MirBSD manpage: hier(7)

HIER(7)                      BSD Reference Manual                      HIER(7)


     hier - layout of filesystems


     A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.

     /          Root directory. Home directory for the root user.

     /altroot/  Alternate (backup) location for the root ('/') filesystem (see

     /bin/      User utilities fundamental to both single and multi-user en-
                vironments. These programs are statically compiled and there-
                fore do not depend on any system libraries to run.

     /bsd       Pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into
                memory at boot-time).

     /bsd.mp    Pure kernel executable for multi-processor machines.

     /bsd.rd    Installation kernel. The built-in RAM disk contains utilities
                which can be run without an external filesystem, so this ker-
                nel is useful for limited system maintenance too.

     /dev/      Block and character device files.

                MAKEDEV  Script for creating device files (see MAKEDEV(8)).
                fd/      File descriptor files (see fd(4)).

     /emul/     Base directory for alternate areas searched first when system
                call emulation is in effect (see sysctl(8) and the system com-
                pat pages: compat_linux(8) compat_openbsd(8)).

     /etc/      System configuration files and scripts.

                localtime       Local timezone information (see ctime(3)).
                X11/            Configuration files for the X11 window system.
                authpf/         Configuration files for the authenticating
                                gateway user shell (see authpf(8)).
                disklabels/     Backup disklabels (see disklabel(8)).
                firmware/       Firmware files for various devices.
                fonts/          Configuration files for X11 window system
                hotplug/        Scripts for the hotplug daemon, hotplugd(8).
                isakmpd/        Configuration files for isakmpd(8).
                mail/           sendmail(8) configuration files (including
                mtree/          mtree configuration files (see mtree(8)).
                ppp/            pppd configuration files (see pppd(8)).
                raddb/servers/  List of radius servers and their associated
                                shared secrets for login_radius(8).
                skel/           Example '.' (dot) files for new accounts.
                skey/           One-time password user database for skey(1).
                sliphome/       Configuration files for sliplogin(8).
                ssh/            Configuration files for ssh(1) and sshd(8).
                ssl/            OpenSSL configuration files (see openssl(1)).
                systrace/       Sample systrace(1) policies.

     /home/     Default location for user home directories.

     /mnt/      Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
                temporary mount point.

     /sbin/     System programs and administration utilities fundamental to
                both single and multi-user environments. These programs are
                statically compiled and therefore do not depend on any system
                libraries to run.

     /stand/    Programs used in a stand-alone environment.

     /tmp/      Temporary files; the contents of /tmp are not preserved across
                a system reboot.

     /usr/      Contains the majority of user utilities and applications.

                X11R6/    Files required for the X11 window system.

                          bin/      X11 binaries.
                          include/  X11-specific C include files.
                          lib/      X11 archive libraries.

                                    X11/      Default configuration files for
                                              X11 and companion applications
                                              (see xdm(1), imake(1),
                                              setxkbmap(1), twm(1)).
                                    modules/  Various libraries and drivers
                                              for the X11 window system.

                          man/      X11 manual pages.

                bin/      Common utilities, programming tools, and applica-
                games/    Useful and semi-frivolous programs.
                include/  Standard C include files.

                          altq/       C include files for the altq subsystem
                                      (see pf.conf(5)).
                          arpa/       C include files for Internet service
                          crypto/     C include files for the cryptographic
                          ddb/        C include files for the kernel debugger
                                      (see ddb(4)).
                          dev/        Device-specific C include files.
                          isofs/      C include files for the ISO standard
                                      filesystems (currently only cd9660).
                          libmilter/  C include files for the sendmail(8) mail
                                      filter API.
                          machine/    Machine specific C include files.
                          miscfs/     C include files for miscellaneous
                          net/        Miscellaneous network C include files.
                          net80211/   C include files for 802.11 wireless net-
                          netatalk/   C include files for the AppleTalk proto-
                          netbt/      C include files for the Bluetooth proto-
                          netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
                                      protocols (see inet(4)).
                          netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
                                      version 6 (see inet6(4)).
                          netipx/     C include files for the IPX protocol.
                          netnatm/    C include files for native mode ATM ac-
                          nfs/        C include files for NFS (Network
                          openssl/    C include files for the OpenSSL library
                                      (see ssl(8)).
                          protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
                          readline/   C include files for the readline(3) li-
                          rpc/        C include files for remote procedure
                                      calling (see rpc(5)).
                          rpcsvc/     C include files for rpcsvc.
                          scsi/       SCSI-specific C include files.
                          sys/        System C include files (kernel data
                          ufs/        C include files for UFS (the U-word
                          uvm/        C include files for the virtual memory

                lib/      System libraries. See intro(3) for a description of
                          library types.
                libdata/  Miscellaneous utility data files.

                          cvs/        Placeholder for user contributed cvs(1)
                          ldscripts/  ELF linker scripts.
                          lint/       Prebuilt lint(1) libraries.
                          perl5/      Data files for perl(1).
                          ssh/        Data file for ssh(1).

                libexec/  System daemons and utilities (executed by other pro-

                          auth/         Login scripts used to authenticate
                                        users (for BSD authentication).
                          cvs/contrib/  User contributed cvs(1) scripts.
                          lpr/          Contains the lpf filter for lpd(8).
                          sendmail/     Contains the sendmail(8) binary.
                          sm.bin/       Binaries to be run by smrsh(8).

                lkm/      Loadable kernel modules.
                local/    Local executables, libraries, etc.
                mdec/     Boot-related executables.
                obj/      Architecture specific target tree produced by build-
                          ing the /usr/src tree.
                ports/    The OpenBSD ports collection (see ports(7)).
                sbin/     System daemons and utilities (executed by users).
                share/    Architecture independent data files.

                          calendar/    Variety of pre-fab calendar files (see
                          dict/        Word lists (see look(1) and spell(1)).

                                       american     Spellings preferred in
                                                    American usage.
                                       english      Spellings preferred in
                                                    British usage.
                                       eign         List of common words.
                                       propernames  List of proper names.
                                       stop         Forms that would otherwise
                                                    be derivable by spell(1)
                                                    from words in the other
                                                    files in /usr/share/dict,
                                                    but should not be accept-
                                       web2         Words from Webster's 2nd
                                       web2a        Additional words from
                                       words        Common words.
                                       papers/      Reference databases (see
                                       special/     Custom word lists.

                          doc/         Miscellaneous documentation; source for
                                       most of the 4.3BSD manuals.

                                       html/  HTML documentation.
                                       psd/   UNIX Programmer's Supplementary
                                              Documents (PSD).
                                       smm/   UNIX System Manager's Manuals
                                       usd/   UNIX User's Supplementary Docu-
                                              ments (USD).

                          games/       ASCII text files used by various games.
                          info/        Texinfo source files.
                          ipsec/       IPsec example files.
                          lkm/         Example source code implementing
                                       several lkm module types (see lkm(4)).
                          man/         Manual pages.

                                       cat*/   Preformatted man(1) pages. Lay-
                                               out similar to man (below).
                                       man1/   General commands (tools and
                                       man2/   System calls and error numbers.
                                       man3/   Libraries.
                                       man3p/  perl(1) programmers' reference
                                       man4/   Special files and hardware sup-
                                       man5/   File formats.
                                       man6/   Games.
                                       man7/   Miscellaneous.
                                       man8/   System maintenance and opera-
                                               tion commands.
                                       man9/   Kernel internals.

                          misc/        Miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text

                                       termcap      Terminal characteristics
                                                    database (see termcap(5)).
                                       termcap.db   Hash database file con-
                                                    taining terminal descrip-
                                                    tions (see cap_mkdb(1)).
                                       terminfo.db  Terminal information data-
                                       pcvtfonts/   Additional i386 console

                          mk/          Templates for make (see make(1)).
                          pf/          Sample configuration files for pf(4).
                          sendmail/    Example files for sendmail(8).
                          tabset/      Tab description files for a variety of
                                       terminals; used in the termcap file
                                       (see termcap(5)).
                          texinfo/     Templates for texinfo(5).
                          tmac/        Text processing macros (see nroff(1)
                                       and troff(1)).
                          vi/catalog/  Catalog files for the vi(1) text edi-
                          zoneinfo/    Timezone configuration information (see

                src/      BSD and/or local source files.

                          bin/        Source for files in /bin.
                          distrib/    Source for making distribution sets.
                          etc/        Source for files in /etc.
                          games/      Source for files in /usr/games.
                          gnu/        Source for files under GPL or other res-
                                      trictive licenses.
                          include/    Source for files in /usr/include.
                          lib/        Source for files in /usr/lib.
                          libexec/    Source for files in /usr/libexec.
                          sbin/       Source for files in /sbin.
                          share/      Source for files in /usr/share.
                          sys/        Kernel source files.
                          usr.bin/    Source for files in /usr/bin.
                          usr.sbin/   Source for files in /usr/sbin.

     /var/      Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files.

                account/   System accounting files.

                           acct        Execution accounting file (see

                audit/     Audit logs.
                authpf/    PID file for authpf(8).
                backups/   Miscellaneous backup files.
                crash/     Crash dumps written by savecore(8).
                cron/      Spools and configuration files for cron(8) and

                           atjobs/     at(1) jobs.
                           tabs/       Individual crontab(1) files.

                db/        Miscellaneous, automatically generated system-
                           specific database files.
                empty/     Generic chroot(2) directory.
                games/     Miscellaneous game status and log files.
                log/       Miscellaneous system log files.

                           wtmp        Login/logout log (see wtmp(5)).

                mail/      User mailbox files.
                msgs/      Database for msgs(1).
                quotas/    Filesystem quota information files.
                run/       System information files describing various info
                           about the system since it was booted.

                           utmp        Database of current users (see
                           sudo/       Timestamps for sudo(8).

                rwho/      rwho data files (see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
                spool/     Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling

                           clientmqueue/  Mail messages waiting to be pro-
                                          cessed by the sendmail clientmqueue
                                          helper task (see sendmail(8)).
                           ftp/           Commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp
                                          root directory.
                           lock/          Lock files for utilities such as
                                          cu(1), tip(1) and uucp.
                           mqueue/        Undelivered mail queue (see
                           output/        Line printer spooling directories.
                           uucp/          uucp spool directory.
                           uucppublic/    Commonly ~uucp; public uucp tem-
                                          porary directory.

                tmp/       Temporary files that are kept between system re-
                www/       ServerRoot point for httpd(8).


     apropos(1), find(1), locate(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1)


     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

MirBSD #10-current              August 7, 2017                               5

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