MirBSD manpage: X(7)

X(7)                UNIX Programmer's Manual                 X(7)


     X - a portable, network-transparent window system


     The X Window System is a network transparent window system
     which runs on a wide range of computing and graphics
     machines.  It should be relatively straightforward to build
     the X Consortium software distribution on most ANSI C and
     POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial implementations are
     also available for a wide range of platforms.

     The X Consortium requests that the following names be used
     when referring to this software:

                           X Window System
                             X Version 11
                     X Window System, Version 11

     X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.


     X Window System servers run on computers with bitmap
     displays. The server distributes user input to and accepts
     output requests from various client programs through a
     variety of different interprocess communication channels.
     Although the most common case is for the client programs to
     be running on the same machine as the server, clients can be
     run transparently from other machines (including machines
     with different architectures and operating systems) as well.

     X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and text and
     graphics operations, on both monochrome and color displays.
     For a full explanation of the functions that are available,
     see the Xlib - C Language X Interface manual, the X Window
     System Protocol specification, the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C
     Language Interface manual, and various toolkit documents.

     The number of programs that use X is quite large. Programs
     provided in the core X Consortium distribution include: a
     terminal emulator, xterm; a window manager, twm; a display
     manager, xdm; a console redirect program, xconsole; a mail
     interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap; resource
     listing/manipulation tools, appres, editres; access control
     programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting
     programs, xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmod-
     map; clocks, xclock and oclock; a font displayer, (xfd;
     utilities for listing information about fonts, windows, and
     displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo, xlsa-
     toms, and xprop; screen image manipulation utilities, xwd,
     xwud, and xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf;

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     a font compiler, bdftopcf; a font server and related utili-
     ties, xfs, fsinfo, fslsfonts, fstobdf; an X Image Extension
     exerciser, xieperf; a display server and related utilities,
     Xserver, rgb, mkfontdir; remote execution utilities, rstart
     and xon; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard descrip-
     tion compiler and related utilities, xkbcomp, xkbprint,
     xkbbell, xkbevd, xkbvleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to ter-
     minate clients, xkill; an optimized X protocol proxy,
     lbxproxy; a firewall security proxy, xfwp; a proxy manager
     to control them, proxymngr; a utility to find proxies,
     xfindproxy; Netscape Navigator Plug-ins, libxrx.so and
     libxrxnest.so; an RX MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a
     utility to cause part or all of the screen to be redrawn,

     Many other utilities, window managers, games, toolkits, etc.
     are included as user-contributed software in the X Consor-
     tium distribution, or are available using anonymous ftp on
     the Internet. See your site administrator for details.


     There are two main ways of getting the X server and an ini-
     tial set of client applications started.  The particular
     method used depends on what operating system you are running
     and whether or not you use other window systems in addition
     to X.

     xdm (the X Display Manager)
             If you want to always have X running on your
             display, your site administrator can set your
             machine up to use the X Display Manager xdm.  This
             program is typically started by the system at boot
             time and takes care of keeping the server running
             and getting users logged in.  If you are running
             xdm, you will see a window on the screen welcoming
             you to the system and asking for your username and
             password.  Simply type them in as you would at a
             normal terminal, pressing the Return key after each.
             If you make a mistake, xdm will display an error
             message and ask you to try again.  After you have
             successfully logged in, xdm will start up your X
             environment.  By default, if you have an executable
             file named .xsession in your home directory, xdm
             will treat it as a program (or shell script) to run
             to start up your initial clients (such as terminal
             emulators, clocks, a window manager, user settings
             for things like the background, the speed of the
             pointer, etc.). Your site administrator can provide

     xinit (run manually from the shell)
             Sites that support more than one window system might

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             choose to use the xinit program for starting X manu-
             ally.  If this is true for your machine, your site
             administrator will probably have provided a program
             named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will do
             site-specific initialization (such as loading con-
             venient default resources, running a window manager,
             displaying a clock, and starting several terminal
             emulators) in a nice way.  If not, you can build
             such a script using the xinit program. This utility
             simply runs one user-specified program to start the
             server, runs another to start up any desired
             clients, and then waits for either to finish.  Since
             either or both of the user-specified programs may be
             a shell script, this gives substantial flexibility
             at the expense of a nice interface.  For this rea-
             son, xinit is not intended for end users.


     From the user's perspective, every X server has a display
     name of the form:


     This information is used by the application to determine how
     it should connect to the server and which screen it should
     use by default (on displays with multiple monitors):

             The hostname specifies the name of the machine to
             which the display is physically connected.  If the
             hostname is not given, the most efficient way of
             communicating to a server on the same machine will
             be used.

             The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to
             collection of monitors that share a common keyboard
             and pointer (mouse, tablet, etc.).  Most worksta-
             tions tend to only have one keyboard, and therefore,
             only one display.  Larger, multi-user systems, how-
             ever, frequently have several displays so that more
             than one person can be doing graphics work at once.
             To avoid confusion, each display on a machine is
             assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the
             X server for that display is started.  The display
             number must always be given in a display name.

             Some displays share a single keyboard and pointer
             among two or more monitors. Since each monitor has
             its own set of windows, each screen is assigned a
             screen number (beginning at 0) when the X server for

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             that display is started.  If the screen number is
             not given, screen 0 will be used.

     On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored in your
     DISPLAY environment variable.  This variable is set automat-
     ically by the xterm terminal emulator.  However, when you
     log into another machine on a network, you will need to set
     DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.  For example,

         % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
         $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
     The xon script can be used to start an X program on a remote
     machine; it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable

     Finally, most X programs accept a command line option of
     -display displayname to temporarily override the contents of
     DISPLAY.  This is most commonly used to pop windows on
     another person's screen or as part of a "remote shell" com-
     mand to start an xterm pointing back to your display.  For

         % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
         % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

     X servers listen for connections on a variety of different
     communications channels (network byte streams, shared
     memory, etc.). Since there can be more than one way of con-
     tacting a given server, The hostname part of the display
     name is used to determine the type of channel (also called a
     transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally support
     the following types of connections:

             The hostname part of the display name should be the
             empty string. For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.  The
             most efficient local transport will be chosen.

             The hostname part of the display name should be the
             server machine's IP address name.  Full Internet
             names, abbreviated names, and IP addresses are all
             allowed.  For example:  x.org:0, expo:0,
   , bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

             The hostname part of the display name should be the
             server machine's nodename, followed by two colons
             instead of one. For example:  myws::0, big::1, and

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     An X server can use several types of access control.
     Mechanisms provided in Release 6 are:
         Host Access                   Simple host-based access control.
         MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
         XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
         SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
         MIT-KERBEROS-5                Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

     Xdm initializes access control for the server and also
     places authorization information in a file accessible to the
     user. Normally, the list of hosts from which connections are
     always accepted should be empty, so that only clients with
     are explicitly authorized can connect to the display.  When
     you add entries to the host list (with xhost), the server no
     longer performs any authorization on connections from those
     machines.  Be careful with this.

     The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be
     specified with the environment variable XAUTHORITY, and
     defaults to the file .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm
     uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will create it or merge in
     authorization records if it already exists when a user logs

     If you use several machines and share a common home direc-
     tory across all of the machines by means of a network
     filesystem, you never really have to worry about authoriza-
     tion files, the system should work correctly by default.
     Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-
     independent, you can simply copy the files to share them. To
     manage authorization files, use xauth. This program allows
     you to extract records and insert them into other files.
     Using this, you can send authorization to remote machines
     when you login, if the remote machine does not share a com-
     mon home directory with your local machine. Note that
     authorization information transmitted ``in the clear''
     through a network filesystem or using ftp or rcp can be
     ``stolen'' by a network eavesdropper, and as such may enable
     unauthorized access. In many environments, this level of
     security is not a concern, but if it is, you need to know
     the exact semantics of the particular authorization data to
     know if this is actually a problem.

     For more information on access control, see the Xsecurity
     manual page.


     One of the advantages of using window systems instead of
     hardwired terminals is that applications don't have to be
     restricted to a particular size or location on the screen.
     Although the layout of windows on a display is controlled by

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     the window manager that the user is running (described
     below), most X programs accept a command line argument of
     the form -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH,
     HEIGHT, XOFF, and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a pre-
     ferred size and location for this application's main window.

     The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are
     usually measured in either pixels or characters, depending
     on the application. The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in
     pixels and are used to specify the distance of the window
     from the left or right and top and bottom edges of the
     screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
     from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding
     edge of the window.  The X offset may be specified in the
     following ways:

     +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF
             pixels in from the left edge of the screen (i.e.,
             the X coordinate of the window's origin will be
             XOFF).  XOFF may be negative, in which case the
             window's left edge will be off the screen.

     -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be placed XOFF
             pixels in from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF
             may be negative, in which case the window's right
             edge will be off the screen.

     The Y offset has similar meanings:

     +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels
             below the top edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coor-
             dinate of the window's origin will be YOFF).  YOFF
             may be negative, in which case the window's top edge
             will be off the screen.

     -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels
             above the bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be
             negative, in which case the window's bottom edge
             will be off the screen.

     Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words, in order to
     specify either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows
     can be placed in the four corners of the screen using the
     following specifications:

     +0+0    upper left hand corner.

     -0+0    upper right hand corner.

     -0-0    lower right hand corner.

     +0-0    lower left hand corner.

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     In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in
     roughly the center of the screen and a load average monitor,
     mailbox, and clock are placed in the upper right hand

         xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
         xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
         xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
         xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &


     The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by special
     programs called window managers.  Although many window
     managers will honor geometry specifications as given, others
     may choose to ignore them (requiring the user to explicitly
     draw the window's region on the screen with the pointer, for

     Since window managers are regular (albeit complex) client
     programs, a variety of different user interfaces can be
     built.  The X Consortium distribution comes with a window
     manager named twm which supports overlapping windows, popup
     menus, point-and-click or click-to-type input models, title
     bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who don't
     like separate icon windows).

     See the user-contributed software in the X Consortium dis-
     tribution for other popular window managers.


     Collections of characters for displaying text and symbols in
     X are known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that
     share a common appearance and look nice together (for exam-
     ple, a single size, boldness, slant, and character set).
     Similarly, collections of fonts that are based on a common
     type face (the variations are usually called roman, bold,
     italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

     Fonts come in various sizes.  The X server supports scalable
     fonts, meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary
     size from a single source for the font.  The server supports
     scaling from outline fonts and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from
     outline fonts usually produces significantly better results
     than scaling from bitmap fonts.

     An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in
     directories in the filesystem, or from one or more font
     servers, or from a mixtures of directories and font servers.
     The list of places the server looks when trying to find a
     font is controlled by its font path.  Although most instal-
     lations will choose to have the server start up with all of

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     the commonly used font directories in the font path, the
     font path can be changed at any time with the xset program.
     However, it is important to remember that the directory
     names are on the server's machine, not on the application's.

     Bitmap font files are usually created by compiling a textual
     font description into binary form, using bdftopcf. Font
     databases are created by running the mkfontdir program in
     the directory containing the source or compiled versions of
     the fonts. Whenever fonts are added to a directory,
     mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
     new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database,
     reset the font path with the xset program.  For example, to
     add a font to a private directory, the following commands
     could be used:

         % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
         % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
         % xset fp rehash

     The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to browse
     through the fonts available on a server. Font names tend to
     be fairly long as they contain all of the information needed
     to uniquely identify individual fonts.  However, the X
     server supports wildcarding of font names, so the full


     might be abbreviated as:


     Because the shell also has special meanings for * and ?,
     wildcarded font names should be quoted:

         % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

     The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts
     that match a given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all
     available fonts. This will usually list the same font at
     many different sizes.  To see just the base scalable font
     names, try using one of the following patterns:


     To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a
     specific size, replace one of the first two zeros with a
     nonzero value. The field containing the first zero is for
     the pixel size; replace it with a specific height in pixels

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     to name a font at that size. Alternatively, the field con-
     taining the second zero is for the point size; replace it
     with a specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 deci-
     points to the inch) to name a font at that size. The last
     zero is an average width field, measured in tenths of pix-
     els; some servers will anamorphically scale if this value is


     One of the following forms can be used to name a font server
     that accepts TCP connections:


     The hostname specifies the name (or decimal numeric address)
     of the machine on which the font server is running.  The
     port is the decimal TCP port on which the font server is
     listening for connections. The cataloguelist specifies a
     list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.

     Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

     One of the following forms can be used to name a font server
     that accepts DECnet connections:


     The nodename specifies the name (or decimal numeric address)
     of the machine on which the font server is running. The
     objname is a normal, case-insensitive DECnet object name.
     The cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with
     '+' as a separator.

     Examples: DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT,


     Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through
     resources or command line arguments) the colors of various
     elements in the text and graphics they display. A color can
     be specified either by an abstract color name, or by a
     numerical color specification. The numerical specification
     can identify a color in either device-dependent (RGB) or
     device-independent terms. Color strings are case-

     X supports the use of abstract color names, for example,
     "red", "blue". A value for this abstract name is obtained by
     searching one or more color name databases. Xlib first
     searches zero or more client-side databases; the number,

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     location, and content of these databases is implementation
     dependent. If the name is not found, the color is looked up
     in the X server's database. The text form of this database
     is commonly stored in the file

     A numerical color specification consists of a color space
     name and a set of values in the following syntax:


     An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix
     "rgb:" and has the following syntax:


             <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
             h := single hexadecimal digits
     Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the
     value scaled in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and
     hhhh the value scaled in 16 bits, respectively. These values
     are passed directly to the X server, and are assumed to be
     gamma corrected.

     The eight primary colors can be represented as:

         black                rgb:0/0/0
         red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
         green                rgb:0/ffff/0
         blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
         yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
         magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
         cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
         white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

     For backward compatibility, an older syntax for RGB Device
     is supported, but its continued use is not encouraged. The
     syntax is an initial sharp sign character followed by a
     numeric specification, in one of the following formats:

         #RGB                      (4 bits each)
         #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
         #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
         #RRRRGGGGBBBB             (16 bits each)

     The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits. When
     fewer than 16 bits each are specified, they represent the
     most-significant bits of the value (unlike the "rgb:" syn-
     tax, in which values are scaled). For example, #3a7 is the
     same as #3000a0007000.

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     An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix
     "rgbi:" and has the following syntax:


     The red, green, and blue are floating point values between
     0.0 and 1.0, inclusive. They represent linear intensity
     values, with 1.0 indicating full intensity, 0.5 half inten-
     sity, and so on. These values will be gamma corrected by
     Xlib before being sent to the X server. The input format for
     these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi-
     bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent
     field containing an E or e followed by a possibly signed
     integer string.

     The standard device-independent string specifications have
     the following syntax:

         CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
         CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
         CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
         CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
         CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
         TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)

     All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are
     floating point values.  Some of the values are constrained
     to be between zero and some upper bound; the upper bounds
     are given in parentheses above. The syntax for these values
     is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of digits possibly
     containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field
     consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or
     '-' followed by a string of digits.

     For more information on device independent color, see the
     Xlib reference manual.


     The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-
     specific codes (called keycodes) which represent the physi-
     cal keys, and server-independent symbols (called keysyms)
     which represent the letters or words that appear on the
     keys. Two tables are kept in the server for converting key-
     codes to keysyms:

     modifier list
             Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock)
             are known as modifier and are used to select dif-
             ferent symbols that are attached to a single key
             (such as Shift-a generates a capital A, and
             Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The
             server keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the

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             various modifier keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or
             released, the server generates an event that con-
             tains the keycode of the indicated key as well as a
             mask that specifies which of the modifier keys are
             currently pressed. Most servers set up this list to
             initially contain the various shift, control, and
             shift lock keys on the keyboard.

     keymap table
             Applications translate event keycodes and modifier
             masks into keysyms using a keysym table which con-
             tains one row for each keycode and one column for
             various modifier states.  This table is initialized
             by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
             conventions.  The exact semantics of how the table
             is interpreted to produce keysyms depends on the
             particular program, libraries, and language input
             method used, but the following conventions for the
             first four keysyms in each row are generally adhered

     The first four elements of the list are split into two
     groups of keysyms. Group 1 contains the first and second
     keysyms; Group 2 contains the third and fourth keysyms.
     Within each group, if the first element is alphabetic and
     the the second element is the special keysym NoSymbol, then
     the group is treated as equivalent to a group in which the
     first element is the lowercase letter and the second element
     is the uppercase letter.

     Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named
     MODE SWITCH, by attaching that keysym to some key and
     attaching that key to any one of the modifiers Mod1 through
     Mod5. This modifier is called the ``group modifier.'' Group
     1 is used when the group modifier is off, and Group 2 is
     used when the group modifier is on.

     Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym
     to use. The first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock
     modifiers are off. The second keysym is used when the Shift
     modifier is on, when the Lock modifier is on and the second
     keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the Lock modifier is
     on and is interpreted as ShiftLock. Otherwise, when the Lock
     modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state of
     the Shift modifier is applied first to select a keysym; but
     if that keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the correspond-
     ing uppercase keysym is used instead.


     Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command
     line options and arguments.  All applications written with
     the X Toolkit Intrinsics automatically accept the following

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     -display display
             This option specifies the name of the X server to

     -geometry geometry
             This option specifies the initial size and location
             of the window.

     -bg color, -background color
             Either option specifies the color to use for the
             window background.

     -bd color, -bordercolor color
             Either option specifies the color to use for the
             window border.

     -bw number, -borderwidth number
             Either option specifies the width in pixels of the
             window border.

     -fg color, -foreground color
             Either option specifies the color to use for text or

     -fn font, -font font
             Either option specifies the font to use for display-
             ing text.

             This option indicates that the user would prefer
             that the application's windows initially not be
             visible as if the windows had be immediately iconi-
             fied by the user.  Window managers may choose not to
             honor the application's request.

             This option specifies the name under which resources
             for the application should be found.  This option is
             useful in shell aliases to distinguish between invo-
             cations of an application, without resorting to
             creating links to alter the executable file name.

     -rv, -reverse
             Either option indicates that the program should
             simulate reverse video if possible, often by swap-
             ping the foreground and background colors.  Not all
             programs honor this or implement it correctly.  It
             is usually only used on monochrome displays.


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             This option indicates that the program should not
             simulate reverse video. This is used to override any
             defaults since reverse video doesn't always work

             This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds
             within which two communicating applications must
             respond to one another for a selection request.

             This option indicates that requests to the X server
             should be sent synchronously, instead of asynchro-
             nously.  Since Xlib normally buffers requests to the
             server, errors do not necessarily get reported
             immediately after they occur.  This option turns off
             the buffering so that the application can be
             debugged.  It should never be used with a working

     -title string
             This option specifies the title to be used for this
             window.  This information is sometimes used by a
             window manager to provide some sort of header iden-
             tifying the window.

     -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
             This option specifies the language, territory, and
             codeset for use in resolving resource and other

     -xrm resourcestring
             This option specifies a resource name and value to
             override any defaults.  It is also very useful for
             setting resources that don't have explicit command
             line arguments.


     To make the tailoring of applications to personal prefer-
     ences easier, X provides a mechanism for storing default
     values for program resources (e.g. background color, window
     title, etc.) Resources are specified as strings that are
     read in from various places when an application is run. Pro-
     gram components are named in a hierarchical fashion, with
     each node in the hierarchy identified by a class and an
     instance name. At the top level is the class and instance
     name of the application itself. By convention, the class
     name of the application is the same as the program name, but
     with  the first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs)
     although some programs that begin with the letter ``x'' also
     capitalize the second letter for historical reasons.

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     The precise syntax for resources is:

     ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
     Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
     IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
     FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
     ResourceSpec      = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
     ResourceName      = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
     Binding           = "." | "*"
     WhiteSpace        = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
     Component         = "?" | ComponentName
     ComponentName     = NameChar {NameChar}
     NameChar          = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
     Value             = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

     Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.
     Curly braces ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions of
     the enclosed elements. Square brackets ([...]) indicate that
     the enclosed element is optional. Quotes ("...") are used
     around literal characters.

     IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with
     the contents of the specified file.  The word "include" must
     be in lowercase. The filename is interpreted relative to the
     directory of the file in which the line occurs (for example,
     if the filename contains no directory or contains a relative
     directory specification).

     If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or
     more Binding characters, the sequence will be replaced with
     single "." character if the sequence contains only "." char-
     acters, otherwise the sequence will be replaced with a sin-
     gle "*" character.

     A resource database never contains more than one entry for a
     given ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple
     lines with the same ResourceName, the last line in the file
     is used.

     Any whitespace character before or after the name or colon
     in a ResourceSpec are ignored. To allow a Value to begin
     with whitespace, the two-character sequence ``\space''
     (backslash followed by space) is recognized and replaced by
     a space character, and the two-character sequence ``\tab''
     (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized and
     replaced by a horizontal tab character. To allow a Value to
     contain embedded newline characters, the two-character
     sequence ``\n'' is recognized and replaced by a newline
     character. To allow a Value to be broken across multiple
     lines in a text file, the two-character sequence ``\new-
     line'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and
     removed from the value. To allow a Value to contain

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     arbitrary character codes, the four-character sequence
     ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character in the range of
     ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with a single byte
     that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.
     Finally, the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized and
     replaced with a single backslash.

     When an application looks for the value of a resource, it
     specifies a complete path in the hierarchy, with both class
     and instance names. However, resource values are usually
     given with only partially specified names and classes, using
     pattern matching constructs. An asterisk (*) is a loose
     binding and is used to represent any number of intervening
     components, including none. A period (.) is a tight binding
     and is used to separate immediately adjacent components. A
     question mark (?) is used to match any single component name
     or class. A database entry cannot end in a loose binding;
     the final component (which cannot be "?") must be specified.
     The lookup algorithm searches the resource database for the
     entry that most closely matches (is most specific for) the
     full name and class being queried. When more than one data-
     base entry matches the full name and class, precedence rules
     are used to select just one.

     The full name and class are scanned from left to right (from
     highest level in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at
     a time. At each level, the corresponding component and/or
     binding of each matching entry is determined, and these
     matching components and bindings are compared according to
     precedence rules. Each of the rules is applied at each
     level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects
     a single entry over all others. The rules (in order of pre-
     cedence) are:

     1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether
          name, class, or "?") takes precedence over entries that
          elide the level (that is, entries that match the level
          in a loose binding).

     2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over
          both entries with a matching class and entries that
          match using "?". An entry with a matching class takes
          precedence over entries that match using "?".

     3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence
          over entries preceded by a loose binding.

     Programs based on the X Tookit Intrinsics obtain resources
     from the following sources (other programs usually support
     some subset of these sources):

     RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property

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             Any global resources that should be available to
             clients on all machines should be stored in the
             RESOURCE_MANAGER property on the root window of the
             first screen using the xrdb program. This is fre-
             quently taken care of when the user starts up X
             through the display manager or xinit.

     SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
             Any resources specific to a given screen (e.g.
             colors) that should be available to clients on all
             machines should be stored in the SCREEN_RESOURCES
             property on the root window of that screen. The xrdb
             program will sort resources automatically and place
             them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as

     application-specific files
             Directories named by the environment variable XUSER-
             FILESEARCHPATH or the environment variable XAPPLRES-
             DIR (which names a single directory and should end
             with a '/' on POSIX systems), plus directories in a
             standard place (usually under /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/,
             but this can be overridden with the XFILESEARCHPATH
             environment variable) are searched for for
             application-specific resources. For example, appli-
             cation default resources are usually kept in
             /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/. See the X Toolkit
             Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for

             Any user- and machine-specific resources may be
             specified by setting the XENVIRONMENT environment
             variable to the name of a resource file to be loaded
             by all applications.  If this variable is not
             defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
             looked for instead, where hostname is the name of
             the host where the application is executing.

     -xrm resourcestring
             Resources can also be specified from the command
             line.  The resourcestring is a single resource name
             and value as shown above.  Note that if the string
             contains characters interpreted by the shell (e.g.,
             asterisk), they must be quoted. Any number of -xrm
             arguments may be given on the command line.

     Program resources are organized into groups called classes,
     so that collections of individual resources (each of which
     are called instances) can be set all at once.  By conven-
     tion, the instance name of a resource begins with a lower-
     case letter and class name with an upper case letter.

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     Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
     letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications
     written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the
     following resources:

     background (class Background)
             This resource specifies the color to use for the
             window background.

     borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
             This resource specifies the width in pixels of the
             window border.

     borderColor (class BorderColor)
             This resource specifies the color to use for the
             window border.

     Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have
     the resource foreground (class Foreground), specifying the
     color to use for text and graphics within the window.

     By combining class and instance specifications, application
     preferences can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color
     displays will frequently want to set Background and Fore-
     ground classes to particular defaults. Specific color
     instances such as text cursors can then be overridden
     without having to define all of the related resources.  For

         bitmap*Dashed:  off
         XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
         XTerm*multiScroll:  on
         XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
         XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
         XTerm*curses:  on
         XTerm*Font:  6x10
         XTerm*scrollBar: on
         XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
         XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
         XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
         XTerm*cutNewline: off
         XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
         XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
         XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
         XLoad*Background: gold
         XLoad*Foreground: red
         XLoad*highlight: black
         XLoad*borderWidth: 0
         emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
         emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
         emacs*Foreground:  white
         emacs*Cursor:  white

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         emacs*BorderColor:  white
         emacs*Font:  6x10
         xmag*geometry: -0-0
         xmag*borderColor:  white

     If these resources were stored in a file called .Xresources
     in your home directory, they could be added to any existing
     resources in the server with the following command:

         % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

     This is frequently how user-friendly startup scripts merge
     user-specific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All
     sites are encouraged to set up convenient ways of automati-
     cally loading resources. See the Xlib manual section
     Resource Manager Functions for more information.


          This is the only mandatory environment variable. It
          must point to an X server. See section "Display Names"

          This must point to a file that contains authorization
          data. The default is $HOME/.Xauthority. See Xsecu-
          rity(7), xauth(1), xdm(1), Xau(3).

          This must point to a file that contains authorization
          data. The default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

          The first non-empty value among these three determines
          the current locale's facet for character handling, and
          in particular the default text encoding. See locale(7),
          setlocale(3), locale(1).

          This variable can be set to contain additional informa-
          tion important for the current locale setting. Typi-
          cally set to @im=<input-method> to enable a particular
          input method. See XSetLocaleModifiers(3).

          This must point to a directory containing the
          locale.alias file and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file
          hierarchies for all locales. The default value is

          This must point to a file containing X resources. The

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          default is $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>. Unlike
          __projectroot__/lib/X11/Xresources, it is consulted
          each time an X application starts.

          This must contain a colon separated list of path tem-
          plates, where libXt will search for resource files. The
          default value consists of


          A path template is transformed to a pathname by substi-

              %N => name (basename) being searched for
              %T => type (dirname) being searched for
              %S => suffix being searched for
              %C => value of the resource "customization"
                    (class "Customization")
              %L => the locale name
              %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
              %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
              %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

          This must contain a colon separated list of path tem-
          plates, where libXt will search for user dependent
          resource files. The default value is:


          $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

          A path template is transformed to a pathname by substi-

              %N => name (basename) being searched for
              %T => type (dirname) being searched for
              %S => suffix being searched for
              %C => value of the resource "customization"

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                    (class "Customization")
              %L => the locale name
              %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
              %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
              %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

          This must point to a base directory where the user
          stores his application dependent resource files. The
          default value is $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEAR-
          CHPATH is not set.

          This must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym
          definitions. The default value is

          This must point to a color name database file. The
          default value is __projectroot__/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.

          This must point to a configuration file for the Xft
          library. The default value is

          This serves as main identifier for resources belonging
          to the program being executed. It defaults to the
          basename of pathname of the program.

          Denotes the session manager the application should con-
          nect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).

          Setting this variable to a non-empty value disables the
          XFree86-Bigfont extension. This extension is a mechan-
          ism to reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by
          use of shared memory.


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     These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.


     The following is a collection of sample command lines for
     some of the more frequently used commands.  For more infor-
     mation on a particular command, please refer to that
     command's manual page.

         %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
         %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
         %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
         %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
         %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
         %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
         %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
         %  xset q
         %  twm
         %  xmag
         %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
         %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
         %  xbiff -update 20
         %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
         %  xwininfo -root
         %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
         %  xhost -joesworkstation
         %  xrefresh
         %  xwd | xwud
         %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
         %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
         %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*
         %  xon filesysmachine xload


     A wide variety of error messages are generated from various
     programs. The default error handler in Xlib (also used by
     many toolkits) uses standard resources to construct diagnos-
     tic messages when errors occur.  The defaults for these mes-
     sages are usually stored in
     __projectroot__/lib/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file is not
     present, error messages will be rather terse and cryptic.

     When the X Toolkit Intrinsics encounter errors converting
     resource strings to the appropriate internal format, no
     error messages are usually printed.  This is convenient when
     it is desirable to have one set of resources across a
     variety of displays (e.g. color vs. monochrome, lots of
     fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
     trying to determine why an application might be failing.
     This behavior can be overridden by the setting the
     StringConversionsWarning resource.

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     To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string
     conversion error messages, the following resource should be
     placed in the file that gets loaded onto the
     RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb program (frequently
     called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home directory):

         *StringConversionWarnings: on

     To have conversion messages printed for just a particular
     application, the appropriate instance name can be placed
     before the asterisk:

         xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on


     XStandards(7), Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1), bit-
     map(1), editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1),
     iceauth(1), imake(1), lbxproxy(1), makedepend(1),
     mkfontdir(1), oclock(1), proxymngr(1), rgb(1), resize(1),
     rstart(1), smproxy(1), twm(1), x11perf(1), x11perfcomp(1),
     xauth(1), xclipboard(1), xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xconsole(1),
     xdm(1), xdpyinfo(1), xfd(1), xfindproxy(1), xfs(1), xfwp(1),
     xhost(1), xieperf(1), xinit(1), xkbbell(1), xkbcomp(1),
     xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1), xkbwatch(1), xkill(1),
     xlogo(1), xlsatoms(1), xlsclients(1), xlsfonts(1), xmag(1),
     xmh(1), xmodmap(1), xon(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1),
     xrx(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1),
     xwd(1), xwininfo(1), xwud(1). Xserver(1), Xdec(1), Xma-
     cII(1), Xsun(1), Xnest(1), Xvfb(1), XFree86(1), XDarwin(1),
     kbd_mode(1), Xlib - C Language X Interface, and X Toolkit
     Intrinsics - C Language Interface


     X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.


     A cast of thousands, literally.  The Release 6.3 distribu-
     tion is brought to you by X Consortium, Inc.  The names of
     all people who made it a reality will be found in the indi-
     vidual documents and source files.  The staff members at the
     X Consortium responsible for this release are: Donna Con-
     verse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emeritus), Kaleb Keithley,
     Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph Mor (emeritus), Janet
     O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emer-
     itus), and Reed Augliere.

     The X Window System standard was originally developed at the
     Laboratory for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Insti-
     tute of Technology, and all rights thereto were assigned to
     the X Consortium on January 1, 1994. X Consortium, Inc.
     closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All rights to the X
     Window System have been assigned to the Open Software

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