; and all
		names in class {Z} are sent to uucp-uudom.  Note that
		this is a function of what version of rmail runs on
		the receiving end, and hence may be out of your control.
		See the section below describing UUCP mailers in more

usenet		Usenet (network news) delivery.  If this is specified,
		an extra rule is added to ruleset 0 that forwards all
		local email for users named ``group.usenet'' to the
		``inews'' program.  Note that this works for all groups,
		and may be considered a security problem.

fax		Facsimile transmission.  This is experimental and based
		on Sam Leffler's HylaFAX software.  For more information,
		see http://www.hylafax.org/.

pop		Post Office Protocol.

procmail	An interface to procmail (does not come with sendmail).
		This is designed to be used in mailertables.  For example,
		a common question is "how do I forward all mail for a given
		domain to a single person?".  If you have this mailer
		defined, you could set up a mailertable reading:

			host.com	procmail:/etc/procmailrcs/host.com

		with the file /etc/procmailrcs/host.com reading:

			:0	# forward mail for host.com
			! -oi -f $1 person@other.host

		This would arrange for (anything)@host.com to be sent
		to person@other.host.  In a procmail script, $1 is the
		name of the sender and $2 is the name of the recipient.
		If you use this with FEATURE(`local_procmail'), the FEATURE
		should be listed first.

		Of course there are other ways to solve this particular
		problem, e.g., a catch-all entry in a virtusertable.

mail11		The DECnet mail11 mailer, useful only if you have the mail11
		program from gatekeeper.dec.com:/pub/DEC/gwtools (and
		DECnet, of course).  This is for Phase IV DECnet support;
		if you have Phase V at your site you may have additional

phquery		The phquery program.  This is somewhat counterintuitively
		referenced as the "ph" mailer internally.  It can be used
		to do CCSO name server lookups.  The phquery program, which
		this mailer uses, is distributed with the ph client.

cyrus		The cyrus and cyrusbb mailers.  The cyrus mailer delivers to
		a local cyrus user.  this mailer can make use of the
		"user+detail@local.host" syntax (see
		FEATURE(`preserve_local_plus_detail')); it will deliver the
		mail to the user's "detail" mailbox if the mailbox's ACL
		permits.  The cyrusbb mailer delivers to a system-wide
		cyrus mailbox if the mailbox's ACL permits.  The cyrus
		mailer must be defined after the local mailer.

cyrusv2		The mailer for Cyrus v2.x.  The cyrusv2 mailer delivers to
		local cyrus users via LMTP.  This mailer can make use of the
		"user+detail@local.host" syntax (see
		FEATURE(`preserve_local_plus_detail')); it will deliver the
		mail to the user's "detail" mailbox if the mailbox's ACL
		permits.  The cyrusv2 mailer must be defined after the
		local mailer.

qpage		A mailer for QuickPage, a pager interface.  See
		http://www.qpage.org/ for further information.

The local mailer accepts addresses of the form "user+detail", where
the "+detail" is not used for mailbox matching but is available
to certain local mail programs (in particular, see
FEATURE(`local_procmail')).  For example, "eric", "eric+sendmail", and
"eric+sww" all indicate the same user, but additional arguments <null>,
"sendmail", and "sww" may be provided for use in sorting mail.


Special features can be requested using the "FEATURE" macro.  For
example, the .mc line:


tells sendmail that you want to have it read an /etc/mail/local-host-names
file to get values for class {w}.  A FEATURE may contain up to 9
optional parameters -- for example:

	FEATURE(`mailertable', `dbm /usr/lib/mailertable')

The default database map type for the table features can be set with

	define(`DATABASE_MAP_TYPE', `dbm')

which would set it to use ndbm databases.  The default is the Berkeley DB
hash database format.  Note that you must still declare a database map type
if you specify an argument to a FEATURE.  DATABASE_MAP_TYPE is only used
if no argument is given for the FEATURE.  It must be specified before any
feature that uses a map.

Also, features which can take a map definition as an argument can also take
the special keyword `LDAP'.  If that keyword is used, the map will use the
LDAP definition described in the ``USING LDAP FOR ALIASES, MAPS, AND
CLASSES'' section below.

Available features are:

use_cw_file	Read the file /etc/mail/local-host-names file to get
		alternate names for this host.  This might be used if you
		were on a host that MXed for a dynamic set of other hosts.
		If the set is static, just including the line "Cw<name1>
		<name2> ..." (where the names are fully qualified domain
		names) is probably superior.  The actual filename can be
		overridden by redefining confCW_FILE.

use_ct_file	Read the file /etc/mail/trusted-users file to get the
		names of users that will be ``trusted'', that is, able to
		set their envelope from address using -f without generating
		a warning message.  The actual filename can be overridden
		by redefining confCT_FILE.

redirect	Reject all mail addressed to "address.REDIRECT" with
		a ``551 User has moved; please try <address>'' message.
		If this is set, you can alias people who have left
		to their new address with ".REDIRECT" appended.

nouucp		Don't route UUCP addresses.  This feature takes one
		`reject': reject addresses which have "!" in the local
			part unless it originates from a system
			that is allowed to relay.
		`nospecial': don't do anything special with "!".
		Warnings: 1. See the notice in the anti-spam section.
		2. don't remove "!" from OperatorChars if `reject' is
		given as parameter.

nocanonify	Don't pass addresses to $[ ... $] for canonification
		by default, i.e., host/domain names are considered canonical,
		except for unqualified names, which must not be used in this
		mode (violation of the standard).  It can be changed by
		setting the DaemonPortOptions modifiers (M=).  That is,
		FEATURE(`nocanonify') will be overridden by setting the
		'c' flag.  Conversely, if FEATURE(`nocanonify') is not used,
		it can be emulated by setting the 'C' flag
		(DaemonPortOptions=Modifiers=C).  This would generally only
		be used by sites that only act as mail gateways or which have
		user agents that do full canonification themselves.  You may
		also want to use
		"define(`confBIND_OPTS', `-DNSRCH -DEFNAMES')" to turn off
		the usual resolver options that do a similar thing.

		An exception list for FEATURE(`nocanonify') can be
		i.e., a list of domains which are nevertheless passed to
		$[ ... $] for canonification.  This is useful to turn on
		canonification for local domains, e.g., use
		CANONIFY_DOMAIN(`my.domain my') to canonify addresses
		which end in "my.domain" or "my".
		Another way to require canonification in the local
		domain is CANONIFY_DOMAIN(`$=m').

		A trailing dot is added to addresses with more than
		one component in it such that other features which
		expect a trailing dot (e.g., virtusertable) will
		still work.

		If `canonify_hosts' is specified as parameter, i.e.,
		FEATURE(`nocanonify', `canonify_hosts'), then
		addresses which have only a hostname, e.g.,
		<user@host>, will be canonified (and hopefully fully
		qualified), too.

stickyhost	This feature is sometimes used with LOCAL_RELAY,
		although it can be used for a different effect with

		When used without MAIL_HUB, email sent to
		"user@local.host" are marked as "sticky" -- that
		is, the local addresses aren't matched against UDB,
		don't go through ruleset 5, and are not forwarded to
		the LOCAL_RELAY (if defined).

		With MAIL_HUB, mail addressed to "user@local.host"
		is forwarded to the mail hub, with the envelope
		address still remaining "user@local.host".
		Without stickyhost, the envelope would be changed
		to "user@mail_hub", in order to protect against
		mailing loops.

mailertable	Include a "mailer table" which can be used to override
		routing for particular domains (which are not in class {w},
		i.e.  local host names).  The argument of the FEATURE may be
		the key definition.  If none is specified, the definition
		used is:

			hash /etc/mail/mailertable

		Keys in this database are fully qualified domain names
		or partial domains preceded by a dot -- for example,
		"vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU" or ".CS.Berkeley.EDU".  As a
		special case of the latter, "." matches any domain not
		covered by other keys.  Values must be of the form:
		where "mailer" is the internal mailer name, and "domain"
		is where to send the message.  These maps are not
		reflected into the message header.  As a special case,
		the forms:
		will forward to the indicated user using the local mailer,
		will forward to the original user in the e-mail address
		using the local mailer, and
			error:code message
			error:D.S.N:code message
		will give an error message with the indicated SMTP reply
		code and message, where D.S.N is an RFC 1893 compliant
		error code.

domaintable	Include a "domain table" which can be used to provide
		domain name mapping.  Use of this should really be
		limited to your own domains.  It may be useful if you
		change names (e.g., your company changes names from
		oldname.com to newname.com).  The argument of the
		FEATURE may be the key definition.  If none is specified,
		the definition used is:

			hash /etc/mail/domaintable

		The key in this table is the domain name; the value is
		the new (fully qualified) domain.  Anything in the
		domaintable is reflected into headers; that is, this
		is done in ruleset 3.

bitdomain	Look up bitnet hosts in a table to try to turn them into
		internet addresses.  The table can be built using the
		bitdomain program contributed by John Gardiner Myers.
		The argument of the FEATURE may be the key definition; if
		none is specified, the definition used is:

			hash /etc/mail/bitdomain

		Keys are the bitnet hostname; values are the corresponding
		internet hostname.

uucpdomain	Similar feature for UUCP hosts.  The default map definition

			hash /etc/mail/uudomain

		At the moment there is no automagic tool to build this

		Include the local host domain even on locally delivered
		mail.  Normally it is not added on unqualified names.
		However, if you use a shared message store but do not use
		the same user name space everywhere, you may need the host
		name on local names.  An optional argument specifies
		another domain to be added than the local.

allmasquerade	If masquerading is enabled (using MASQUERADE_AS), this
		feature will cause recipient addresses to also masquerade
		as being from the masquerade host.  Normally they get
		the local hostname.  Although this may be right for
		ordinary users, it can break local aliases.  For example,
		if you send to "localalias", the originating sendmail will
		find that alias and send to all members, but send the
		message with "To: localalias@masqueradehost".  Since that
		alias likely does not exist, replies will fail.  Use this
		feature ONLY if you can guarantee that the ENTIRE
		namespace on your masquerade host supersets all the
		local entries.

		Normally, any hosts listed in class {w} are masqueraded.  If
		this feature is given, only the hosts listed in class {M} (see
		below:  MASQUERADE_DOMAIN) are masqueraded.  This is useful
		if you have several domains with disjoint namespaces hosted
		on the same machine.

		If masquerading is enabled (using MASQUERADE_AS) and
		MASQUERADE_DOMAIN (see below) is set, this feature will
		cause addresses to be rewritten such that the masquerading
		domains are actually entire domains to be hidden.  All
		hosts within the masquerading domains will be rewritten
		to the masquerade name (used in MASQUERADE_AS).  For example,
		if you have:


		then *foo.org and *bar.com are converted to masq.com.  Without
		this feature, only foo.org and bar.com are masqueraded.

		    NOTE: only domains within your jurisdiction and
		    current hierarchy should be masqueraded using this.

		This feature prevents the local mailer from masquerading even
		if MASQUERADE_AS is used.  MASQUERADE_AS will only have effect
		on addresses of mail going outside the local domain.

		If masquerading is enabled (using MASQUERADE_AS) or the
		genericstable is in use, this feature will cause envelope
		addresses to also masquerade as being from the masquerade
		host.  Normally only the header addresses are masqueraded.

genericstable	This feature will cause unqualified addresses (i.e., without
		a domain) and addresses with a domain listed in class {G}
		to be looked up in a map and turned into another ("generic")
		form, which can change both the domain name and the user name.
		Notice: if you use an MSP (as it is default starting with
		8.12), the MTA will only receive qualified addresses from the
		MSP (as required by the RFCs).  Hence you need to add your
		domain to class {G}.  This feature is similar to the userdb
		functionality.  The same types of addresses as for
		masquerading are looked up, i.e., only header sender
		addresses unless the allmasquerade and/or masquerade_envelope
		features are given.  Qualified addresses must have the domain
		part in class {G}; entries can be added to this class by the

		The argument of FEATURE(`genericstable') may be the map
		definition; the default map definition is:

			hash /etc/mail/genericstable

		The key for this table is either the full address, the domain
		(with a leading @; the localpart is passed as first argument)
		or the unqualified username (tried in the order mentioned);
		the value is the new user address.  If the new user address
		does not include a domain, it will be qualified in the standard
		manner, i.e., using $j or the masquerade name.  Note that the
		address being looked up must be fully qualified.  For local
		mail, it is necessary to use FEATURE(`always_add_domain')
		for the addresses to be qualified.
		The "+detail" of an address is passed as %1, so entries like

			old+*@foo.org	new+%1@example.com
			gen+*@foo.org	%1@example.com

		and other forms are possible.

		If the genericstable is enabled and GENERICS_DOMAIN or
		GENERICS_DOMAIN_FILE is used, this feature will cause
		addresses to be searched in the map if their domain
		parts are subdomains of elements in class {G}.

virtusertable	A domain-specific form of aliasing, allowing multiple
		virtual domains to be hosted on one machine.  For example,
		if the virtuser table contains:

			info@foo.com	foo-info
			info@bar.com	bar-info
			joe@bar.com	error:nouser 550 No such user here
			jax@bar.com	error:5.7.0:550 Address invalid
			@baz.org	jane@example.net

		then mail addressed to info@foo.com will be sent to the
		address foo-info, mail addressed to info@bar.com will be
		delivered to bar-info, and mail addressed to anyone at baz.org
		will be sent to jane@example.net, mail to joe@bar.com will
		be rejected with the specified error message, and mail to
		jax@bar.com will also have a RFC 1893 compliant error code

		The username from the original address is passed
		as %1 allowing:

			@foo.org	%1@example.com

		meaning someone@foo.org will be sent to someone@example.com.
		Additionally, if the local part consists of "user+detail"
		then "detail" is passed as %2 and "+detail" is passed as %3
		when a match against user+* is attempted, so entries like

			old+*@foo.org	new+%2@example.com
			gen+*@foo.org	%2@example.com
			+*@foo.org	%1%3@example.com
			X++@foo.org	Z%3@example.com
			@bar.org	%1%3

		and other forms are possible.  Note: to preserve "+detail"
		for a default case (@domain) %1%3 must be used as RHS.
		There are two wildcards after "+": "+" matches only a non-empty
		detail, "*" matches also empty details, e.g., user+@foo.org
		matches +*@foo.org but not ++@foo.org.  This can be used
		to ensure that the parameters %2 and %3 are not empty.

		All the host names on the left hand side (foo.com, bar.com,
		and baz.org) must be in class {w} or class {VirtHost}.  The
		latter can be defined by the macros VIRTUSER_DOMAIN or
		VIRTUSER_DOMAIN_FILE is used, then the entries of class
		{VirtHost} are added to class {R}, i.e., relaying is allowed
		to (and from) those domains, which by default includes also
		all subdomains (see relay_hosts_only).  The default map
		definition is:

			hash /etc/mail/virtusertable

		A new definition can be specified as the second argument of
		the FEATURE macro, such as

			FEATURE(`virtusertable', `dbm /etc/mail/virtusers')

		If the virtusertable is enabled and VIRTUSER_DOMAIN or
		VIRTUSER_DOMAIN_FILE is used, this feature will cause
		addresses to be searched in the map if their domain
		parts are subdomains of elements in class {VirtHost}.

ldap_routing	Implement LDAP-based e-mail recipient routing according to
		the Internet Draft draft-lachman-laser-ldap-mail-routing-01.
		This provides a method to re-route addresses with a
		domain portion in class {LDAPRoute} to either a
		different mail host or a different address.  Hosts can
		be added to this class using LDAPROUTE_DOMAIN and

		See the LDAP ROUTING section below for more information.

nullclient	This is a special case -- it creates a configuration file
		containing nothing but support for forwarding all mail to a
		central hub via a local SMTP-based network.  The argument
		is the name of that hub.

		The only other feature that should be used in conjunction
		with this one is FEATURE(`nocanonify').  No mailers
		should be defined.  No aliasing or forwarding is done.

local_lmtp	Use an LMTP capable local mailer.  The argument to this
		feature is the pathname of an LMTP capable mailer.  By
		default, mail.local is used.  This is expected to be the
		mail.local which came with the 8.9 distribution which is
		LMTP capable.  The path to mail.local is set by the
		confEBINDIR m4 variable -- making the default
		LOCAL_MAILER_PATH /usr/libexec/mail.local.
		If a different LMTP capable mailer is used, its pathname
		can be specified as second parameter and the arguments
		passed to it (A=) as third parameter, e.g.,

			FEATURE(`local_lmtp', `/usr/local/bin/lmtp', `lmtp')

		WARNING: This feature sets LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS unconditionally,
		i.e., without respecting any definitions in an OSTYPE setting.

local_procmail	Use procmail or another delivery agent as the local mailer.
		The argument to this feature is the pathname of the
		delivery agent, which defaults to PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH.
		Note that this does NOT use PROCMAIL_MAILER_FLAGS or
		PROCMAIL_MAILER_ARGS for the local mailer; tweak
		specify the appropriate parameters.  When procmail is used,
		the local mailer can make use of the
		"user+indicator@local.host" syntax; normally the +indicator
		is just tossed, but by default it is passed as the -a
		argument to procmail.

		This feature can take up to three arguments:

		1. Path to the mailer program
		   [default: /usr/local/bin/procmail]
		2. Argument vector including name of the program
		   [default: procmail -Y -a $h -d $u]
		3. Flags for the mailer [default: SPfhn9]

		Empty arguments cause the defaults to be taken.
		Note that if you are on a system with a broken
		setreuid() call, you may need to add -f $f to the procmail
		argument vector to pass the proper sender to procmail.

		For example, this allows it to use the maildrop
		(http://www.flounder.net/~mrsam/maildrop/) mailer instead
		by specifying:

		FEATURE(`local_procmail', `/usr/local/bin/maildrop',
		 `maildrop -d $u')

		or scanmails using:

		FEATURE(`local_procmail', `/usr/local/bin/scanmails')

		WARNING: This feature sets LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS unconditionally,
		i.e.,  without respecting any definitions in an OSTYPE setting.

bestmx_is_local	Accept mail as though locally addressed for any host that
		lists us as the best possible MX record.  This generates
		additional DNS traffic, but should be OK for low to
		medium traffic hosts.  The argument may be a set of
		domains, which will limit the feature to only apply to
		these domains -- this will reduce unnecessary DNS
		WILDCARD MX RECORDS!!!  If you have a wildcard MX record
		that matches your domain, you cannot use this feature.

smrsh		Use the SendMail Restricted SHell (smrsh) provided
		with the distribution instead of /bin/sh for mailing
		to programs.  This improves the ability of the local
		system administrator to control what gets run via
		e-mail.  If an argument is provided it is used as the
		pathname to smrsh; otherwise, the path defined by
		confEBINDIR is used for the smrsh binary -- by default,
		/usr/libexec/smrsh is assumed.

		By default, the sendmail configuration files do not permit
		mail relaying (that is, accepting mail from outside your
		local host (class {w}) and sending it to another host than
		your local host).  This option sets your site to allow
		mail relaying from any site to any site.  In almost all
		cases, it is better to control relaying more carefully
		with the access map, class {R}, or authentication.  Domains
		can be added to class {R} by the macros RELAY_DOMAIN or

		This option allows any host in your domain as defined by
		class {m} to use your server for relaying.  Notice: make
		sure that your domain is not just a top level domain,
		e.g., com.  This can happen if you give your host a name
		like example.com instead of host.example.com.

		By default, names that are listed as RELAY in the access
		db and class {R} are treated as domain names, not host names.
		For example, if you specify ``foo.com'', then mail to or
		from foo.com, abc.foo.com, or a.very.deep.domain.foo.com
		will all be accepted for relaying.  This feature changes
		the behaviour to look up individual host names only.

		Turns on the ability to allow relaying based on the MX
		records of the host portion of an incoming recipient; that
		is, if an MX record for host foo.com points to your site,
		you will accept and relay mail addressed to foo.com.  See
		description below for more information before using this
		feature.  Also, see the KNOWNBUGS entry regarding bestmx
		map lookups.

		FEATURE(`relay_based_on_MX') does not necessarily allow
		routing of these messages which you expect to be allowed,
		if route address syntax (or %-hack syntax) is used.  If
		this is a problem, add entries to the access-table or use

		Allows relaying if the mail sender is listed as RELAY in
		the access map.  If an optional argument `domain' (this
		is the literal word `domain', not a placeholder) is given,
		relaying can be allowed just based on the domain portion
		of the sender address.  This feature should only be used if
		absolutely necessary as the sender address can be easily
		forged.  Use of this feature requires the "From:" tag to
		be used for the key in the access map; see the discussion
		of tags and FEATURE(`relay_mail_from') in the section on
		anti-spam configuration control.

		Allows relaying if the domain portion of the mail sender
		is a local host.  This should only be used if absolutely
		necessary as it opens a window for spammers.  Specifically,
		they can send mail to your mail server that claims to be
		from your domain (either directly or via a routed address),
		and you will go ahead and relay it out to arbitrary hosts
		on the Internet.

		Normally, MAIL FROM: commands in the SMTP session will be
		refused if the connection is a network connection and the
		sender address does not include a domain name.  If your
		setup sends local mail unqualified (i.e., MAIL FROM:<joe>),
		you will need to use this feature to accept unqualified
		sender addresses.  Setting the DaemonPortOptions modifier
		'u' overrides the default behavior, i.e., unqualified
		addresses are accepted even without this FEATURE.
		If this FEATURE is not used, the DaemonPortOptions modifier
		'f' can be used to enforce fully qualified addresses.

		Normally, MAIL FROM: commands in the SMTP session will be
		refused if the host part of the argument to MAIL FROM:
		cannot be located in the host name service (e.g., an A or
		MX record in DNS).  If you are inside a firewall that has
		only a limited view of the Internet host name space, this
		could cause problems.  In this case you probably want to
		use this feature to accept all domains on input, even if
		they are unresolvable.

access_db	Turns on the access database feature.  The access db gives
		you the ability to allow or refuse to accept mail from
		specified domains for administrative reasons.  Moreover,
		it can control the behavior of sendmail in various situations.
		By default, the access database specification is:

			hash -T<TMPF> /etc/mail/access

		See the anti-spam configuration control section for further
		important information about this feature.  Notice:
		"-T<TMPF>" is meant literal, do not replace it by anything.

		Turns on the ability to block incoming mail for certain
		recipient usernames, hostnames, or addresses.  For
		example, you can block incoming mail to user nobody,
		host foo.mydomain.com, or guest@bar.mydomain.com.
		These specifications are put in the access db as
		described in the anti-spam configuration control section
		later in this document.

delay_checks	The rulesets check_mail and check_relay will not be called
		when a client connects or issues a MAIL command, respectively.
		Instead, those rulesets will be called by the check_rcpt
		ruleset; they will be skipped under certain circumstances.
		See "Delay all checks" in the anti-spam configuration control
		section.  Note: this feature is incompatible to the versions
		in 8.10 and 8.11.

use_client_ptr	If this feature is enabled then check_relay will override
		its first argument with $&{client_ptr}.  This is useful for
		rejections based on the unverified hostname of client,
		which turns on the same behavior as in earlier sendmail
		versions when delay_checks was not in use.  See doc/op/op.me
		about check_relay, {client_name}, and {client_ptr}.

dnsbl		Turns on rejection, discarding, or quarantining of hosts
		found in a DNS based list.  The first argument is used as
		the domain in which blocked hosts are listed.  A second
		argument can be used to change the default error message,
		or select one of the operations `discard' and `quarantine'.
		Without that second argument, the error message will be

			Rejected: IP-ADDRESS listed at SERVER

		where IP-ADDRESS and SERVER are replaced by the appropriate
		information.  By default, temporary lookup failures are
		ignored.  This behavior can be changed by specifying a
		third argument, which must be either `t' or a full error
		message.  See the anti-spam configuration control section for
		an example.  The dnsbl feature can be included several times
		to query different DNS based rejection lists.  See also
		enhdnsbl for an enhanced version.

		Set the DNSBL_MAP mc option to change the default map
		definition from `host'.  Set the DNSBL_MAP_OPT mc option
		to add additional options to the map specification used.

		Some DNS based rejection lists cause failures if asked
		for AAAA records. If your sendmail version is compiled
		with IPv6 support (NETINET6) and you experience this
		problem, add

			define(`DNSBL_MAP', `dns -R A')

		before the first use of this feature.  Alternatively you
		can use enhdnsbl instead (see below).  Moreover, this
		statement can be used to reduce the number of DNS retries,

			define(`DNSBL_MAP', `dns -R A -r2')

		See below (EDNSBL_TO) for an explanation.

enhdnsbl	Enhanced version of dnsbl (see above).  Further arguments
		(up to 5) can be used to specify specific return values
		from lookups.  Temporary lookup failures are ignored unless
		a third argument is given, which must be either `t' or a full
		error message.  By default, any successful lookup will
		generate an error.  Otherwise the result of the lookup is
		compared with the supplied argument(s), and only if a match
		occurs an error is generated.  For example,

		FEATURE(`enhdnsbl', `dnsbl.example.com', `', `t', `')

		will reject the e-mail if the lookup returns the value
		``'', or generate a 451 response if the lookup
		temporarily failed.  The arguments can contain metasymbols
		as they are allowed in the LHS of rules.  As the example
		shows, the default values are also used if an empty argument,
		i.e., `', is specified.  This feature requires that sendmail
		has been compiled with the flag DNSMAP (see sendmail/README).

		Set the EDNSBL_TO mc option to change the DNS retry count
		from the default value of 5, this can be very useful when
		a DNS server is not responding, which in turn may cause
		clients to time out (an entry stating

			did not issue MAIL/EXPN/VRFY/ETRN

		will be logged).

ratecontrol	Enable simple ruleset to do connection rate control
		checking.  This requires entries in access_db of the form

			ClientRate:IP.ADD.RE.SS		LIMIT

		The RHS specifies the maximum number of connections
		(an integer number) over the time interval defined
		by ConnectionRateWindowSize, where 0 means unlimited.

		Take the following example:

			ClientRate:		4
			ClientRate:		0
			ClientRate:			10 can only make up to 4 connections, the
		general limit it 10, and can make an unlimited
		number of connections per ConnectionRateWindowSize.


conncontrol	Enable a simple check of the number of incoming SMTP
		connections.  This requires entries in access_db of the

			ClientConn:IP.ADD.RE.SS		LIMIT

		The RHS specifies the maximum number of open connections
		(an integer number).

		Take the following example:

			ClientConn:		4
			ClientConn:		0
			ClientConn:			10 can only have up to 4 open connections, the
		general limit it 10, and does not have any
		explicit limit.


mtamark		Experimental support for "Marking Mail Transfer Agents in
		Reverse DNS with TXT RRs" (MTAMark), see
		draft-stumpf-dns-mtamark-01.  Optional arguments are:

		1. Error message, default:

			550 Rejected: $&{client_addr} not listed as MTA

		2. Temporary lookup failures are ignored unless a second
		argument is given, which must be either `t' or a full
		error message.

		3. Lookup prefix, default: _perm._smtp._srv.  This should
		not be changed unless the draft changes it.


			FEATURE(`mtamark', `', `t')

lookupdotdomain	Look up also .domain in the access map.  This allows to
		match only subdomains.  It does not work well with
		FEATURE(`relay_hosts_only'), because most lookups for
		subdomains are suppressed by the latter feature.

		Normally, if % addressing is used for a recipient, e.g.
		user%site@othersite, and othersite is in class {R}, the
		check_rcpt ruleset will strip @othersite and recheck
		user@site for relaying.  This feature changes that
		behavior.  It should not be needed for most installations.

authinfo	Provide a separate map for client side authentication
		information.  See SMTP AUTHENTICATION for details.
		By default, the authinfo database specification is:

			hash /etc/mail/authinfo

		Preserve the name of the recipient host if LUSER_RELAY is
		used.  Without this option, the domain part of the
		recipient address will be replaced by the host specified as
		LUSER_RELAY.  This feature only works if the hostname is
		passed to the mailer (see mailer triple in op.me).  Note
		that in the default configuration the local mailer does not
		receive the hostname, i.e., the mailer triple has an empty

		Preserve the +detail portion of the address when passing
		address to local delivery agent.  Disables alias and
		.forward +detail stripping (e.g., given user+detail, only
		that address will be looked up in the alias file; user+* and
		user will not be looked up).  Only use if the local
		delivery agent in use supports +detail addressing.
		Moreover, this will most likely not work if the 'w' flag
		for the local mailer is set as the entire local address
		including +detail is passed to the user lookup function.

compat_check	Enable ruleset check_compat to look up pairs of addresses
		with the Compat: tag --	Compat:sender<@>recipient -- in the
		access map.  Valid values for the RHS include
			DISCARD	silently discard recipient
			TEMP:	return a temporary error
			ERROR:	return a permanent error
		In the last two cases, a 4xy/5xy SMTP reply code should
		follow the colon.

no_default_msa	Don't generate the default MSA daemon, i.e.,
		To define a MSA daemon with other parameters, use this
		FEATURE and introduce new settings via DAEMON_OPTIONS().

msp		Defines config file for Message Submission Program.
		See sendmail/SECURITY for details and cf/cf/submit.mc how
		to use it.  An optional argument can be used to override
		the default of `[localhost]' to use as host to send all
		e-mails to.  Note that MX records will be used if the
		specified hostname is not in square brackets (e.g.,
		[hostname]).  If `MSA' is specified as second argument then
		port 587 is used to contact the server.  Example:

			FEATURE(`msp', `', `MSA')

		Some more hints about possible changes can be found below

		Note: Due to many problems, submit.mc uses

			FEATURE(`msp', `[]')

		by default.  If you have a machine with IPv6 only,
		change it to

			FEATURE(`msp', `[IPv6:::1]')

		If you want to continue using '[localhost]', (the behavior
		up to 8.12.6), use


queuegroup	A simple example how to select a queue group based
		on the full e-mail address or the domain of the
		recipient.  Selection is done via entries in the
		access map using the tag QGRP:, for example:

			QGRP:example.com	main
			QGRP:friend@some.org	others
			QGRP:my.domain		local

		where "main", "others", and "local" are names of
		queue groups.  If an argument is specified, it is used
		as default queue group.

		Note: please read the warning in doc/op/op.me about
		queue groups and possible queue manipulations.

greet_pause	Adds the greet_pause ruleset which enables open proxy
		and SMTP slamming protection.  The feature can take an
		argument specifying the milliseconds to wait:

			FEATURE(`greet_pause', `5000')  dnl 5 seconds

		If FEATURE(`access_db') is enabled, an access database
		lookup with the GreetPause tag is done using client
		hostname, domain, IP address, or subnet to determine the
		pause time:

			GreetPause:my.domain	0
			GreetPause:example.com	5000
			GreetPause:10.1.2	2000
			GreetPause:	0

		When using FEATURE(`access_db'), the optional
		FEATURE(`greet_pause') argument becomes the default if
		nothing is found in the access database.  A ruleset called
		Local_greet_pause can be used for local modifications, e.g.,

			R$*		$: $&{daemon_flags}
			R$* a $*	$# 0

block_bad_helo	Reject messages from SMTP clients which provide a HELO/EHLO
		argument which is either unqualified, or is one of our own
		names (i.e., the server name instead of the client name).
		This check is performed at RCPT stage and disabled for the
		following cases:
		- authenticated sessions,
		- connections from IP addresses in class $={R}.
		Currently access_db lookups can not be used to
		(selectively) disable this test, moreover,
		is required.

require_rdns	Reject mail from connecting SMTP clients without proper
		rDNS (reverse DNS), functional gethostbyaddr() resolution.
		Note: this feature will cause false positives, i.e., there
		are legitimate MTAs that do not have proper DNS entries.
		Rejecting mails from those MTAs is a local policy decision.

		The basic policy is to reject message with a 5xx error if
		the IP address fails to resolve.  However, if this is a
		temporary failure, a 4xx temporary failure is returned.
		If the look-up succeeds, but returns an apparently forged
		value, this is treated as a temporary failure with a 4xx
		error code.


		Exceptions based on access entries are discussed below.
		Any IP address matched using $=R (the "relay-domains" file)
		is excepted from the rules.  Since we have explicitly
		allowed relaying for this host, based on IP address, we
		ignore the rDNS failure.

		The philosophical assumption here is that most users do
		not control their rDNS.  They should be able to send mail
		through their ISP, whether or not they have valid rDNS.
		The class $=R, roughly speaking, contains those IP addresses
		and address ranges for which we are the ISP, or are acting
		as if the ISP.

		If `delay_checks' is in effect (recommended), then any
		sender who has authenticated is also excepted from the
		restrictions.  This happens because the rules produced by
		this FEATURE() will not be applied to authenticated senders
		(assuming `delay_checks').


		Entries such as
			Connect:		OK
			Connect:1.2		RELAY
		will whitelist IP address, so that the rDNS
		blocking does apply to that IP address

		Entries such as
			Connect:		REJECT
		will have the effect of forcing a temporary failure for
		that address to be treated as a permanent failure.

badmx		Reject envelope sender addresses (MAIL) whose domain part
		resolves to a "bad" MX record.  By default these are
		MX records which resolve to A records that match the
		regular expression:


		This default regular expression can be overridden by
		specifying an argument, e.g.,

		FEATURE(`badmx', `^127\.0\.0\.1')

		Note: this feature requires that the sendmail binary
		has been compiled with the options MAP_REGEX and


Some things just can't be called features.  To make this clear,
they go in the hack subdirectory and are referenced using the HACK
macro.  These will tend to be site-dependent.  The release
includes the Berkeley-dependent "cssubdomain" hack (that makes
sendmail accept local names in either Berkeley.EDU or CS.Berkeley.EDU;
this is intended as a short-term aid while moving hosts into


    * This section is really obsolete, and is preserved	*
    * only for back compatibility.  You should plan on	*
    * using mailertables for new installations.  In	*
    * particular, it doesn't work for the newer forms	*
    * of UUCP mailers, such as uucp-uudom.		*

Complex sites will need more local configuration information, such as
lists of UUCP hosts they speak with directly.  This can get a bit more
tricky.  For an example of a "complex" site, see cf/ucbvax.mc.

The SITECONFIG macro allows you to indirectly reference site-dependent
configuration information stored in the siteconfig subdirectory.  For
example, the line

	SITECONFIG(`uucp.ucbvax', `ucbvax', `U')

reads the file uucp.ucbvax for local connection information.  The
second parameter is the local name (in this case just "ucbvax" since
it is locally connected, and hence a UUCP hostname).  The third
parameter is the name of both a macro to store the local name (in
this case, {U}) and the name of the class (e.g., {U}) in which to store
the host information read from the file.  Another SITECONFIG line reads

	SITECONFIG(`uucp.ucbarpa', `ucbarpa.Berkeley.EDU', `W')

This says that the file uucp.ucbarpa contains the list of UUCP sites
connected to ucbarpa.Berkeley.EDU.  Class {W} will be used to
store this list, and $W is defined to be ucbarpa.Berkeley.EDU, that
is, the name of the relay to which the hosts listed in uucp.ucbarpa
are connected.  [The machine ucbarpa is gone now, but this
out-of-date configuration file has been left around to demonstrate
how you might do this.]

Note that the case of SITECONFIG with a third parameter of ``U'' is
special; the second parameter is assumed to be the UUCP name of the
local site, rather than the name of a remote site, and the UUCP name
is entered into class {w} (the list of local hostnames) as $U.UUCP.

The siteconfig file (e.g., siteconfig/uucp.ucbvax.m4) contains nothing
more than a sequence of SITE macros describing connectivity.  For

	SITE(`sgi olympus')

The second example demonstrates that you can use two names on the
same line; these are usually aliases for the same host (or are at
least in the same company).

The macro LOCAL_UUCP can be used to add rules into the generated
cf file at the place where MAILER(`uucp') inserts its rules.  This
should only be used if really necessary.


It's hard to get UUCP mailers right because of the extremely ad hoc
nature of UUCP addressing.  These config files are really designed
for domain-based addressing, even for UUCP sites.

There are four UUCP mailers available.  The choice of which one to
use is partly a matter of local preferences and what is running at
the other end of your UUCP connection.  Unlike good protocols that
define what will go over the wire, UUCP uses the policy that you
should do what is right for the other end; if they change, you have
to change.  This makes it hard to do the right thing, and discourages
people from updating their software.  In general, if you can avoid
UUCP, please do.

The major choice is whether to go for a domainized scheme or a
non-domainized scheme.  This depends entirely on what the other
end will recognize.  If at all possible, you should encourage the
other end to go to a domain-based system -- non-domainized addresses
don't work entirely properly.

The four mailers are:

    uucp-old (obsolete name: "uucp")
	This is the oldest, the worst (but the closest to UUCP) way of
	sending messages across UUCP connections.  It does bangify
	everything and prepends $U (your UUCP name) to the sender's
	address (which can already be a bang path itself).  It can
	only send to one address at a time, so it spends a lot of
	time copying duplicates of messages.  Avoid this if at all

    uucp-new (obsolete name: "suucp")
	The same as above, except that it assumes that in one rmail
	command you can specify several recipients.  It still has a
	lot of other problems.

	This UUCP mailer keeps everything as domain addresses.
	Basically, it uses the SMTP mailer rewriting rules.  This mailer
	is only included if MAILER(`smtp') is specified before

	Unfortunately, a lot of UUCP mailer transport agents require
	bangified addresses in the envelope, although you can use
	domain-based addresses in the message header.  (The envelope
	shows up as the From_ line on UNIX mail.)  So....

	This is a cross between uucp-new (for the envelope addresses)
	and uucp-dom (for the header addresses).  It bangifies the
	envelope sender (From_ line in messages) without adding the
	local hostname, unless there is no host name on the address
	at all (e.g., "wolf") or the host component is a UUCP host name
	instead of a domain name ("somehost!wolf" instead of
	"some.dom.ain!wolf").  This is also included only if MAILER(`smtp')
	is also specified earlier.


On host grasp.insa-lyon.fr (UUCP host name "grasp"), the following
summarizes the sender rewriting for various mailers.

Mailer		sender		rewriting in the envelope
------		------		-------------------------
uucp-{old,new}	wolf		grasp!wolf
uucp-dom	wolf		wolf@grasp.insa-lyon.fr
uucp-uudom	wolf		grasp.insa-lyon.fr!wolf

uucp-{old,new}	wolf@fr.net	grasp!fr.net!wolf
uucp-dom	wolf@fr.net	wolf@fr.net
uucp-uudom	wolf@fr.net	fr.net!wolf

uucp-{old,new}	somehost!wolf	grasp!somehost!wolf
uucp-dom	somehost!wolf	somehost!wolf@grasp.insa-lyon.fr
uucp-uudom	somehost!wolf	grasp.insa-lyon.fr!somehost!wolf

If you are using one of the domainized UUCP mailers, you really want
to convert all UUCP addresses to domain format -- otherwise, it will
do it for you (and probably not the way you expected).  For example,
if you have the address foo!bar!baz (and you are not sending to foo),
the heuristics will add the @uucp.relay.name or @local.host.name to
this address.  However, if you map foo to foo.host.name first, it
will not add the local hostname.  You can do this using the uucpdomain


For more complex configurations, you can define special rules.
The macro LOCAL_RULE_3 introduces rules that are used in canonicalizing
the names.  Any modifications made here are reflected in the header.

A common use is to convert old UUCP addresses to SMTP addresses using
the UUCPSMTP macro.  For example:

	UUCPSMTP(`decvax',	`decvax.dec.com')
	UUCPSMTP(`research',	`research.att.com')

will cause addresses of the form "decvax!user" and "research!user"
to be converted to "user@decvax.dec.com" and "user@research.att.com"

This could also be used to look up hosts in a database map:

	R$* < @ $+ > $*		$: $1 < @ $(hostmap $2 $) > $3

This map would be defined in the LOCAL_CONFIG portion, as shown below.

Similarly, LOCAL_RULE_0 can be used to introduce new parsing rules.
For example, new rules are needed to parse hostnames that you accept
via MX records.  For example, you might have:

	R$+ <@ host.dom.ain.>	$#uucp $@ cnmat $: $1 < @ host.dom.ain.>

You would use this if you had installed an MX record for cnmat.Berkeley.EDU
pointing at this host; this rule catches the message and forwards it on
using UUCP.

You can also tweak rulesets 1 and 2 using LOCAL_RULE_1 and LOCAL_RULE_2.
These rulesets are normally empty.

A similar macro is LOCAL_CONFIG.  This introduces lines added after the
boilerplate option setting but before rulesets.  Do not declare rulesets in
the LOCAL_CONFIG section.  It can be used to declare local database maps or
whatever.  For example:

	Khostmap hash /etc/mail/hostmap
	Kyplocal nis -m hosts.byname


You can have your host masquerade as another using


This causes mail being sent to be labeled as coming from the
indicated host.domain, rather than $j.  One normally masquerades as
one of one's own subdomains (for example, it's unlikely that
Berkeley would choose to masquerade as an MIT site).  This
behaviour is modified by a plethora of FEATUREs; in particular, see
masquerade_envelope, allmasquerade, limited_masquerade, and

The masquerade name is not normally canonified, so it is important
that it be your One True Name, that is, fully qualified and not a
CNAME.  However, if you use a CNAME, the receiving side may canonify
it for you, so don't think you can cheat CNAME mapping this way.

Normally the only addresses that are masqueraded are those that come
from this host (that is, are either unqualified or in class {w}, the list
of local domain names).  You can augment this list, which is realized
by class {M} using


The effect of this is that although mail to user@otherhost.domain
will not be delivered locally, any mail including any user@otherhost.domain
will, when relayed, be rewritten to have the MASQUERADE_AS address.
This can be a space-separated list of names.

If these names are in a file, you can use


to read the list of names from the indicated file (i.e., to add
elements to class {M}).

To exempt hosts or subdomains from being masqueraded, you can use


This can come handy if you want to masquerade a whole domain
except for one (or a few) host(s).  If these names are in a file,
you can use


Normally only header addresses are masqueraded.  If you want to
masquerade the envelope as well, use


There are always users that need to be "exposed" -- that is, their
internal site name should be displayed instead of the masquerade name.
Root is an example (which has been "exposed" by default prior to 8.10).
You can add users to this list using


This adds users to class {E}; you could also use


You can also arrange to relay all unqualified names (that is, names
without @host) to a relay host.  For example, if you have a central
email server, you might relay to that host so that users don't have
to have .forward files or aliases.  You can do this using

	define(`LOCAL_RELAY', `mailer:hostname')

The ``mailer:'' can be omitted, in which case the mailer defaults to
"relay".  There are some user names that you don't want relayed, perhaps
because of local aliases.  A common example is root, which may be
locally aliased.  You can add entries to this list using


This adds users to class {L}; you could also use


If you want all incoming mail sent to a centralized hub, as for a
shared /var/spool/mail scheme, use

	define(`MAIL_HUB', `mailer:hostname')

Again, ``mailer:'' defaults to "relay".  If you define both LOCAL_RELAY
and MAIL_HUB _AND_ you have FEATURE(`stickyhost'), unqualified names will
be sent to the LOCAL_RELAY and other local names will be sent to MAIL_HUB.
Note: there is a (long standing) bug which keeps this combination from
working for addresses of the form user+detail.
Names in class {L} will be delivered locally, so you MUST have aliases or
.forward files for them.

For example, if you are on machine mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU and you have
FEATURE(`stickyhost'), the following combinations of settings will have the
indicated effects:

email sent to....	eric			  eric@mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU

LOCAL_RELAY set to	mail.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  (delivered locally)
mail.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  (no local aliasing)	    (aliasing done)

MAIL_HUB set to		mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU
mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  (aliasing done)	    (aliasing done)

Both LOCAL_RELAY and	mail.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU
MAIL_HUB set as above	  (no local aliasing)	    (aliasing done)

If you do not have FEATURE(`stickyhost') set, then LOCAL_RELAY and
MAIL_HUB act identically, with MAIL_HUB taking precedence.

If you want all outgoing mail to go to a central relay site, define
SMART_HOST as well.  Briefly:

	LOCAL_RELAY applies to unqualified names (e.g., "eric").
	MAIL_HUB applies to names qualified with the name of the
		local host (e.g., "eric@mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU").
	SMART_HOST applies to names qualified with other hosts or
		bracketed addresses (e.g., "eric@mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU"
		or "eric@[]").

However, beware that other relays (e.g., UUCP_RELAY, BITNET_RELAY,
DECNET_RELAY, and FAX_RELAY) take precedence over SMART_HOST, so if you
really want absolutely everything to go to a single central site you will
need to unset all the other relays -- or better yet, find or build a
minimal config file that does this.

For duplicate suppression to work properly, the host name is best
specified with a terminal dot:

	define(`MAIL_HUB', `host.domain.')
	      note the trailing dot ---^


LDAP can be used for aliases, maps, and classes by either specifying your
own LDAP map specification or using the built-in default LDAP map
specification.  The built-in default specifications all provide lookups
which match against either the machine's fully qualified hostname (${j}) or
a "cluster".  The cluster allows you to share LDAP entries among a large
number of machines without having to enter each of the machine names into
each LDAP entry.  To set the LDAP cluster name to use for a particular
machine or set of machines, set the confLDAP_CLUSTER m4 variable to a
unique name.  For example:

	define(`confLDAP_CLUSTER', `Servers')

Here, the word `Servers' will be the cluster name.  As an example, assume
that smtp.sendmail.org, etrn.sendmail.org, and mx.sendmail.org all belong
to the Servers cluster.

Some of the LDAP LDIF examples below show use of the Servers cluster.
Every entry must have either a sendmailMTAHost or sendmailMTACluster
attribute or it will be ignored.  Be careful as mixing clusters and
individual host records can have surprising results (see the CAUTION
sections below).

See the file cf/sendmail.schema for the actual LDAP schemas.  Note that
this schema (and therefore the lookups and examples below) is experimental
at this point as it has had little public review.  Therefore, it may change
in future versions.  Feedback via sendmail-YYYY@support.sendmail.org is
encouraged (replace YYYY with the current year, e.g., 2005).


The ALIAS_FILE (O AliasFile) option can be set to use LDAP for alias
lookups.  To use the default schema, simply use:

	define(`ALIAS_FILE', `ldap:')

By doing so, you will use the default schema which expands to a map
declared as follows:

	ldap -k (&(objectClass=sendmailMTAAliasObject)
	     -v sendmailMTAAliasValue,sendmailMTAAliasSearch:FILTER:sendmailMTAAliasObject,sendmailMTAAliasURL:URL:sendmailMTAAliasObject

NOTE: The macros shown above ${sendmailMTACluster} and $j are not actually
used when the binary expands the `ldap:' token as the AliasFile option is
not actually macro-expanded when read from the sendmail.cf file.

Example LDAP LDIF entries might be:

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=sendmail-list, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAlias
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAliasObject
	sendmailMTAAliasGrouping: aliases
	sendmailMTAHost: etrn.sendmail.org
	sendmailMTAKey: sendmail-list
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: ca@example.org
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: eric
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: gshapiro@example.com

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=owner-sendmail-list, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAlias
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAliasObject
	sendmailMTAAliasGrouping: aliases
	sendmailMTAHost: etrn.sendmail.org
	sendmailMTAKey: owner-sendmail-list
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: eric

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=postmaster, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAlias
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAliasObject
	sendmailMTAAliasGrouping: aliases
	sendmailMTACluster: Servers
	sendmailMTAKey: postmaster
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: eric

Here, the aliases sendmail-list and owner-sendmail-list will be available
only on etrn.sendmail.org but the postmaster alias will be available on
every machine in the Servers cluster (including etrn.sendmail.org).

CAUTION: aliases are additive so that entries like these:

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=bob, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAlias
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAliasObject
	sendmailMTAAliasGrouping: aliases
	sendmailMTACluster: Servers
	sendmailMTAKey: bob
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: eric

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=bobetrn, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAlias
	objectClass: sendmailMTAAliasObject
	sendmailMTAAliasGrouping: aliases
	sendmailMTAHost: etrn.sendmail.org
	sendmailMTAKey: bob
	sendmailMTAAliasValue: gshapiro

would mean that on all of the hosts in the cluster, mail to bob would go to
eric EXCEPT on etrn.sendmail.org in which case it would go to BOTH eric and

If you prefer not to use the default LDAP schema for your aliases, you can
specify the map parameters when setting ALIAS_FILE.  For example:

	define(`ALIAS_FILE', `ldap:-k (&(objectClass=mailGroup)(mail=%0)) -v mgrpRFC822MailMember')


FEATURE()'s which take an optional map definition argument (e.g., access,
mailertable, virtusertable, etc.) can instead take the special keyword
`LDAP', e.g.:

	FEATURE(`access_db', `LDAP')
	FEATURE(`virtusertable', `LDAP')

When this keyword is given, that map will use LDAP lookups consisting of
the objectClass sendmailMTAClassObject, the attribute sendmailMTAMapName
with the map name, a search attribute of sendmailMTAKey, and the value
attribute sendmailMTAMapValue.

The values for sendmailMTAMapName are:

	FEATURE()		sendmailMTAMapName
	---------		------------------
	access_db		access
	authinfo		authinfo
	bitdomain		bitdomain
	domaintable		domain
	genericstable		generics
	mailertable		mailer
	uucpdomain		uucpdomain
	virtusertable		virtuser

For example, FEATURE(`mailertable', `LDAP') would use the map definition:

	Kmailertable ldap -k (&(objectClass=sendmailMTAMapObject)
			  -1 -v sendmailMTAMapValue,sendmailMTAMapSearch:FILTER:sendmailMTAMapObject,sendmailMTAMapURL:URL:sendmailMTAMapObject

An example LDAP LDIF entry using this map might be:

	dn: sendmailMTAMapName=mailer, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAMap
	sendmailMTACluster: Servers
	sendmailMTAMapName: mailer

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=example.com, sendmailMTAMapName=mailer, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAMap
	objectClass: sendmailMTAMapObject
	sendmailMTAMapName: mailer
	sendmailMTACluster: Servers
	sendmailMTAKey: example.com
	sendmailMTAMapValue: relay:[smtp.example.com]

CAUTION: If your LDAP database contains the record above and *ALSO* a host
specific record such as:

	dn: sendmailMTAKey=example.com@etrn, sendmailMTAMapName=mailer, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAMap
	objectClass: sendmailMTAMapObject
	sendmailMTAMapName: mailer
	sendmailMTAHost: etrn.sendmail.org
	sendmailMTAKey: example.com
	sendmailMTAMapValue: relay:[mx.example.com]

then these entries will give unexpected results.  When the lookup is done
on etrn.sendmail.org, the effect is that there is *NO* match at all as maps
require a single match.  Since the host etrn.sendmail.org is also in the
Servers cluster, LDAP would return two answers for the example.com map key
in which case sendmail would treat this as no match at all.

If you prefer not to use the default LDAP schema for your maps, you can
specify the map parameters when using the FEATURE().  For example:

	FEATURE(`access_db', `ldap:-1 -k (&(objectClass=mapDatabase)(key=%0)) -v value')


Normally, classes can be filled via files or programs.  As of 8.12, they
can also be filled via map lookups using a new syntax:


mapkey is optional and if not provided the map key will be empty.  This can
be used with LDAP to read classes from LDAP.  Note that the lookup is only
done when sendmail is initially started.  Use the special value `@LDAP' to
use the default LDAP schema.  For example:


would put all of the attribute sendmailMTAClassValue values of LDAP records
with objectClass sendmailMTAClass and an attribute sendmailMTAClassName of
'R' into class $={R}.  In other words, it is equivalent to the LDAP map

	F{R}@ldap:-k (&(objectClass=sendmailMTAClass)
		  -v sendmailMTAClassValue,sendmailMTAClassSearch:FILTER:sendmailMTAClass,sendmailMTAClassURL:URL:sendmailMTAClass

NOTE: The macros shown above ${sendmailMTACluster} and $j are not actually
used when the binary expands the `@LDAP' token as class declarations are
not actually macro-expanded when read from the sendmail.cf file.

This can be used with class related commands such as RELAY_DOMAIN_FILE(),

	Command				sendmailMTAClassName
	-------				--------------------

You can also add your own as any 'F'ile class of the form:

will use "ClassName" for the sendmailMTAClassName.

An example LDAP LDIF entry would look like:

	dn: sendmailMTAClassName=R, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAClass
	sendmailMTACluster: Servers
	sendmailMTAClassName: R
	sendmailMTAClassValue: sendmail.org
	sendmailMTAClassValue: example.com
	sendmailMTAClassValue: 10.56.23

CAUTION: If your LDAP database contains the record above and *ALSO* a host
specific record such as:

	dn: sendmailMTAClassName=R@etrn.sendmail.org, dc=sendmail, dc=org
	objectClass: sendmailMTA
	objectClass: sendmailMTAClass
	sendmailMTAHost: etrn.sendmail.org
	sendmailMTAClassName: R
	sendmailMTAClassValue: example.com

the result will be similar to the aliases caution above.  When the lookup
is done on etrn.sendmail.org, $={R} would contain all of the entries (from
both the cluster match and the host match).  In other words, the effective
is additive.

If you prefer not to use the default LDAP schema for your classes, you can
specify the map parameters when using the class command.  For example:

	VIRTUSER_DOMAIN_FILE(`@ldap:-k (&(objectClass=virtHosts)(host=*)) -v host')

Remember, macros can not be used in a class declaration as the binary does
not expand them.


FEATURE(`ldap_routing') can be used to implement the IETF Internet Draft
LDAP Schema for Intranet Mail Routing
(draft-lachman-laser-ldap-mail-routing-01).  This feature enables
LDAP-based rerouting of a particular address to either a different host
or a different address.  The LDAP lookup is first attempted on the full
address (e.g., user@example.com) and then on the domain portion
(e.g., @example.com).  Be sure to setup your domain for LDAP routing using


Additionally, you can specify equivalent domains for LDAP routing using
hostnames are mapped to $M (the masqueraded hostname for the server) before
the LDAP query.  For example, if the mail is addressed to
user@host1.example.com, normally the LDAP lookup would only be done for
'user@host1.example.com' and '@host1.example.com'.   However, if
LDAPROUTE_EQUIVALENT(`host1.example.com') is used, the lookups would also be
done on 'user@example.com' and '@example.com' after attempting the
host1.example.com lookups.

By default, the feature will use the schemas as specified in the draft
and will not reject addresses not found by the LDAP lookup.  However,
this behavior can be changed by giving additional arguments to the FEATURE()

 FEATURE(`ldap_routing', <mailHost>, <mailRoutingAddress>, <bounce>,
		 <detail>, <nodomain>, <tempfail>)

where <mailHost> is a map definition describing how to look up an alternative
mail host for a particular address; <mailRoutingAddress> is a map definition
describing how to look up an alternative address for a particular address;
the <bounce> argument, if present and not the word "passthru", dictates
that mail should be bounced if neither a mailHost nor mailRoutingAddress
is found, if set to "sendertoo", the sender will be rejected if not
found in LDAP; and <detail> indicates what actions to take if the address
contains +detail information -- `strip' tries the lookup with the +detail
and if no matches are found, strips the +detail and tries the lookup again;
`preserve', does the same as `strip' but if a mailRoutingAddress match is
found, the +detail information is copied to the new address; the <nodomain>
argument, if present, will prevent the @domain lookup if the full
address is not found in LDAP; the <tempfail> argument, if set to
"tempfail", instructs the rules to give an SMTP 4XX temporary
error if the LDAP server gives the MTA a temporary failure, or if set to
"queue" (the default), the MTA will locally queue the mail.

The default <mailHost> map definition is:

	ldap -1 -T<TMPF> -v mailHost -k (&(objectClass=inetLocalMailRecipient)

The default <mailRoutingAddress> map definition is:

	ldap -1 -T<TMPF> -v mailRoutingAddress
			 -k (&(objectClass=inetLocalMailRecipient)

Note that neither includes the LDAP server hostname (-h server) or base DN
(-b o=org,c=COUNTRY), both necessary for LDAP queries.  It is presumed that
your .mc file contains a setting for the confLDAP_DEFAULT_SPEC option with
these settings.  If this is not the case, the map definitions should be
changed as described above.  The "-T<TMPF>" is required in any user
specified map definition to catch temporary errors.

The following possibilities exist as a result of an LDAP lookup on an

	mailHost is	mailRoutingAddress is	Results in
	-----------	---------------------	----------
	set to a	set			mail delivered to
	"local" host				mailRoutingAddress

	set to a	not set			delivered to
	"local" host				original address

	set to a	set			mailRoutingAddress
	remote host				relayed to mailHost

	set to a	not set			original address
	remote host				relayed to mailHost

	not set		set			mail delivered to

	not set		not set			delivered to
						original address *OR*
						bounced as unknown user

The term "local" host above means the host specified is in class {w}.  If
the result would mean sending the mail to a different host, that host is
looked up in the mailertable before delivery.

Note that the last case depends on whether the third argument is given
to the FEATURE() command.  The default is to deliver the message to the
original address.

The LDAP entries should be set up with an objectClass of
inetLocalMailRecipient and the address be listed in a mailLocalAddress
attribute.  If present, there must be only one mailHost attribute and it
must contain a fully qualified host name as its value.  Similarly, if
present, there must be only one mailRoutingAddress attribute and it must
contain an RFC 822 compliant address.  Some example LDAP records (in LDIF

	dn: uid=tom, o=example.com, c=US
	objectClass: inetLocalMailRecipient
	mailLocalAddress: tom@example.com
	mailRoutingAddress: thomas@mailhost.example.com

This would deliver mail for tom@example.com to thomas@mailhost.example.com.

	dn: uid=dick, o=example.com, c=US
	objectClass: inetLocalMailRecipient
	mailLocalAddress: dick@example.com
	mailHost: eng.example.com

This would relay mail for dick@example.com to the same address but redirect
the mail to MX records listed for the host eng.example.com (unless the
mailertable overrides).

	dn: uid=harry, o=example.com, c=US
	objectClass: inetLocalMailRecipient
	mailLocalAddress: harry@example.com
	mailHost: mktmail.example.com
	mailRoutingAddress: harry@mkt.example.com

This would relay mail for harry@example.com to the MX records listed for
the host mktmail.example.com using the new address harry@mkt.example.com
when talking to that host.

	dn: uid=virtual.example.com, o=example.com, c=US
	objectClass: inetLocalMailRecipient
	mailLocalAddress: @virtual.example.com
	mailHost: server.example.com
	mailRoutingAddress: virtual@example.com

This would send all mail destined for any username @virtual.example.com to
the machine server.example.com's MX servers and deliver to the address
virtual@example.com on that relay machine.


The primary anti-spam features available in sendmail are:

* Relaying is denied by default.
* Better checking on sender information.
* Access database.
* Header checks.

Relaying (transmission of messages from a site outside your host (class
{w}) to another site except yours) is denied by default.  Note that this
changed in sendmail 8.9; previous versions allowed relaying by default.
If you really want to revert to the old behaviour, you will need to use
FEATURE(`promiscuous_relay').  You can allow certain domains to relay
through your server by adding their domain name or IP address to class
{R} using RELAY_DOMAIN() and RELAY_DOMAIN_FILE() or via the access database
(described below).  Note that IPv6 addresses must be prefaced with "IPv6:".
The file consists (like any other file based class) of entries listed on
separate lines, e.g.,


Notice: the last entry allows relaying for connections via a UNIX
socket to the MTA/MSP.  This might be necessary if your configuration
doesn't allow relaying by other means in that case, e.g., by having
localhost.$m in class {R} (make sure $m is not just a top level

If you use


then any host in any of your local domains (that is, class {m})
will be relayed (that is, you will accept mail either to or from any
host in your domain).

You can also allow relaying based on the MX records of the host
portion of an incoming recipient address by using


For example, if your server receives a recipient of user@domain.com
and domain.com lists your server in its MX records, the mail will be
accepted for relay to domain.com.  This feature may cause problems
if MX lookups for the recipient domain are slow or time out.  In that
case, mail will be temporarily rejected.  It is usually better to
maintain a list of hosts/domains for which the server acts as relay.
Note also that this feature will stop spammers from using your host
to relay spam but it will not stop outsiders from using your server
as a relay for their site (that is, they set up an MX record pointing
to your mail server, and you will relay mail addressed to them
without any prior arrangement).  Along the same lines,


will allow relaying if the sender specifies a return path (i.e.
MAIL FROM:<user@domain>) domain which is a local domain.  This is a
dangerous feature as it will allow spammers to spam using your mail
server by simply specifying a return address of user@your.domain.com.
It should not be used unless absolutely necessary.
A slightly better solution is


which allows relaying if the mail sender is listed as RELAY in the
access map.  If an optional argument `domain' (this is the literal
word `domain', not a placeholder) is given, the domain portion of
the mail sender is also checked to allowing relaying.  This option
only works together with the tag From: for the LHS of the access
map entries.  This feature allows spammers to abuse your mail server
by specifying a return address that you enabled in your access file.
This may be harder to figure out for spammers, but it should not
be used unless necessary.  Instead use SMTP AUTH or STARTTLS to
allow relaying for roaming users.

If source routing is used in the recipient address (e.g.,
RCPT TO:<user%site.com@othersite.com>), sendmail will check
user@site.com for relaying if othersite.com is an allowed relay host
in either class {R}, class {m} if FEATURE(`relay_entire_domain') is used,
or the access database if FEATURE(`access_db') is used.  To prevent
the address from being stripped down, use:


If you think you need to use this feature, you probably do not.  This
should only be used for sites which have no control over the addresses
that they provide a gateway for.  Use this FEATURE with caution as it
can allow spammers to relay through your server if not setup properly.

NOTICE: It is possible to relay mail through a system which the anti-relay
rules do not prevent: the case of a system that does use FEATURE(`nouucp',
`nospecial') (system A) and relays local messages to a mail hub (e.g., via
LOCAL_RELAY or LUSER_RELAY) (system B).  If system B doesn't use
FEATURE(`nouucp') at all, addresses of the form
<example.net!user@local.host> would be relayed to <user@example.net>.
System A doesn't recognize `!' as an address separator and therefore
forwards it to the mail hub which in turns relays it because it came from
a trusted local host.  So if a mailserver allows UUCP (bang-format)
addresses, all systems from which it allows relaying should do the same
or reject those addresses.

As of 8.9, sendmail will refuse mail if the MAIL FROM: parameter has
an unresolvable domain (i.e., one that DNS, your local name service,
or special case rules in ruleset 3 cannot locate).  This also applies
to addresses that use domain literals, e.g., <user@[]>, if the
IP address can't be mapped to a host name.  If you want to continue
to accept such domains, e.g., because you are inside a firewall that
has only a limited view of the Internet host name space (note that you
will not be able to return mail to them unless you have some "smart
host" forwarder), use


Alternatively, you can allow specific addresses by adding them to
the access map, e.g.,

	From:unresolvable.domain	OK
	From:[]			OK
	From:[1.2.4]			OK

Notice: domains which are temporarily unresolvable are (temporarily)
rejected with a 451 reply code.  If those domains should be accepted
(which is discouraged) then you can use


sendmail will also refuse mail if the MAIL FROM: parameter is not
fully qualified (i.e., contains a domain as well as a user).  If you
want to continue to accept such senders, use


Setting the DaemonPortOptions modifier 'u' overrides the default behavior,
i.e., unqualified addresses are accepted even without this FEATURE.  If
this FEATURE is not used, the DaemonPortOptions modifier 'f' can be used
to enforce fully qualified domain names.

An ``access'' database can be created to accept or reject mail from
selected domains.  For example, you may choose to reject all mail
originating from known spammers.  To enable such a database, use


Notice: the access database is applied to the envelope addresses
and the connection information, not to the header.

The FEATURE macro can accept as second parameter the key file
definition for the database; for example

	FEATURE(`access_db', `hash -T<TMPF> /etc/mail/access_map')

Notice: If a second argument is specified it must contain the option
`-T<TMPF>' as shown above.  The optional parameters may be

	`skip'			enables SKIP as value part (see below).
	`lookupdotdomain'	another way to enable the feature of the
				same name (see above).
	`relaytofulladdress'	enable entries of the form
				To:user@example.com	RELAY
				to allow relaying to just a specific
				e-mail address instead of an entire domain.

Remember, since /etc/mail/access is a database, after creating the text
file as described below, you must use makemap to create the database
map.  For example:

	makemap hash /etc/mail/access < /etc/mail/access

The table itself uses e-mail addresses, domain names, and network
numbers as keys.  Note that IPv6 addresses must be prefaced with "IPv6:".
For example,

	From:spammer@aol.com			REJECT
	From:cyberspammer.com			REJECT
	Connect:cyberspammer.com		REJECT
	Connect:TLD				REJECT
	Connect:192.168.212			REJECT
	Connect:IPv6:2002:c0a8:02c7		RELAY
	Connect:IPv6:2002:c0a8:51d2::23f4	REJECT

would refuse mail from spammer@aol.com, any user from cyberspammer.com
(or any host within the cyberspammer.com domain), any host in the entire
top level domain TLD, 192.168.212.* network, and the IPv6 address
2002:c0a8:51d2::23f4.  It would allow relay for the IPv6 network

Entries in the access map should be tagged according to their type.
Three tags are available:

	Connect:	connection information (${client_addr}, ${client_name})
	From:		envelope sender
	To:		envelope recipient

Notice: untagged entries are deprecated.

If the required item is looked up in a map, it will be tried first
with the corresponding tag in front, then (as fallback to enable
backward compatibility) without any tag, unless the specific feature
requires a tag.  For example,

	From:spammer@some.dom	REJECT
	To:friend.domain	RELAY
	Connect:friend.domain	OK
	Connect:from.domain	RELAY
	From:good@another.dom	OK
	From:another.dom	REJECT

This would deny mails from spammer@some.dom but you could still
send mail to that address even if FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')
is enabled.  Your system will allow relaying to friend.domain, but
not from it (unless enabled by other means).  Connections from that
domain will be allowed even if it ends up in one of the DNS based
rejection lists.  Relaying is enabled from from.domain but not to
it (since relaying is based on the connection information for
outgoing relaying, the tag Connect: must be used; for incoming
relaying, which is based on the recipient address, To: must be
used).  The last two entries allow mails from good@another.dom but
reject mail from all other addresses with another.dom as domain

The value part of the map can contain:

	OK		Accept mail even if other rules in the running
			ruleset would reject it, for example, if the domain
			name is unresolvable.  "Accept" does not mean
			"relay", but at most acceptance for local
			recipients.  That is, OK allows less than RELAY.
	RELAY		Accept mail addressed to the indicated domain
			(or address if `relaytofulladdress' is set) or
			received from the indicated domain for relaying
			through your SMTP server.  RELAY also serves as
			an implicit OK for the other checks.
	REJECT		Reject the sender or recipient with a general
			purpose message.
	DISCARD		Discard the message completely using the
			$#discard mailer.  If it is used in check_compat,
			it affects only the designated recipient, not
			the whole message as it does in all other cases.
			This should only be used if really necessary.
	SKIP		This can only be used for host/domain names
			and IP addresses/nets.  It will abort the current
			search for this entry without accepting or rejecting
			it but causing the default action.
	### any text	where ### is an RFC 821 compliant error code and
			"any text" is a message to return for the command.
			The entire string should be quoted to avoid

				"### any text"

			Otherwise sendmail formats the text as email
			addresses, e.g., it may remove spaces.
			This type is deprecated, use one of the two
			ERROR:  entries below instead.
	ERROR:### any text
			as above, but useful to mark error messages as such.
			If quotes need to be used to avoid modifications
			(see above), they should be placed like this:

				ERROR:"### any text"

	ERROR:D.S.N:### any text
			where D.S.N is an RFC 1893 compliant error code
			and the rest as above.  If quotes need to be used
			to avoid modifications, they should be placed
			like this:

				ERROR:D.S.N:"### any text"

	QUARANTINE:any text
			Quarantine the message using the given text as the
			quarantining reason.

For example:

	From:cyberspammer.com	ERROR:"550 We don't accept mail from spammers"
	From:okay.cyberspammer.com	OK
	Connect:sendmail.org		RELAY
	To:sendmail.org			RELAY
	Connect:128.32			RELAY
	Connect:128.32.2		SKIP
	Connect:IPv6:1:2:3:4:5:6:7	RELAY
	Connect:suspicious.example.com	QUARANTINE:Mail from suspicious host
	Connect:[]		OK
	Connect:[IPv6:1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]	OK

would accept mail from okay.cyberspammer.com, but would reject mail
from all other hosts at cyberspammer.com with the indicated message.
It would allow relaying mail from and to any hosts in the sendmail.org
domain, and allow relaying from the IPv6 1:2:3:4:5:6:7:* network
and from the 128.32.*.* network except for the 128.32.2.* network,
which shows how SKIP is useful to exempt subnets/subdomains.  The
last two entries are for checks against ${client_name} if the IP
address doesn't resolve to a hostname (or is considered as "may be
forged").  That is, using square brackets means these are host
names, not network numbers.

Warning: if you change the RFC 821 compliant error code from the default
value of 550, then you should probably also change the RFC 1893 compliant
error code to match it.  For example, if you use

	To:user@example.com	ERROR:450 mailbox full

the error returned would be "450 5.0.0 mailbox full" which is wrong.
Use "ERROR:4.2.2:450 mailbox full" instead.

Note, UUCP users may need to add hostname.UUCP to the access database
or class {R}.

If you also use:


then the above example will allow relaying for sendmail.org, but not
hosts within the sendmail.org domain.  Note that this will also require
hosts listed in class {R} to be fully qualified host names.

You can also use the access database to block sender addresses based on
the username portion of the address.  For example:

	From:FREE.STEALTH.MAILER@	ERROR:550 Spam not accepted

Note that you must include the @ after the username to signify that
this database entry is for checking only the username portion of the
sender address.

If you use:


then you can add entries to the map for local users, hosts in your
domains, or addresses in your domain which should not receive mail:

	To:badlocaluser@	ERROR:550 Mailbox disabled for badlocaluser
	To:host.my.TLD		ERROR:550 That host does not accept mail
	To:user@other.my.TLD	ERROR:550 Mailbox disabled for this recipient

This would prevent a recipient of badlocaluser in any of the local
domains (class {w}), any user at host.my.TLD, and the single address
user@other.my.TLD from receiving mail.  Please note: a local username
must be now tagged with an @ (this is consistent with the check of
the sender address, and hence it is possible to distinguish between
hostnames and usernames).  Enabling this feature will keep you from
sending mails to all addresses that have an error message or REJECT
as value part in the access map.  Taking the example from above:

	spammer@aol.com		REJECT
	cyberspammer.com	REJECT

Mail can't be sent to spammer@aol.com or anyone at cyberspammer.com.
That's why tagged entries should be used.

There are several DNS based blacklists which can be found by
querying a search engine.  These are databases of spammers
maintained in DNS.  To use such a database, specify

	FEATURE(`dnsbl', `dnsbl.example.com')

This will cause sendmail to reject mail from any site listed in the
DNS based blacklist.  You must select a DNS based blacklist domain
to check by specifying an argument to the FEATURE.  The default
error message is

	Rejected: IP-ADDRESS listed at SERVER

where IP-ADDRESS and SERVER are replaced by the appropriate
information.  A second argument can be used to specify a different
text or action.  For example,

	FEATURE(`dnsbl', `dnsbl.example.com', `quarantine')

would quarantine the message if the client IP address is listed
at `dnsbl.example.com'.

By default, temporary lookup failures are ignored
and hence cause the connection not to be rejected by the DNS based
rejection list.  This behavior can be changed by specifying a third
argument, which must be either `t' or a full error message.  For

	FEATURE(`dnsbl', `dnsbl.example.com', `',
	`"451 Temporary lookup failure for " $&{client_addr} " in dnsbl.example.com"')

If `t' is used, the error message is:

	451 Temporary lookup failure of IP-ADDRESS at SERVER

where IP-ADDRESS and SERVER are replaced by the appropriate

This FEATURE can be included several times to query different
DNS based rejection lists.

Notice: to avoid checking your own local domains against those
blacklists, use the access_db feature and add:

	Connect:10.1		OK
	Connect:	RELAY

to the access map, where 10.1 is your local network.  You may
want to use "RELAY" instead of "OK" to allow also relaying
instead of just disabling the DNS lookups in the blacklists.

The features described above make use of the check_relay, check_mail,
and check_rcpt rulesets.  Note that check_relay checks the SMTP
client hostname and IP address when the connection is made to your
server.  It does not check if a mail message is being relayed to
another server.  That check is done in check_rcpt.  If you wish to
include your own checks, you can put your checks in the rulesets
Local_check_relay, Local_check_mail, and Local_check_rcpt.  For
example if you wanted to block senders with all numeric usernames
(i.e. 2312343@bigisp.com), you would use Local_check_mail and the
regex map:

	Kallnumbers regex -a@MATCH ^[0-9]+$

	# check address against various regex checks
	R$*				$: $>Parse0 $>3 $1
	R$+ < @ bigisp.com. > $*	$: $(allnumbers $1 $)
	R@MATCH				$#error $: 553 Header Error

These rules are called with the original arguments of the corresponding
check_* ruleset.  If the local ruleset returns $#OK, no further checking
is done by the features described above and the mail is accepted.  If
the local ruleset resolves to a mailer (such as $#error or $#discard),
the appropriate action is taken.  Other results starting with $# are
interpreted by sendmail and may lead to unspecified behavior.  Note: do
NOT create a mailer with the name OK.  Return values that do not start
with $# are ignored, i.e., normal processing continues.

Delay all checks

By using FEATURE(`delay_checks') the rulesets check_mail and check_relay
will not be called when a client connects or issues a MAIL command,
respectively.  Instead, those rulesets will be called by the check_rcpt
ruleset; they will be skipped if a sender has been authenticated using
a "trusted" mechanism, i.e., one that is defined via TRUST_AUTH_MECH().
If check_mail returns an error then the RCPT TO command will be rejected
with that error.  If it returns some other result starting with $# then
check_relay will be skipped.  If the sender address (or a part of it) is
listed in the access map and it has a RHS of OK or RELAY, then check_relay
will be skipped.  This has an interesting side effect: if your domain is
my.domain and you have

	my.domain	RELAY

in the access map, then any e-mail with a sender address of
<user@my.domain> will not be rejected by check_relay even though
it would match the hostname or IP address.  This allows spammers
to get around DNS based blacklist by faking the sender address.  To
avoid this problem you have to use tagged entries:

	To:my.domain		RELAY
	Connect:my.domain	RELAY

if you need those entries at all (class {R} may take care of them).

FEATURE(`delay_checks') can take an optional argument:

	FEATURE(`delay_checks', `friend')
		 enables spamfriend test
	FEATURE(`delay_checks', `hater')
		 enables spamhater test

If such an argument is given, the recipient will be looked up in the
access map (using the tag Spam:).  If the argument is `friend', then
the default behavior is to apply the other rulesets and make a SPAM
friend the exception.  The rulesets check_mail and check_relay will be
skipped only if the recipient address is found and has RHS FRIEND.  If
the argument is `hater', then the default behavior is to skip the rulesets
check_mail and check_relay and make a SPAM hater the exception.  The
other two rulesets will be applied only if the recipient address is
found and has RHS HATER.

This allows for simple exceptions from the tests, e.g., by activating
the friend option and having

	Spam:abuse@	FRIEND

in the access map, mail to abuse@localdomain will get through (where
"localdomain" is any domain in class {w}).  It is also possible to
specify a full address or an address with +detail:

	Spam:abuse@my.domain	FRIEND
	Spam:me+abuse@		FRIEND
	Spam:spam.domain	FRIEND

Note: The required tag has been changed in 8.12 from To: to Spam:.
This change is incompatible to previous versions.  However, you can
(for now) simply add the new entries to the access map, the old
ones will be ignored.  As soon as you removed the old entries from
the access map, specify a third parameter (`n') to this feature and
the backward compatibility rules will not be in the generated .cf

Header Checks

You can also reject mail on the basis of the contents of headers.
This is done by adding a ruleset call to the 'H' header definition command
in sendmail.cf.  For example, this can be used to check the validity of
a Message-ID: header:

	HMessage-Id: $>CheckMessageId

	R< $+ @ $+ >		$@ OK
	R$*			$#error $: 553 Header Error

The alternative format:

	HSubject: $>+CheckSubject

that is, $>+ instead of $>, gives the full Subject: header including
comments to the ruleset (comments in parentheses () are stripped
by default).

A default ruleset for headers which don't have a specific ruleset
defined for them can be given by:

	H*: $>CheckHdr

1. All rules act on tokens as explained in doc/op/op.{me,ps,txt}.
That may cause problems with simple header checks due to the
tokenization.  It might be simpler to use a regex map and apply it
to $&{currHeader}.
2. There are no default rulesets coming with this distribution of
sendmail.  You can write your own, can search the WWW for examples,
or take a look at cf/cf/knecht.mc.
3. When using a default ruleset for headers, the name of the header
currently being checked can be found in the $&{hdr_name} macro.

After all of the headers are read, the check_eoh ruleset will be called for
any final header-related checks.  The ruleset is called with the number of
headers and the size of all of the headers in bytes separated by $|.  One
example usage is to reject messages which do not have a Message-Id:
header.  However, the Message-Id: header is *NOT* a required header and is
not a guaranteed spam indicator.  This ruleset is an example and should
probably not be used in production.

	Kstorage macro
	HMessage-Id: $>CheckMessageId

	# Record the presence of the header
	R$*			$: $(storage {MessageIdCheck} $@ OK $) $1
	R< $+ @ $+ >		$@ OK
	R$*			$#error $: 553 Header Error

	# Check the macro
	R$*			$: < $&{MessageIdCheck} >
	# Clear the macro for the next message
	R$*			$: $(storage {MessageIdCheck} $) $1
	# Has a Message-Id: header
	R< $+ >			$@ OK
	# Allow missing Message-Id: from local mail
	R$*			$: < $&{client_name} >
	R< >			$@ OK
	R< $=w >		$@ OK
	# Otherwise, reject the mail
	R$*			$#error $: 553 Header Error


The features ratecontrol and conncontrol allow to establish connection
limits per client IP address or net.  These features can limit the
rate of connections (connections per time unit) or the number of
incoming SMTP connections, respectively.  If enabled, appropriate
rulesets are called at the end of check_relay, i.e., after DNS
blacklists and generic access_db operations.  The features require
FEATURE(`access_db') to be listed earlier in the mc file.

Note: FEATURE(`delay_checks') delays those connection control checks
after a recipient address has been received, hence making these
connection control features less useful.  To run the checks as early
as possible, specify the parameter `nodelay', e.g.,

	FEATURE(`ratecontrol', `nodelay')

In that case, FEATURE(`delay_checks') has no effect on connection
control (and it must be specified earlier in the mc file).

An optional second argument `terminate' specifies whether the
rulesets should return the error code 421 which will cause
sendmail to terminate the session with that error if it is
returned from check_relay, i.e., not delayed as explained in
the previous paragraph.  Example:

	FEATURE(`ratecontrol', `nodelay', `terminate')


In this text, cert will be used as an abbreviation for X.509 certificate,
DN (CN) is the distinguished (common) name of a cert, and CA is a
certification authority, which signs (issues) certs.

For STARTTLS to be offered by sendmail you need to set at least
these variables (the file names and paths are just examples):

	define(`confCACERT_PATH', `/etc/mail/certs/')
	define(`confCACERT', `/etc/mail/certs/CA.cert.pem')
	define(`confSERVER_CERT', `/etc/mail/certs/my.cert.pem')
	define(`confSERVER_KEY', `/etc/mail/certs/my.key.pem')

On systems which do not have the compile flag HASURANDOM set (see
sendmail/README) you also must set confRAND_FILE.

See doc/op/op.{me,ps,txt} for more information about these options,
especially the sections ``Certificates for STARTTLS'' and ``PRNG for

Macros related to STARTTLS are:

${cert_issuer} holds the DN of the CA (the cert issuer).
${cert_subject} holds the DN of the cert (called the cert subject).
${cn_issuer} holds the CN of the CA (the cert issuer).
${cn_subject} holds the CN of the cert (called the cert subject).
${tls_version} the TLS/SSL version used for the connection, e.g., TLSv1,
	TLSv1/SSLv3, SSLv3, SSLv2.
${cipher} the cipher used for the connection, e.g., EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA,
${cipher_bits} the keylength (in bits) of the symmetric encryption algorithm
	used for the connection.
${verify} holds the result of the verification of the presented cert.
	Possible values are:
	OK	 verification succeeded.
	NO	 no cert presented.
	NOT	 no cert requested.
	FAIL	 cert presented but could not be verified,
		 e.g., the cert of the signing CA is missing.
	NONE	 STARTTLS has not been performed.
	TEMP	 temporary error occurred.
	PROTOCOL protocol error occurred (SMTP level).
	SOFTWARE STARTTLS handshake failed.
${server_name} the name of the server of the current outgoing SMTP
${server_addr} the address of the server of the current outgoing SMTP


SMTP STARTTLS can allow relaying for remote SMTP clients which have
successfully authenticated themselves.  If the verification of the cert
failed (${verify} != OK), relaying is subject to the usual rules.
Otherwise the DN of the issuer is looked up in the access map using the
tag CERTISSUER.  If the resulting value is RELAY, relaying is allowed.
If it is SUBJECT, the DN of the cert subject is looked up next in the
access map using the tag CERTSUBJECT.  If the value is RELAY, relaying
is allowed.

To make things a bit more flexible (or complicated), the values for
${cert_issuer} and ${cert_subject} can be optionally modified by regular
expressions defined in the m4 variables _CERT_REGEX_ISSUER_ and
_CERT_REGEX_SUBJECT_, respectively.  To avoid problems with those macros in
rulesets and map lookups, they are modified as follows: each non-printable
character and the characters '<', '>', '(', ')', '"', '+', ' ' are replaced
by their HEX value with a leading '+'.  For example:

/C=US/ST=California/O=endmail.org/OU=private/CN=Darth Mail (Cert)/Email=

is encoded as:


(line breaks have been inserted for readability).

The  macros  which are subject to this encoding are ${cert_subject},
${cert_issuer},  ${cn_subject},  and ${cn_issuer}.


To allow relaying for everyone who can present a cert signed by


simply use:

Darth+20Mail+20+28Cert+29/Email=darth+2Bcert@endmail.org	RELAY

To allow relaying only for a subset of machines that have a cert signed by



Darth+20Mail+20+28Cert+29/Email=darth+2Bcert@endmail.org	SUBJECT
DeathStar/Email=deathstar@endmail.org		RELAY

- line breaks have been inserted after "CN=" for readability,
  each tagged entry must be one (long) line in the access map.
- if OpenSSL 0.9.7 or newer is used then the "Email=" part of a DN
  is replaced by "emailAddress=".

Of course it is also possible to write a simple ruleset that allows
relaying for everyone who can present a cert that can be verified, e.g.,

R$*	$: $&{verify}

Allowing Connections

The rulesets tls_server, tls_client, and tls_rcpt are used to decide whether
an SMTP connection is accepted (or should continue).

tls_server is called when sendmail acts as client after a STARTTLS command
(should) have been issued.  The parameter is the value of ${verify}.

tls_client is called when sendmail acts as server, after a STARTTLS command
has been issued, and from check_mail.  The parameter is the value of
${verify} and STARTTLS or MAIL, respectively.

Both rulesets behave the same.  If no access map is in use, the connection
will be accepted unless ${verify} is SOFTWARE, in which case the connection
is always aborted.  For tls_server/tls_client, ${client_name}/${server_name}
is looked up in the access map using the tag TLS_Srv/TLS_Clt, which is done
with the ruleset LookUpDomain.  If no entry is found, ${client_addr}
(${server_addr}) is looked up in the access map (same tag, ruleset
LookUpAddr).  If this doesn't result in an entry either, just the tag is
looked up in the access map (included the trailing colon).  Notice:
requiring that e-mail is sent to a server only encrypted, e.g., via

TLS_Srv:secure.domain	ENCR:112

doesn't necessarily mean that e-mail sent to that domain is encrypted.
If the domain has multiple MX servers, e.g.,

secure.domain.	IN MX 10	mail.secure.domain.
secure.domain.	IN MX 50	mail.other.domain.

then mail to user@secure.domain may go unencrypted to mail.other.domain.
tls_rcpt can be used to address this problem.

tls_rcpt is called before a RCPT TO: command is sent.  The parameter is the
current recipient.  This ruleset is only defined if FEATURE(`access_db')
is selected.  A recipient address user@domain is looked up in the access
map in four formats: TLS_Rcpt:user@domain, TLS_Rcpt:user@, TLS_Rcpt:domain,
and TLS_Rcpt:; the first match is taken.

The result of the lookups is then used to call the ruleset TLS_connection,
which checks the requirement specified by the RHS in the access map against
the actual parameters of the current TLS connection, esp. ${verify} and
${cipher_bits}.  Legal RHSs in the access map are:

VERIFY		verification must have succeeded
VERIFY:bits	verification must have succeeded and ${cipher_bits} must
		be greater than or equal bits.
ENCR:bits	${cipher_bits} must be greater than or equal bits.

The RHS can optionally be prefixed by TEMP+ or PERM+ to select a temporary
or permanent error.  The default is a temporary error code (403 4.7.0)
unless the macro TLS_PERM_ERR is set during generation of the .cf file.

If a certain level of encryption is required, then it might also be
possible that this level is provided by the security layer from a SASL
algorithm, e.g., DIGEST-MD5.

Furthermore, there can be a list of extensions added.  Such a list
starts with '+' and the items are separated by '++'.  Allowed
extensions are:

CN:name		name must match ${cn_subject}
CN		${client_name}/${server_name} must match ${cn_subject}
CS:name		name must match ${cert_subject}
CI:name		name must match ${cert_issuer}

Example: e-mail sent to secure.example.com should only use an encrypted
connection.  E-mail received from hosts within the laptop.example.com domain
should only be accepted if they have been authenticated.  The host which
receives e-mail for darth@endmail.org must present a cert that uses the
CN smtp.endmail.org.

TLS_Srv:secure.example.com      ENCR:112
TLS_Clt:laptop.example.com      PERM+VERIFY:112
TLS_Rcpt:darth@endmail.org	ENCR:112+CN:smtp.endmail.org

Disabling STARTTLS And Setting SMTP Server Features

By default STARTTLS is used whenever possible.  However, there are
some broken MTAs that don't properly implement STARTTLS.  To be able
to send to (or receive from) those MTAs, the ruleset try_tls
(srv_features) can be used that work together with the access map.
Entries for the access map must be tagged with Try_TLS (Srv_Features)
and refer to the hostname or IP address of the connecting system.
A default case can be specified by using just the tag.  For example,
the following entries in the access map:

	Try_TLS:broken.server	NO
	Srv_Features:my.domain	v
	Srv_Features:		V

will turn off STARTTLS when sending to broken.server (or any host
in that domain), and request a client certificate during the TLS
handshake only for hosts in my.domain.  The valid entries on the RHS
for Srv_Features are listed in the Sendmail Installation and
Operations Guide.

Received: Header

The Received: header reveals whether STARTTLS has been used.  It contains an
extra line:

(version=${tls_version} cipher=${cipher} bits=${cipher_bits} verify=${verify})


The macros ${auth_authen}, ${auth_author}, and ${auth_type} can be
used in anti-relay rulesets to allow relaying for those users that
authenticated themselves.  A very simple example is:

R$*		$: $&{auth_type}
R$+		$# OK

which checks whether a user has successfully authenticated using
any available mechanism.  Depending on the setup of the Cyrus SASL
library, more sophisticated rulesets might be required, e.g.,

R$*		$: $&{auth_type} $| $&{auth_authen}
RDIGEST-MD5 $| $+@$=w	$# OK

to allow relaying for users that authenticated using DIGEST-MD5
and have an identity in the local domains.

The ruleset trust_auth is used to determine whether a given AUTH=
parameter (that is passed to this ruleset) should be trusted.  This
ruleset may make use of the other ${auth_*} macros.  Only if the
ruleset resolves to the error mailer, the AUTH= parameter is not
trusted.  A user supplied ruleset Local_trust_auth can be written
to modify the default behavior, which only trust the AUTH=
parameter if it is identical to the authenticated user.

Per default, relaying is allowed for any user who authenticated
via a "trusted" mechanism, i.e., one that is defined via
TRUST_AUTH_MECH(`list of mechanisms')
For example:

If the selected mechanism provides a security layer the number of
bits used for the key of the symmetric cipher is stored in the
macro ${auth_ssf}.

Providing SMTP AUTH Data when sendmail acts as Client

If sendmail acts as client, it needs some information how to
authenticate against another MTA.  This information can be provided
by the ruleset authinfo or by the option DefaultAuthInfo.  The
authinfo ruleset looks up {server_name} using the tag AuthInfo: in
the access map.  If no entry is found, {server_addr} is looked up
in the same way and finally just the tag AuthInfo: to provide
default values.  Note: searches for domain parts or IP nets are
only performed if the access map is used; if the authinfo feature
is used then only up to three lookups are performed (two exact
matches, one default).

Note: If your daemon does client authentication when sending, and
if it uses either PLAIN or LOGIN authentication, then you *must*
prevent ordinary users from seeing verbose output.  Do NOT install
sendmail set-user-ID.  Use PrivacyOptions to turn off verbose output
("goaway" works for this).

Notice: the default configuration file causes the option DefaultAuthInfo
to fail since the ruleset authinfo is in the .cf file. If you really
want to use DefaultAuthInfo (it is deprecated) then you have to
remove the ruleset.

The RHS for an AuthInfo: entry in the access map should consists of a
list of tokens, each of which has the form: "TDstring" (including
the quotes).  T is a tag which describes the item, D is a delimiter,
either ':' for simple text or '=' for a base64 encoded string.
Valid values for the tag are:

	U	user (authorization) id
	I	authentication id
	P	password
	R	realm
	M	list of mechanisms delimited by spaces

Example entries are:

AuthInfo:other.dom "U:user" "I:user" "P:secret" "R:other.dom" "M:DIGEST-MD5"
AuthInfo:host.more.dom "U:user" "P=c2VjcmV0"

User id or authentication id must exist as well as the password.  All
other entries have default values.  If one of user or authentication
id is missing, the existing value is used for the missing item.
If "R:" is not specified, realm defaults to $j.  The list of mechanisms
defaults to those specified by AuthMechanisms.

Since this map contains sensitive information, either the access
map must be unreadable by everyone but root (or the trusted user)
or FEATURE(`authinfo') must be used which provides a separate map.
Notice: It is not checked whether the map is actually
group/world-unreadable, this is left to the user.


Sometimes you may need to add entirely new mailers or rulesets.  They
should be introduced with the constructs MAILER_DEFINITIONS and
LOCAL_RULESETS respectively.  For example:

	Mmymailer, ...


Local additions for the rulesets srv_features, try_tls, tls_rcpt,
tls_client, and tls_server can be made using LOCAL_SRV_FEATURES,
respectively.  For example, to add a local ruleset that decides
whether to try STARTTLS in a sendmail client, use:


Note: you don't need to add a name for the ruleset, it is implicitly
defined by using the appropriate macro.


Sendmail supports mail filters to filter incoming SMTP messages according
to the "Sendmail Mail Filter API" documentation.  These filters can be
configured in your mc file using the two commands:

	MAIL_FILTER(`name', `equates')
	INPUT_MAIL_FILTER(`name', `equates')

The first command, MAIL_FILTER(), simply defines a filter with the given
name and equates.  For example:

	MAIL_FILTER(`archive', `S=local:/var/run/archivesock, F=R')

This creates the equivalent sendmail.cf entry:

	Xarchive, S=local:/var/run/archivesock, F=R

The INPUT_MAIL_FILTER() command performs the same actions as MAIL_FILTER
but also populates the m4 variable `confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS' with the name
of the filter such that the filter will actually be called by sendmail.

For example, the two commands:

	INPUT_MAIL_FILTER(`archive', `S=local:/var/run/archivesock, F=R')
	INPUT_MAIL_FILTER(`spamcheck', `S=inet:2525@localhost, F=T')

are equivalent to the three commands:

	MAIL_FILTER(`archive', `S=local:/var/run/archivesock, F=R')
	MAIL_FILTER(`spamcheck', `S=inet:2525@localhost, F=T')
	define(`confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS', `archive, spamcheck')

In general, INPUT_MAIL_FILTER() should be used unless you need to define
more filters than you want to use for `confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS'.

Note that setting `confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS' after any INPUT_MAIL_FILTER()
commands will clear the list created by the prior INPUT_MAIL_FILTER()


In addition to the queue directory (which is the default queue group
called "mqueue"), sendmail can deal with multiple queue groups, which
are collections of queue directories with the same behaviour.  Queue
groups can be defined using the command:

	QUEUE_GROUP(`name', `equates')

For details about queue groups, please see doc/op/op.{me,ps,txt}.


These configuration files are designed primarily for use by
SMTP-based sites.  They may not be well tuned for UUCP-only or
UUCP-primarily nodes (the latter is defined as a small local net
connected to the rest of the world via UUCP).  However, there is
one hook to handle some special cases.

You can define a ``smart host'' that understands a richer address syntax

	define(`SMART_HOST', `mailer:hostname')

In this case, the ``mailer:'' defaults to "relay".  Any messages that
can't be handled using the usual UUCP rules are passed to this host.

If you are on a local SMTP-based net that connects to the outside
world via UUCP, you can use LOCAL_NET_CONFIG to add appropriate rules.
For example:

	define(`SMART_HOST', `uucp-new:uunet')
	R$* < @ $* .$m. > $*	$#smtp $@ $2.$m. $: $1 < @ $2.$m. > $3

This will cause all names that end in your domain name ($m) to be sent
via SMTP; anything else will be sent via uucp-new (smart UUCP) to uunet.
If you have FEATURE(`nocanonify'), you may need to omit the dots after
the $m.  If you are running a local DNS inside your domain which is
not otherwise connected to the outside world, you probably want to

	define(`SMART_HOST', `smtp:fire.wall.com')
	R$* < @ $* . > $*	$#smtp $@ $2. $: $1 < @ $2. > $3

That is, send directly only to things you found in your DNS lookup;
anything else goes through SMART_HOST.

You may need to turn off the anti-spam rules in order to accept
UUCP mail with FEATURE(`promiscuous_relay') and

| WHO AM I? |

Normally, the $j macro is automatically defined to be your fully
qualified domain name (FQDN).  Sendmail does this by getting your
host name using gethostname and then calling gethostbyname on the
result.  For example, in some environments gethostname returns
only the root of the host name (such as "foo"); gethostbyname is
supposed to return the FQDN ("foo.bar.com").  In some (fairly rare)
cases, gethostbyname may fail to return the FQDN.  In this case
you MUST define confDOMAIN_NAME to be your fully qualified domain
name.  This is usually done using:

	define(`confDOMAIN_NAME', `$w.$m')dnl


If your host is known by several different names, you need to augment
class {w}.  This is a list of names by which your host is known, and
anything sent to an address using a host name in this list will be
treated as local mail.  You can do this in two ways:  either create the
file /etc/mail/local-host-names containing a list of your aliases (one per
line), and use ``FEATURE(`use_cw_file')'' in the .mc file, or add
``LOCAL_DOMAIN(`alias.host.name')''.  Be sure you use the fully-qualified
name of the host, rather than a short name.

If you want to have different address in different domains, take
a look at the virtusertable feature, which is also explained at


To use FEATURE(`mailertable'), you will have to create an external
database containing the routing information for various domains.
For example, a mailertable file in text format might be:

	.my.domain		xnet:%1.my.domain
	uuhost1.my.domain	uucp-new:uuhost1
	.bitnet			smtp:relay.bit.net

This should normally be stored in /etc/mail/mailertable.  The actual
database version of the mailertable is built using:

	makemap hash /etc/mail/mailertable < /etc/mail/mailertable

The semantics are simple.  Any LHS entry that does not begin with
a dot matches the full host name indicated.  LHS entries beginning
with a dot match anything ending with that domain name (including
the leading dot) -- that is, they can be thought of as having a
leading ".+" regular expression pattern for a non-empty sequence of
characters.  Matching is done in order of most-to-least qualified
-- for example, even though ".my.domain" is listed first in the
above example, an entry of "uuhost1.my.domain" will match the second
entry since it is more explicit.  Note: e-mail to "user@my.domain"
does not match any entry in the above table.  You need to have
something like:

	my.domain		esmtp:host.my.domain

The RHS should always be a "mailer:host" pair.  The mailer is the
configuration name of a mailer (that is, an M line in the
sendmail.cf file).  The "host" will be the hostname passed to
that mailer.  In domain-based matches (that is, those with leading
dots) the "%1" may be used to interpolate the wildcarded part of
the host name.  For example, the first line above sends everything
addressed to "anything.my.domain" to that same host name, but using
the (presumably experimental) xnet mailer.

In some cases you may want to temporarily turn off MX records,
particularly on gateways.  For example, you may want to MX
everything in a domain to one machine that then forwards it
directly.  To do this, you might use the DNS configuration:

	*.domain.	IN	MX	0	relay.machine

and on relay.machine use the mailertable:

	.domain		smtp:[gateway.domain]

The [square brackets] turn off MX records for this host only.
If you didn't do this, the mailertable would use the MX record
again, which would give you an MX loop.  Note that the use of
wildcard MX records is almost always a bad idea.  Please avoid
using them if possible.


The user database was not originally intended for mapping full names
to login names (e.g., Eric.Allman => eric), but some people are using
it that way.  (it is recommended that you set up aliases for this
purpose instead -- since you can specify multiple alias files, this
is fairly easy.)  The intent was to locate the default maildrop at
a site, but allow you to override this by sending to a specific host.

If you decide to set up the user database in this fashion, it is
imperative that you not use FEATURE(`stickyhost') -- otherwise,
e-mail sent to Full.Name@local.host.name will be rejected.

To build the internal form of the user database, use:

	makemap btree /etc/mail/userdb < /etc/mail/userdb.txt

As a general rule, it is an extremely bad idea to using full names
as e-mail addresses, since they are not in any sense unique.  For
example, the UNIX software-development community has at least two
well-known Peter Deutsches, and at one time Bell Labs had two
Stephen R. Bournes with offices along the same hallway.  Which one
will be forced to suffer the indignity of being Stephen_R_Bourne_2?
The less famous of the two, or the one that was hired later?

Finger should handle full names (and be fuzzy).  Mail should use
handles, and not be fuzzy.


Plussed users
	Sometimes it is convenient to merge configuration on a
	centralized mail machine, for example, to forward all
	root mail to a mail server.  In this case it might be
	useful to be able to treat the root addresses as a class
	of addresses with subtle differences.  You can do this
	using plussed users.  For example, a client might include
	the alias:

		root:  root+client1@server

	On the server, this will match an alias for "root+client1".
	If that is not found, the alias "root+*" will be tried,
	then "root".


A lot of sendmail security comes down to you.  Sendmail 8 is much
more careful about checking for security problems than previous
versions, but there are some things that you still need to watch
for.  In particular:

* Make sure the aliases file is not writable except by trusted
  system personnel.  This includes both the text and database

* Make sure that other files that sendmail reads, such as the
  mailertable, are only writable by trusted system personnel.

* The queue directory should not be world writable PARTICULARLY
  if your system allows "file giveaways" (that is, if a non-root
  user can chown any file they own to any other user).

* If your system allows file giveaways, DO NOT create a publically
  writable directory for forward files.  This will allow anyone
  to steal anyone else's e-mail.  Instead, create a script that
  copies the .forward file from users' home directories once a
  night (if you want the non-NFS-mounted forward directory).

* If your system allows file giveaways, you'll find that
  sendmail is much less trusting of :include: files -- in
  particular, you'll have to have /SENDMAIL/ANY/SHELL/ in
  /etc/shells before they will be trusted (that is, before
  files and programs listed in them will be honored).

In general, file giveaways are a mistake -- if you can turn them
off, do so.


There are a large number of configuration options that don't normally
need to be changed.  However, if you feel you need to tweak them,
you can define the following M4 variables. Note that some of these
variables require formats that are defined in RFC 2821 or RFC 2822.
Before changing them you need to make sure you do not violate those
(and other relevant) RFCs.

This list is shown in four columns:  the name you define, the default
value for that definition, the option or macro that is affected
(either Ox for an option or Dx for a macro), and a brief description.
Greater detail of the semantics can be found in the Installation
and Operations Guide.

Some options are likely to be deprecated in future versions -- that is,
the option is only included to provide back-compatibility.  These are
marked with "*".

Remember that these options are M4 variables, and hence may need to
be quoted.  In particular, arguments with commas will usually have to
be ``double quoted, like this phrase'' to avoid having the comma
confuse things.  This is common for alias file definitions and for
the read timeout.

M4 Variable Name	Configuration	[Default] & Description
================	=============	=======================
confMAILER_NAME		$n macro	[MAILER-DAEMON] The sender name used
					for internally generated outgoing
confDOMAIN_NAME		$j macro	If defined, sets $j.  This should
					only be done if your system cannot
					determine your local domain name,
					and then it should be set to
					$w.Foo.COM, where Foo.COM is your
					domain name.
confCF_VERSION		$Z macro	If defined, this is appended to the
					configuration version name.
confLDAP_CLUSTER	${sendmailMTACluster} macro
					If defined, this is the LDAP
					cluster to use for LDAP searches
					as described above in ``USING LDAP
confFROM_HEADER		From:		[$?x$x <$g>$|$g$.] The format of an
					internally generated From: address.
		[$?sfrom $s $.$?_($?s$|from $.$_)
			$.by $j ($v/$Z)$?r with $r$. id $i$?u
			for $u; $|;
					The format of the Received: header
					in messages passed through this host.
					It is unwise to try to change this.
confMESSAGEID_HEADER	Message-Id:	[<$t.$i@$j>] The format of an
					internally generated Message-Id:
confCW_FILE		Fw class	[/etc/mail/local-host-names] Name
					of file used to get the local
					additions to class {w} (local host
confCT_FILE		Ft class	[/etc/mail/trusted-users] Name of
					file used to get the local additions
					to class {t} (trusted users).
confCR_FILE		FR class	[/etc/mail/relay-domains] Name of
					file used to get the local additions
					to class {R} (hosts allowed to relay).
confTRUSTED_USERS	Ct class	[no default] Names of users to add to
					the list of trusted users.  This list
					always includes root, uucp, and daemon.
					See also FEATURE(`use_ct_file').
confTRUSTED_USER	TrustedUser	[no default] Trusted user for file
					ownership and starting the daemon.
					Not to be confused with
					confTRUSTED_USERS (see above).
confSMTP_MAILER		-		[esmtp] The mailer name used when
					SMTP connectivity is required.
					One of "smtp", "smtp8",
					"esmtp", or "dsmtp".
confUUCP_MAILER		-		[uucp-old] The mailer to be used by
					default for bang-format recipient
					addresses.  See also discussion of
					class {U}, class {Y}, and class {Z}
					in the MAILER(`uucp') section.
confLOCAL_MAILER	-		[local] The mailer name used when
					local connectivity is required.
					Almost always "local".
confRELAY_MAILER	-		[relay] The default mailer name used
					for relaying any mail (e.g., to a
					whatever).  This can reasonably be
					"uucp-new" if you are on a
					UUCP-connected site.
confSEVEN_BIT_INPUT	SevenBitInput	[False] Force input to seven bits?
confEIGHT_BIT_HANDLING	EightBitMode	[pass8] 8-bit data handling
confALIAS_WAIT		AliasWait	[10m] Time to wait for alias file
					rebuild until you get bored and
					decide that the apparently pending
					rebuild failed.
confMIN_FREE_BLOCKS	MinFreeBlocks	[100] Minimum number of free blocks on
					queue filesystem to accept SMTP mail.
					(Prior to 8.7 this was minfree/maxsize,
					where minfree was the number of free
					blocks and maxsize was the maximum
					message size.  Use confMAX_MESSAGE_SIZE
					for the second value now.)
confMAX_MESSAGE_SIZE	MaxMessageSize	[infinite] The maximum size of messages
					that will be accepted (in bytes).
confBLANK_SUB		BlankSub	[.] Blank (space) substitution
confCON_EXPENSIVE	HoldExpensive	[False] Avoid connecting immediately
					to mailers marked expensive.
confCHECKPOINT_INTERVAL	CheckpointInterval
					[10] Checkpoint queue files every N
confDELIVERY_MODE	DeliveryMode	[background] Default delivery mode.
confERROR_MODE		ErrorMode	[print] Error message mode.
confERROR_MESSAGE	ErrorHeader	[undefined] Error message header/file.
confSAVE_FROM_LINES	SaveFromLine	Save extra leading From_ lines.
confTEMP_FILE_MODE	TempFileMode	[0600] Temporary file mode.
confMATCH_GECOS		MatchGECOS	[False] Match GECOS field.
confMAX_HOP		MaxHopCount	[25] Maximum hop count.
confIGNORE_DOTS*	IgnoreDots	[False; always False in -bs or -bd
					mode] Ignore dot as terminator for
					incoming messages?
confBIND_OPTS		ResolverOptions	[undefined] Default options for DNS
confMIME_FORMAT_ERRORS*	SendMimeErrors	[True] Send error messages as MIME-
					encapsulated messages per RFC 1344.
confFORWARD_PATH	ForwardPath	[$z/.forward.$w:$z/.forward]
					The colon-separated list of places to
					search for .forward files.  N.B.: see
					the Security Notes section.
confMCI_CACHE_SIZE	ConnectionCacheSize
					[2] Size of open connection cache.
confMCI_CACHE_TIMEOUT	ConnectionCacheTimeout
					[5m] Open connection cache timeout.
confHOST_STATUS_DIRECTORY HostStatusDirectory
					[undefined] If set, host status is kept
					on disk between sendmail runs in the
					named directory tree.  This need not be
					a full pathname, in which case it is
					interpreted relative to the queue
confSINGLE_THREAD_DELIVERY  SingleThreadDelivery
					[False] If this option and the
					HostStatusDirectory option are both
					set, single thread deliveries to other
					hosts.  That is, don't allow any two
					sendmails on this host to connect
					simultaneously to any other single
					host.  This can slow down delivery in
					some cases, in particular since a
					cached but otherwise idle connection
					to a host will prevent other sendmails
					from connecting to the other host.
confUSE_ERRORS_TO*	UseErrorsTo	[False] Use the Errors-To: header to
					deliver error messages.  This should
					not be necessary because of general
					acceptance of the envelope/header
confLOG_LEVEL		LogLevel	[9] Log level.
confME_TOO		MeToo		[True] Include sender in group
					expansions.  This option is
					deprecated and will be removed from
					a future version.
confCHECK_ALIASES	CheckAliases	[False] Check RHS of aliases when
					running newaliases.  Since this does
					DNS lookups on every address, it can
					slow down the alias rebuild process
					considerably on large alias files.
confOLD_STYLE_HEADERS*	OldStyleHeaders	[True] Assume that headers without
					special chars are old style.
confPRIVACY_FLAGS	PrivacyOptions	[authwarnings] Privacy flags.
confCOPY_ERRORS_TO	PostmasterCopy	[undefined] Address for additional
					copies of all error messages.
confQUEUE_FACTOR	QueueFactor	[600000] Slope of queue-only function.
confQUEUE_FILE_MODE	QueueFileMode	[undefined] Default permissions for
					queue files (octal).  If not set,
					sendmail uses 0600 unless its real
					and effective uid are different in
					which case it uses 0644.
confDONT_PRUNE_ROUTES	DontPruneRoutes	[False] Don't prune down route-addr
					syntax addresses to the minimum
confSAFE_QUEUE*		SuperSafe	[True] Commit all messages to disk
					before forking.
confTO_INITIAL		Timeout.initial	[5m] The timeout waiting for a response
					on the initial connect.
confTO_CONNECT		Timeout.connect	[0] The timeout waiting for an initial
					connect() to complete.  This can only
					shorten connection timeouts; the kernel
					silently enforces an absolute maximum
					(which varies depending on the system).
confTO_ICONNECT		Timeout.iconnect
					[undefined] Like Timeout.connect, but
					applies only to the very first attempt
					to connect to a host in a message.
					This allows a single very fast pass
					followed by more careful delivery
					attempts in the future.
confTO_ACONNECT		Timeout.aconnect
					[0] The overall timeout waiting for
					all connection for a single delivery
					attempt to succeed.  If 0, no overall
					limit is applied.
confTO_HELO		Timeout.helo	[5m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to a HELO or EHLO command.
confTO_MAIL		Timeout.mail	[10m] The timeout waiting for a
					response to the MAIL command.
confTO_RCPT		Timeout.rcpt	[1h] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the RCPT command.
confTO_DATAINIT		Timeout.datainit
					[5m] The timeout waiting for a 354
					response from the DATA command.
confTO_DATABLOCK	Timeout.datablock
					[1h] The timeout waiting for a block
					during DATA phase.
confTO_DATAFINAL	Timeout.datafinal
					[1h] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the final "." that terminates a
confTO_RSET		Timeout.rset	[5m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the RSET command.
confTO_QUIT		Timeout.quit	[2m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the QUIT command.
confTO_MISC		Timeout.misc	[2m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to other SMTP commands.
confTO_COMMAND		Timeout.command	[1h] In server SMTP, the timeout
					waiting	for a command to be issued.
confTO_IDENT		Timeout.ident	[5s] The timeout waiting for a
					response to an IDENT query.
confTO_FILEOPEN		Timeout.fileopen
					[60s] The timeout waiting for a file
					(e.g., :include: file) to be opened.
confTO_LHLO		Timeout.lhlo	[2m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to an LMTP LHLO command.
confTO_AUTH		Timeout.auth	[10m] The timeout waiting for a
					response in an AUTH dialogue.
confTO_STARTTLS		Timeout.starttls
					[1h] The timeout waiting for a
					response to an SMTP STARTTLS command.
confTO_CONTROL		Timeout.control
					[2m] The timeout for a complete
					control socket transaction to complete.
confTO_QUEUERETURN	Timeout.queuereturn
					[5d] The timeout before a message is
					returned as undeliverable.
					[undefined] As above, for normal
					priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for urgent
					priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for non-urgent
					(low) priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for delivery
					status notification messages.
confTO_QUEUEWARN	Timeout.queuewarn
					[4h] The timeout before a warning
					message is sent to the sender telling
					them that the message has been
confTO_QUEUEWARN_NORMAL	Timeout.queuewarn.normal
					[undefined] As above, for normal
					priority messages.
confTO_QUEUEWARN_URGENT	Timeout.queuewarn.urgent
					[undefined] As above, for urgent
					priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for non-urgent
					(low) priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for delivery
					status notification messages.
confTO_HOSTSTATUS	Timeout.hoststatus
					[30m] How long information about host
					statuses will be maintained before it
					is considered stale and the host should
					be retried.  This applies both within
					a single queue run and to persistent
					information (see below).
confTO_RESOLVER_RETRANS	Timeout.resolver.retrans
					[varies] Sets the resolver's
					retransmission time interval (in
					seconds).  Sets both
					Timeout.resolver.retrans.first and
confTO_RESOLVER_RETRANS_FIRST  Timeout.resolver.retrans.first
					[varies] Sets the resolver's
					retransmission time interval (in
					seconds) for the first attempt to
					deliver a message.
confTO_RESOLVER_RETRANS_NORMAL  Timeout.resolver.retrans.normal
					[varies] Sets the resolver's
					retransmission time interval (in
					seconds) for all resolver lookups
					except the first delivery attempt.
confTO_RESOLVER_RETRY	Timeout.resolver.retry
					[varies] Sets the number of times
					to retransmit a resolver query.
					Sets both
					Timeout.resolver.retry.first and
confTO_RESOLVER_RETRY_FIRST  Timeout.resolver.retry.first
					[varies] Sets the number of times
					to retransmit a resolver query for
					the first attempt to deliver a
confTO_RESOLVER_RETRY_NORMAL  Timeout.resolver.retry.normal
					[varies] Sets the number of times
					to retransmit a resolver query for
					all resolver lookups except the
					first delivery attempt.
confTIME_ZONE		TimeZoneSpec	[USE_SYSTEM] Time zone info -- can be
					USE_SYSTEM to use the system's idea,
					USE_TZ to use the user's TZ envariable,
					or something else to force that value.
confDEF_USER_ID		DefaultUser	[1:1] Default user id.
confUSERDB_SPEC		UserDatabaseSpec
					[undefined] User database
confFALLBACK_MX		FallbackMXhost	[undefined] Fallback MX host.
confFALLBACK_SMARTHOST	FallbackSmartHost
					[undefined] Fallback smart host.
confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST	TryNullMXList	[False] If this host is the best MX
					for a host and other arrangements
					haven't been made, try connecting
					to the host directly; normally this
					would be a config error.
confQUEUE_LA		QueueLA		[varies] Load average at which
					queue-only function kicks in.
					Default values is (8 * numproc)
					where numproc is the number of
					processors online (if that can be
confREFUSE_LA		RefuseLA	[varies] Load average at which
					incoming SMTP connections are
					refused.  Default values is (12 *
					numproc) where numproc is the
					number of processors online (if
					that can be determined).
confREJECT_LOG_INTERVAL	RejectLogInterval	[3h] Log interval when
					refusing connections for this long.
confDELAY_LA		DelayLA		[0] Load average at which sendmail
					will sleep for one second on most
					SMTP commands and before accepting
					connections.  0 means no limit.
confMAX_ALIAS_RECURSION	MaxAliasRecursion
					[10] Maximum depth of alias recursion.
confMAX_DAEMON_CHILDREN	MaxDaemonChildren
					[undefined] The maximum number of
					children the daemon will permit.  After
					this number, connections will be
					rejected.  If not set or <= 0, there is
					no limit.
confMAX_HEADERS_LENGTH	MaxHeadersLength
					[32768] Maximum length of the sum
					of all headers.
confMAX_MIME_HEADER_LENGTH  MaxMimeHeaderLength
					[undefined] Maximum length of
					certain MIME header field values.
confCONNECTION_RATE_THROTTLE ConnectionRateThrottle
					[undefined] The maximum number of
					connections permitted per second per
					daemon.  After this many connections
					are accepted, further connections
					will be delayed.  If not set or <= 0,
					there is no limit.
confCONNECTION_RATE_WINDOW_SIZE ConnectionRateWindowSize
					[60s] Define the length of the
					interval for which the number of
					incoming connections is maintained.
			RecipientFactor	[30000] Cost of each recipient.
confSEPARATE_PROC	ForkEachJob	[False] Run all deliveries in a
					separate process.
confWORK_CLASS_FACTOR	ClassFactor	[1800] Priority multiplier for class.
confWORK_TIME_FACTOR	RetryFactor	[90000] Cost of each delivery attempt.
confQUEUE_SORT_ORDER	QueueSortOrder	[Priority] Queue sort algorithm:
					Priority, Host, Filename, Random,
					Modification, or Time.
confMIN_QUEUE_AGE	MinQueueAge	[0] The minimum amount of time a job
					must sit in the queue between queue
					runs.  This allows you to set the
					queue run interval low for better
					responsiveness without trying all
					jobs in each run.
confDEF_CHAR_SET	DefaultCharSet	[unknown-8bit] When converting
					unlabeled 8 bit input to MIME, the
					character set to use by default.
confSERVICE_SWITCH_FILE	ServiceSwitchFile
					[/etc/mail/service.switch] The file
					to use for the service switch on
					systems that do not have a
					system-defined switch.
confHOSTS_FILE		HostsFile	[/etc/hosts] The file to use when doing
					"file" type access of hosts names.
confDIAL_DELAY		DialDelay	[0s] If a connection fails, wait this
					long and try again.  Zero means "don't
					retry".  This is to allow "dial on
					demand" connections to have enough time
					to complete a connection.
confNO_RCPT_ACTION	NoRecipientAction
					[none] What to do if there are no legal
					recipient fields (To:, Cc: or Bcc:)
					in the message.  Legal values can
					be "none" to just leave the
					nonconforming message as is, "add-to"
					to add a To: header with all the
					known recipients (which may expose
					blind recipients), "add-apparently-to"
					to do the same but use Apparently-To:
					instead of To: (strongly discouraged
					in accordance with IETF standards),
					"add-bcc" to add an empty Bcc:
					header, or "add-to-undisclosed" to
					add the header
					``To: undisclosed-recipients:;''.
confSAFE_FILE_ENV	SafeFileEnvironment
					[undefined] If set, sendmail will do a
					chroot() into this directory before
					writing files.
confCOLON_OK_IN_ADDR	ColonOkInAddr	[True unless Configuration Level > 6]
					If set, colons are treated as a regular
					character in addresses.  If not set,
					they are treated as the introducer to
					the RFC 822 "group" syntax.  Colons are
					handled properly in route-addrs.  This
					option defaults on for V5 and lower
					configuration files.
confMAX_QUEUE_RUN_SIZE	MaxQueueRunSize	[0] If set, limit the maximum size of
					any given queue run to this number of
					entries.  Essentially, this will stop
					reading each queue directory after this
					number of entries are reached; it does
					_not_ pick the highest priority jobs,
					so this should be as large as your
					system can tolerate.  If not set, there
					is no limit.
confMAX_QUEUE_CHILDREN	MaxQueueChildren
					[undefined] Limits the maximum number
					of concurrent queue runners active.
					This is to keep system resources used
					within a reasonable limit.  Relates to
					Queue Groups and ForkEachJob.
confMAX_RUNNERS_PER_QUEUE	MaxRunnersPerQueue
					[1] Only active when MaxQueueChildren
					defined.  Controls the maximum number
					of queue runners (aka queue children)
					active at the same time in a work
					group.  See also MaxQueueChildren.
confDONT_EXPAND_CNAMES	DontExpandCnames
					[False] If set, $[ ... $] lookups that
					do DNS based lookups do not expand
					CNAME records.  This currently violates
					the published standards, but the IETF
					seems to be moving toward legalizing
					this.  For example, if "FTP.Foo.ORG"
					is a CNAME for "Cruft.Foo.ORG", then
					with this option set a lookup of
					"FTP" will return "FTP.Foo.ORG"; if
					clear it returns "Cruft.FOO.ORG".  N.B.
					you may not see any effect until your
					downstream neighbors stop doing CNAME
					lookups as well.
confFROM_LINE		UnixFromLine	[From $g $d] The From_ line used
					when sending to files or programs.
confSINGLE_LINE_FROM_HEADER  SingleLineFromHeader
					[False] From: lines that have
					embedded newlines are unwrapped
					onto one line.
confALLOW_BOGUS_HELO	AllowBogusHELO	[False] Allow HELO SMTP command that
					does not include a host name.
confMUST_QUOTE_CHARS	MustQuoteChars	[.'] Characters to be quoted in a full
					name phrase (@,;:\()[] are automatic).
confOPERATORS		OperatorChars	[.:%@!^/[]+] Address operator
confSMTP_LOGIN_MSG	SmtpGreetingMessage
					[$j Sendmail $v/$Z; $b]
					The initial (spontaneous) SMTP
					greeting message.  The word "ESMTP"
					will be inserted between the first and
					second words to convince other
					sendmails to try to speak ESMTP.
confDONT_INIT_GROUPS	DontInitGroups	[False] If set, the initgroups(3)
					routine will never be invoked.  You
					might want to do this if you are
					running NIS and you have a large group
					map, since this call does a sequential
					scan of the map; in a large site this
					can cause your ypserv to run
					essentially full time.  If you set
					this, agents run on behalf of users
					will only have their primary
					(/etc/passwd) group permissions.
confUNSAFE_GROUP_WRITES	UnsafeGroupWrites
					[True] If set, group-writable
					:include: and .forward files are
					considered "unsafe", that is, programs
					and files cannot be directly referenced
					from such files.  World-writable files
					are always considered unsafe.
					Notice: this option is deprecated and
					will be removed in future versions;
					Set GroupWritableForwardFileSafe
					and GroupWritableIncludeFileSafe in
					DontBlameSendmail if required.
confCONNECT_ONLY_TO	ConnectOnlyTo	[undefined] override connection
					address (for testing).
confCONTROL_SOCKET_NAME	ControlSocketName
					[undefined] Control socket for daemon
confDOUBLE_BOUNCE_ADDRESS  DoubleBounceAddress
					[postmaster] If an error occurs when
					sending an error message, send that
					"double bounce" error message to this
					address.  If it expands to an empty
					string, double bounces are dropped.
confSOFT_BOUNCE		SoftBounce	[False] If set, issue temporary errors
					(4xy) instead of permanent errors
					(5xy).  This can be useful during
					testing of a new configuration to
					avoid erroneous bouncing of mails.
confDEAD_LETTER_DROP	DeadLetterDrop	[undefined] Filename to save bounce
					messages which could not be returned
					to the user or sent to postmaster.
					If not set, the queue file will
					be renamed.
confRRT_IMPLIES_DSN	RrtImpliesDsn	[False] Return-Receipt-To: header
					implies DSN request.
confRUN_AS_USER		RunAsUser	[undefined] If set, become this user
					when reading and delivering mail.
					Causes all file reads (e.g., .forward
					and :include: files) to be done as
					this user.  Also, all programs will
					be run as this user, and all output
					files will be written as this user.
confMAX_RCPTS_PER_MESSAGE  MaxRecipientsPerMessage
					[infinite] If set, allow no more than
					the specified number of recipients in
					an SMTP envelope.  Further recipients
					receive a 452 error code (i.e., they
					are deferred for the next delivery
confBAD_RCPT_THROTTLE	BadRcptThrottle	[infinite] If set and the specified
					number of recipients in a single SMTP
					transaction have been rejected, sleep
					for one second after each subsequent
					RCPT command in that transaction.
confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES  DontProbeInterfaces
					[False] If set, sendmail will _not_
					insert the names and addresses of any
					local interfaces into class {w}
					(list of known "equivalent" addresses).
					If you set this, you must also include
					some support for these addresses (e.g.,
					in a mailertable entry) -- otherwise,
					mail to addresses in this list will
					bounce with a configuration error.
					If set to "loopback" (without
					quotes), sendmail will skip
					loopback interfaces (e.g., "lo0").
confPID_FILE		PidFile		[system dependent] Location of pid
confPROCESS_TITLE_PREFIX  ProcessTitlePrefix
					[undefined] Prefix string for the
					process title shown on 'ps' listings.
confDONT_BLAME_SENDMAIL	DontBlameSendmail
					[safe] Override sendmail's file
					safety checks.  This will definitely
					compromise system security and should
					not be used unless absolutely
confREJECT_MSG		-		[550 Access denied] The message
					given if the access database contains
					REJECT in the value portion.
confRELAY_MSG		-		[550 Relaying denied] The message
					given if an unauthorized relaying
					attempt is rejected.
confDF_BUFFER_SIZE	DataFileBufferSize
					[4096] The maximum size of a
					memory-buffered data (df) file
					before a disk-based file is used.
confXF_BUFFER_SIZE	XScriptFileBufferSize
					[4096] The maximum size of a
					memory-buffered transcript (xf)
					file before a disk-based file is
					CRAM-MD5] List of authentication
					mechanisms for AUTH (separated by
					spaces).  The advertised list of
					authentication mechanisms will be the
					intersection of this list and the list
					of available mechanisms as determined
					by the Cyrus SASL library.
confAUTH_REALM		AuthRealm	[undefined] The authentication realm
					that is passed to the Cyrus SASL
					library.  If no realm is specified,
					$j is used.
confDEF_AUTH_INFO	DefaultAuthInfo	[undefined] Name of file that contains
					authentication information for
					outgoing connections.  This file must
					contain the user id, the authorization
					id, the password (plain text), the
					realm to use, and the list of
					mechanisms to try, each on a separate
					line and must be readable by root (or
					the trusted user) only.  If no realm
					is specified, $j is used.  If no
					mechanisms are given in the file,
					AuthMechanisms is used.  Notice: this
					option is deprecated and will be
					removed in future versions; it doesn't
					work for the MSP since it can't read
					the file.  Use the authinfo ruleset
					instead.  See also the section SMTP
confAUTH_OPTIONS	AuthOptions	[undefined] If this option is 'A'
					then the AUTH= parameter for the
					MAIL FROM command is only issued
					when authentication succeeded.
					See doc/op/op.me for more options
					and details.
confAUTH_MAX_BITS	AuthMaxBits	[INT_MAX] Limit the maximum encryption
					strength for the security layer in
					SMTP AUTH (SASL).  Default is
					essentially unlimited.
confTLS_SRV_OPTIONS	TLSSrvOptions	If this option is 'V' no client
					verification is performed, i.e.,
					the server doesn't ask for a
confLDAP_DEFAULT_SPEC	LDAPDefaultSpec	[undefined] Default map
					specification for LDAP maps.  The
					value should only contain LDAP
					specific settings such as "-h host
					-p port -d bindDN", etc.  The
					settings will be used for all LDAP
					maps unless they are specified in
					the individual map specification
					('K' command).
confCACERT_PATH		CACertPath	[undefined] Path to directory
					with certs of CAs.
confCACERT		CACertFile	[undefined] File containing one CA
confSERVER_CERT		ServerCertFile	[undefined] File containing the
					cert of the server, i.e., this cert
					is used when sendmail acts as
confSERVER_KEY		ServerKeyFile	[undefined] File containing the
					private key belonging to the server
confCLIENT_CERT		ClientCertFile	[undefined] File containing the
					cert of the client, i.e., this cert
					is used when sendmail acts as
confCLIENT_KEY		ClientKeyFile	[undefined] File containing the
					private key belonging to the client
confCRL			CRLFile		[undefined] File containing certificate
					revocation status, useful for X.509v3
					authentication. Note that CRL requires
					at least OpenSSL version 0.9.7.
confDH_PARAMETERS	DHParameters	[undefined] File containing the
					DH parameters.
confRAND_FILE		RandFile	[undefined] File containing random
					data (use prefix file:) or the
					name of the UNIX socket if EGD is
					used (use prefix egd:).  STARTTLS
					requires this option if the compile
					flag HASURANDOM is not set (see
confNICE_QUEUE_RUN	NiceQueueRun	[undefined]  If set, the priority of
					queue runners is set the given value
confDIRECT_SUBMISSION_MODIFIERS	DirectSubmissionModifiers
					[undefined] Defines {daemon_flags}
					for direct submissions.
confUSE_MSP		UseMSP		[undefined] Use as mail submission
					program, see sendmail/SECURITY.
confDELIVER_BY_MIN	DeliverByMin	[0] Minimum time for Deliver By
					SMTP Service Extension (RFC 2852).
confREQUIRES_DIR_FSYNC	RequiresDirfsync	[true] RequiresDirfsync can
					be used to turn off the compile time
					flag REQUIRES_DIR_FSYNC at runtime.
					See sendmail/README for details.
confSHARED_MEMORY_KEY	SharedMemoryKey [0] Key for shared memory.
					[undefined] File where the
					automatically selected key for
					shared memory is stored.
confFAST_SPLIT		FastSplit	[1] If set to a value greater than
					zero, the initial MX lookups on
					addresses is suppressed when they
					are sorted which may result in
					faster envelope splitting.  If the
					mail is submitted directly from the
					command line, then the value also
					limits the number of processes to
					deliver the envelopes.
confMAILBOX_DATABASE	MailboxDatabase	[pw] Type of lookup to find
					information about local mailboxes.
confDEQUOTE_OPTS	-		[empty] Additional options for the
					dequote map.
confMAX_NOOP_COMMANDS	MaxNOOPCommands	[20] Maximum number of "useless"
					commands before the SMTP server
					will slow down responding.
confHELO_NAME		HeloName	If defined, use as name for EHLO/HELO
					command (instead of $j).
confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS	InputMailFilters
					A comma separated list of filters
					which determines which filters and
					the invocation sequence are
					contacted for incoming SMTP
					messages.  If none are set, no
					filters will be contacted.
confMILTER_LOG_LEVEL	Milter.LogLevel	[9] Log level for input mail filter
					actions, defaults to LogLevel.
confMILTER_MACROS_CONNECT	Milter.macros.connect
					[j, _, {daemon_name}, {if_name},
					{if_addr}] Macros to transmit to
					milters when a session connection
confMILTER_MACROS_HELO	Milter.macros.helo
					[{tls_version}, {cipher},
					{cipher_bits}, {cert_subject},
					{cert_issuer}] Macros to transmit to
					milters after HELO/EHLO command.
confMILTER_MACROS_ENVFROM	Milter.macros.envfrom
					[i, {auth_type}, {auth_authen},
					{auth_ssf}, {auth_author},
					{mail_mailer}, {mail_host},
					{mail_addr}] Macros to transmit to
					milters after MAIL FROM command.
confMILTER_MACROS_ENVRCPT	Milter.macros.envrcpt
					[{rcpt_mailer}, {rcpt_host},
					{rcpt_addr}] Macros to transmit to
					milters after RCPT TO command.
confMILTER_MACROS_EOM		Milter.macros.eom
					[{msg_id}] Macros to transmit to
					milters after the terminating
					DATA '.' is received.
confMILTER_MACROS_EOH		Milter.macros.eoh
					Macros to transmit to milters
					after the end of headers.
confMILTER_MACROS_DATA		Milter.macros.data
					Macros to transmit to milters
					after DATA command is received.

See also the description of OSTYPE for some parameters that can be
tweaked (generally pathnames to mailers).

ClientPortOptions and DaemonPortOptions are special cases since multiple
clients/daemons can be defined.  This can be done via


Note that multiple CLIENT_OPTIONS() commands (and therefore multiple
ClientPortOptions settings) are allowed in order to give settings for each
protocol family (e.g., one for Family=inet and one for Family=inet6).  A
restriction placed on one family only affects outgoing connections on that
particular family.

If DAEMON_OPTIONS is not used, then the default is

	DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Name=MTA')
	DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=587, Name=MSA, M=E')

If you use one DAEMON_OPTIONS macro, it will alter the parameters
of the first of these.  The second will still be defaulted; it
represents a "Message Submission Agent" (MSA) as defined by RFC
2476 (see below).  To turn off the default definition for the MSA,
use FEATURE(`no_default_msa') (see also FEATURES).  If you use
additional DAEMON_OPTIONS macros, they will add additional daemons.

Example 1:  To change the port for the SMTP listener, while
still using the MSA default, use
	DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=925, Name=MTA')

Example 2:  To change the port for the MSA daemon, while still
using the default SMTP port, use
	DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=987, Name=MSA, M=E')

Note that if the first of those DAEMON_OPTIONS lines were omitted, then
there would be no listener on the standard SMTP port.

Example 3: To listen on both IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces, use

	DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Name=MTA-v4, Family=inet')
	DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Name=MTA-v6, Family=inet6')

A "Message Submission Agent" still uses all of the same rulesets for
processing the message (and therefore still allows message rejection via
the check_* rulesets).  In accordance with the RFC, the MSA will ensure
that all domains in envelope addresses are fully qualified if the message
is relayed to another MTA.  It will also enforce the normal address syntax
rules and log error messages.  Additionally, by using the M=a modifier you
can require authentication before messages are accepted by the MSA.
Notice: Do NOT use the 'a' modifier on a public accessible MTA!  Finally,
the M=E modifier shown above disables ETRN as required by RFC 2476.

Mail filters can be defined using the INPUT_MAIL_FILTER() and MAIL_FILTER()

	INPUT_MAIL_FILTER(`sample', `S=local:/var/run/f1.sock')
	MAIL_FILTER(`myfilter', `S=inet:3333@localhost')

The INPUT_MAIL_FILTER() command causes the filter(s) to be called in the
same order they were specified by also setting confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS.  A
filter can be defined without adding it to the input filter list by using
MAIL_FILTER() instead of INPUT_MAIL_FILTER() in your .mc file.
Alternatively, you can reset the list of filters and their order by setting
confINPUT_MAIL_FILTERS option after all INPUT_MAIL_FILTER() commands in
your .mc file.


The purpose of the message submission program (MSP) is explained
in sendmail/SECURITY.  This section contains a list of caveats and
a few hints how for those who want to tweak the default configuration
for it (which is installed as submit.cf).

Notice: do not add options/features to submit.mc unless you are
absolutely sure you need them.  Options you may want to change

- confTRUSTED_USERS, FEATURE(`use_ct_file'), and confCT_FILE for
  avoiding X-Authentication warnings.
- confTIME_ZONE to change it from the default `USE_TZ'.
- confDELIVERY_MODE is set to interactive in msp.m4 instead
  of the default background mode.
- FEATURE(stickyhost) and LOCAL_RELAY to send unqualified addresses
  to the LOCAL_RELAY instead of the default relay.
- confRAND_FILE if you use STARTTLS and sendmail is not compiled with
  the flag HASURANDOM.

The MSP performs hostname canonicalization by default.  As also
explained in sendmail/SECURITY, mail may end up for various DNS
related reasons in the MSP queue. This problem can be minimized by

	FEATURE(`nocanonify', `canonify_hosts')

See the discussion about nocanonify for possible side effects.

Some things are not intended to work with the MSP.  These include
features that influence the delivery process (e.g., mailertable,
aliases), or those that are only important for a SMTP server (e.g.,
virtusertable, DaemonPortOptions, multiple queues).  Moreover,
relaxing certain restrictions (RestrictQueueRun, permissions on
queue directory) or adding features (e.g., enabling prog/file mailer)
can cause security problems.

Other things don't work well with the MSP and require tweaking or
workarounds.  For example, to allow for client authentication it
is not just sufficient to provide a client certificate and the
corresponding key, but it is also necessary to make the key group
(smmsp) readable and tell sendmail not to complain about that, i.e.,

	define(`confDONT_BLAME_SENDMAIL', `GroupReadableKeyFile')

If the MSP should actually use AUTH then the necessary data
should be placed in a map as explained in SMTP AUTHENTICATION:

FEATURE(`authinfo', `DATABASE_MAP_TYPE /etc/mail/msp-authinfo')

/etc/mail/msp-authinfo should contain an entry like:

	AuthInfo:	"U:smmsp" "P:secret" "M:DIGEST-MD5"

The file and the map created by makemap should be owned by smmsp,
its group should be smmsp, and it should have mode 640.  The database
used by the MTA for AUTH must have a corresponding entry.
Additionally the MTA must trust this authentication data so the AUTH=
part will be relayed on to the next hop.  This can be achieved by
adding the following to your sendmail.mc file:

	R$*	$: $&{auth_authen}
	Rsmmsp	$# OK

Note: the authentication data can leak to local users who invoke
the MSP with debug options or even with -v.  For that reason either
an authentication mechanism that does not show the password in the
AUTH dialogue (e.g., DIGEST-MD5) or a different authentication
method like STARTTLS should be used.

feature/msp.m4 defines almost all settings for the MSP.  Most of
those should not be changed at all.  Some of the features and options
can be overridden if really necessary.  It is a bit tricky to do
this, because it depends on the actual way the option is defined
in feature/msp.m4.  If it is directly defined (i.e., define()) then
the modified value must be defined after


If it is conditionally defined (i.e., ifdef()) then the desired
value must be defined before the FEATURE line in the .mc file.
To see how the options are defined read feature/msp.m4.


Files that define classes, i.e., F{classname}, consist of lines
each of which contains a single element of the class.  For example,
/etc/mail/local-host-names may have the following content:


Maps must be created using makemap(8) , e.g.,

	makemap hash MAP < MAP

In general, a text file from which a map is created contains lines
of the form

key	value

where 'key' and 'value' are also called LHS and RHS, respectively.
By default, the delimiter between LHS and RHS is a non-empty sequence
of white space characters.


Within this directory are several subdirectories, to wit:

m4		General support routines.  These are typically
		very important and should not be changed without
		very careful consideration.

cf		The configuration files themselves.  They have
		".mc" suffixes, and must be run through m4 to
		become complete.  The resulting output should
		have a ".cf" suffix.

ostype		Definitions describing a particular operating
		system type.  These should always be referenced
		using the OSTYPE macro in the .mc file.  Examples
		include "bsd4.3", "bsd4.4", "sunos3.5", and

domain		Definitions describing a particular domain, referenced
		using the DOMAIN macro in the .mc file.  These are
		site dependent; for example, "CS.Berkeley.EDU.m4"
		describes hosts in the CS.Berkeley.EDU subdomain.

mailer		Descriptions of mailers.  These are referenced using
		the MAILER macro in the .mc file.

sh		Shell files used when building the .cf file from the
		.mc file in the cf subdirectory.

feature		These hold special orthogonal features that you might
		want to include.  They should be referenced using
		the FEATURE macro.

hack		Local hacks.  These can be referenced using the HACK
		macro.  They shouldn't be of more than voyeuristic
		interest outside the .Berkeley.EDU domain, but who knows?

siteconfig	Site configuration -- e.g., tables of locally connected
		UUCP sites.


The following sections detail usage of certain internal parts of the
sendmail.cf file.  Read them carefully if you are trying to modify
the current model.  If you find the above descriptions adequate, these
should be {boring, confusing, tedious, ridiculous} (pick one or more).

RULESETS (* means built in to sendmail)

   0 *	Parsing
   1 *	Sender rewriting
   2 *	Recipient rewriting
   3 *	Canonicalization
   4 *	Post cleanup
   5 *	Local address rewrite (after aliasing)
  1x	mailer rules (sender qualification)
  2x	mailer rules (recipient qualification)
  3x	mailer rules (sender header qualification)
  4x	mailer rules (recipient header qualification)
  5x	mailer subroutines (general)
  6x	mailer subroutines (general)
  7x	mailer subroutines (general)
  8x	reserved
  90	Mailertable host stripping
  96	Bottom half of Ruleset 3 (ruleset 6 in old sendmail)
  97	Hook for recursive ruleset 0 call (ruleset 7 in old sendmail)
  98	Local part of ruleset 0 (ruleset 8 in old sendmail)


   0	local, prog	local and program mailers
   1	[e]smtp, relay	SMTP channel
   2	uucp-*		UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program
   3	netnews		Network News delivery
   4	fax		Sam Leffler's HylaFAX software
   5	mail11		DECnet mailer


   B	Bitnet Relay
   C	DECnet Relay
   D	The local domain -- usually not needed
   E	reserved for X.400 Relay
   F	FAX Relay
   H	mail Hub (for mail clusters)
   L	Luser Relay
   M	Masquerade (who you claim to be)
   R	Relay (for unqualified names)
   S	Smart Host
   U	my UUCP name (if you have a UUCP connection)
   V	UUCP Relay (class {V} hosts)
   W	UUCP Relay (class {W} hosts)
   X	UUCP Relay (class {X} hosts)
   Y	UUCP Relay (all other hosts)
   Z	Version number


   B	domains that are candidates for bestmx lookup
   E	addresses that should not seem to come from $M
   F	hosts this system forward for
   G	domains that should be looked up in genericstable
   L	addresses that should not be forwarded to $R
   M	domains that should be mapped to $M
   N	host/domains that should not be mapped to $M
   O	operators that indicate network operations (cannot be in local names)
   P	top level pseudo-domains: BITNET, DECNET, FAX, UUCP, etc.
   R	domains this system is willing to relay (pass anti-spam filters)
   U	locally connected UUCP hosts
   V	UUCP hosts connected to relay $V
   W	UUCP hosts connected to relay $W
   X	UUCP hosts connected to relay $X
   Y	locally connected smart UUCP hosts
   Z	locally connected domain-ized UUCP hosts
   .	the class containing only a dot
   [	the class containing only a left bracket


   1	Local host detection and resolution
   2	Local Ruleset 3 additions
   3	Local Ruleset 0 additions
   4	UUCP Ruleset 0 additions
   5	locally interpreted names (overrides $R)
   6	local configuration (at top of file)
   7	mailer definitions
   8	DNS based blacklists
   9	special local rulesets (1 and 2)

$Revision: 8.730 $, Last updated $Date: 2014-01-16 15:55:51 $

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