MirBSD manpage: mandoc(7), mdoc(7)

MDOC(7)                      BSD Reference Manual                      MDOC(7)


     mdoc - quick reference guide for the -mdoc macro package


     nroff -TName -mandoc file


     The -mdoc package is a set of content-based and domain-based macros used
     to format the BSD man pages. The macro names and their meanings are list-
     ed below for quick reference; for a detailed explanation on using the
     package, see the tutorial sampler mdoc.samples(7).

     The macros are described in two groups. The first includes the structural
     and physical page layout macros. The second contains the manual and gen-
     eral text domain macros which differentiate the -mdoc package from other
     troff(1) formatting packages.


Title Macros

     To create a valid manual page, these three macros, in this order, are re-
     .Dd   Month day, year                       Document date.
     .Dt   DOCUMENT_TITLE [section] [volume]     Title, in upper case.
     .Os   OPERATING_SYSTEM [version/release]    Operating system (BSD).

Page Layout Macros

     Section headers, paragraph breaks, lists and displays.
     .Sh   Section Headers. Valid headers, in the order of presentation:
           NAME           Name section. Should include the '.Nm' or '.Fn' and
                          the '.Nd' macros.
           SYNOPSIS       Usage. All '.Nm' macros must be given an argument.
           DESCRIPTION    General description, including any options,
                          operands, or other parameters.
           RETURN VALUES  Sections two, three, and nine function calls.
           ENVIRONMENT    Describe environment variables.
           FILES          Files associated with the subject, with short
           EXAMPLES       Examples and suggestions.
           DIAGNOSTICS    Sections one, four, six, and eight diagnostics.
           ERRORS         Sections two, three, and nine error and signal han-
           SEE ALSO       Cross references and citations.
           STANDARDS      Conformance to standards if applicable.
           HISTORY        A brief history of the subject, including where sup-
                          port first appeared.
           AUTHORS        Credit to the person or persons who wrote the code
                          and/or documentation.
           CAVEATS        Explanations of common misuses, i.e., security con-
                          siderations for certain library functions.
           BUGS           Gotchas and caveats.
           other          Customized headers may be added at the author's dis-
     .Ss   Subsection Headers.
     .Pp   Paragraph Break. Vertical space (one line).
     .D1   (D-one) Display-one Indent and display one text line.
     .Dl   (D-ell) Display-one literal. Indent and display one line of literal
     .Bd   Begin-display block. Display options:
           -ragged          Unjustified (ragged edges).
           -unfilled        Unfilled, unjustified.
           -filled          Filled, and if troff(1), also justified.
           -literal         Literal text or code.
           -file name       Read in named file and display.
           -offset string   Offset display. Acceptable string values:
                            left        Align block on left (default).
                            center      Approximate center margin.
                            indent      Six constant width spaces (a tab).
                            indent-two  Two tabs.
                            right       Left aligns block 2 inches from right.
                            xxn         Where xx is a number from 4n to 99n.
                            Aa          Where Aa is a callable macro name.
                            string      The width of string is used.
     .Ed   End-display (matches .Bd).
     .Bl   Begin-list. Create lists or columns. Options:
                 -bullet     Bullet Item List
                 -dash       Dash Item List
                 -hyphen     (as per -dash)
                 -item       Unlabeled List
                 -enum       Enumerated List
                 -tag        Tag Labeled List
                 -diag       Diagnostic List
                 -hang       Hanging Labeled List
                 -ohang      Overhanging Labeled List
                 -inset      Inset or Run-on Labeled List
                 -column     Multiple Columns
                 -offset    (All lists.) See '.Bd' begin-display above.
                 -width     (-tag and -hang lists only.) This parameter is ef-
                            fectively required for -tag lists.
                 -compact   (All lists.) Suppresses blank lines.
     .El   End-list.
     .It   List item.


     The manual and general text domain macros are special in that most of
     them are parsed for callable macros for example:

           .Op Fl s Ar file   Produces [-s file]

     In this example, the option enclosure macro '.Op' is parsed, and calls
     the callable content macro 'Fl' which operates on the argument 's' and
     then calls the callable content macro 'Ar' which operates on the argument
     'file'. Some macros may be callable but are not parsed, or vice versa.
     These macros are indicated in the parsed and callable columns below.

     Unless stated, manual domain macros share a common syntax:

           .Va argument [ . , ; : ? ! ( ) [ ] argument ... ]

     Note: Opening and closing punctuation characters are only recognized as
     such if they are presented one at a time. The string '),' is not recog-
     nized as punctuation and will be output with a leading whitespace and in
     whatever font the calling macro uses. The argument list '] ) ,' is recog-
     nized as three sequential closing punctuation characters and a leading
     white space is not output between the characters and the previous argu-
     ment (if any). The special meaning of a punctuation character may be es-
     caped with the string '\&'. For example the following string,

           .Ar file1 , file2 , file3 ) .   Produces file1, file2, file3).

Manual Domain Macros

     Name    Parsed    Callable    Description
     Ad      Yes       Yes         Address. (This macro may be deprecated.)
     An      Yes       No          Author name.
     Ar      Yes       Yes         Command line argument.
     Cd      No        No          Configuration declaration.
     Cm      Yes       Yes         Command line argument modifier.
     Dv      Yes       Yes         Defined variable (source code).
     Er      Yes       Yes         Error number (source code).
     Ev      Yes       Yes         Environment variable.
     Ex      No        No          Exit values.
     Fa      Yes       Yes         Function argument.
     Fd      No        No          Function declaration.
     Fl      Yes       Yes         Flags.
     Fn      Yes       Yes         Function call (also .Fo and .Fc).
     Ft      Yes       Yes         Function type.
     Ic      Yes       Yes         Interactive command.
     In      No        No          Include header file.
     Li      Yes       Yes         Literal text.
     Mt      Yes       Yes         eMail address (not portable).
     Nd      No        No          Command description.
     Nm      Yes       Yes         Command name.
     Op      Yes       Yes         Option (also .Oo and .Oc).
     Ot      Yes       Yes         Old style function type (Fortran only).
     Pa      Yes       Yes         Pathname or file name.
     Rv      No        No          Return values.
     St      Yes       Yes         Standards (see below).
     Va      Yes       Yes         Variable name.
     Vt      Yes       Yes         Variable type.
     Xr      Yes       Yes         Manual Page Cross Reference.

     The known standards for the St macro are:

         -p1003.1-88, -p1003.1-90, -p1003.1-96, -p1003.1-2001, -p1003.1-2004,
         -p1003.1-2008, -p1003.1, -p1003.1b, -p1003.1b-93, -p1003.1c-95,
         -p1003.1g-2000, -p1003.1i-95, -p1003.2, -p1003.2-92, -p1003.2a-92,
         -p1387.2, -p1387.2-95, -isoC, -isoC-90, -isoC-amd1, -isoC-tcor1,
         -isoC-tcor2, -isoC-99, -isoC-2011, -iso9945-1-90, -iso9945-1-96,
         -iso9945-2-93, -ansiC, -ansiC-89, -ansiC-99, -ieee754, -iso8802-3,
         -iso8601, -ieee1275-94, -xpg3, -xpg4, -xpg4.2, -xpg4.3, -xbd5, -xcu5,
         -xsh4.2, -xsh5, -xns5, -xns5.2d2.0, -xns5.2, -xcurses4.2, -susv1,
         -susv2, -susv3, -susv4, and -svid4.

General Text Domain Macros

     Name    Parsed    Callable    Description
     %A      Yes       No          Reference author.
     %B      Yes       Yes         Reference book title.
     %D      No        No          Reference date.
     %I      Yes       Yes         Issuer/Publisher name.
     %J      Yes       Yes         Reference journal title.
     %N      No        No          Reference issue number.
     %O      No        No          Reference optional information.
     %P      No        No          Reference page number(s).
     %R      No        No          Reference report Name.
     %T      Yes       Yes         Reference article title.
     %V      No        No          Reference volume.
     Ac      Yes       Yes         Angle close quote.
     Ao      Yes       Yes         Angle open quote.
     Ap      No        Yes         Typographic apostrophe (right single quote)
                                   without surrounding whitespace (').
     Aq      Yes       Yes         Angle quote.
     At      No        No          AT&T UNIX.
     Bc      Yes       Yes         Bracket close quote.
     Bf      No        No          Begin font mode.
     Bo      Yes       Yes         Bracket open quote.
     Bq      Yes       Yes         Bracket quote.
     Bx      Yes       No          BSD.
     Db      No        No          Debug (default is "off").
     Dc      Yes       Yes         Double close quote.
     Do      Yes       Yes         Double open quote.
     Dq      Yes       Yes         Double quote.
     Ec      Yes       Yes         Enclose string close quote.
     Ef      No        No          End font mode.
     Em      Yes       Yes         Emphasis (traditional English).
     Eo      Yes       Yes         Enclose string open quote.
     Fx      Yes       No          FreeBSD.
     Ms      Yes       No          Mathematical symbol.
     Mx      Yes       No          MirBSD.
     No      Yes       Yes         Normal text (no-op).
     Ns      Yes       Yes         No space.
     Nx      Yes       No          NetBSD.
     Ox      Yes       No          OpenBSD.
     Pc      Yes       Yes         Parenthesis close quote.
     Pf      Yes       No          Prefix string.
     Po      Yes       Yes         Parenthesis open quote.
     Pq      Yes       Yes         Parentheses quote.
     Qc      Yes       Yes         Straight double close quote.
     Ql      Yes       Yes         Quoted literal.
     Qo      Yes       Yes         Straight double open quote.
     Qq      Yes       Yes         Straight double quote.
     Re      No        No          Reference end.
     Rs      No        No          Reference start.
     Sc      Yes       Yes         Single close quote.
     So      Yes       Yes         Single open quote.
     Sq      Yes       Yes         Single quote.
     Sm      No        No          Space mode (default is "on").
     Sx      Yes       Yes         Section Cross Reference.
     Sy      Yes       Yes         Symbolic (traditional English).
     Tn      Yes       Yes         Trade or type name (small Caps).
     Ux      Yes       No          UNIX.
     Xc      Yes       Yes         Extend argument list close.
     Xo      Yes       Yes         Extend argument list open.

     Macro names ending in 'q' quote remaining items on the argument list.
     Macro names ending in 'o' begin a quote which may span more than one line
     of input and are close quoted with the matching macro name ending in 'c'.
     Enclosure macros may be nested and are limited to eight arguments.

     Note: the extended argument list macros ('.Xo', '.Xc') and the function
     enclosure macros ('.Fo', '.Fc') are irregular. The extended list macros
     are used when the number of macro arguments would exceed the troff(1)
     limitation of nine arguments.


     tmac.doc                       manual macro package
     tmac.doc-common                common structural macros and definitions
     tmac.doc-ditroff               site dependent troff(1) style file
     tmac.doc-nroff                 site dependent nroff(1) style file
     tmac.doc-syms                  special defines
     /usr/share/misc/mdoc.template  template for writing a man page


     groff(1), man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), mdoc.samples(7)

MirBSD #10-current              April 15, 2020                               3

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