MirBSD manpage: ahc(4)

AHC(4)                     BSD Programmer's Manual                      AHC(4)


     ahc - Adaptec PCI SCSI host adapter driver


     For PCI cards:
     ahc* at pci? dev ? function ?

     For SCSI buses:
     scsibus* at ahc?


     This driver provides access to the SCSI bus(es) connected to Adaptec
     AIC7770, AIC7850, AIC7860, AIC7870, AIC7880, AIC7890, AIC7891, AIC7892,
     AIC7895, AIC7896, AIC7897 and AIC7899 host adapter chips. These chips are
     found on many motherboards as well as the following Adaptec SCSI con-
     troller cards: 274X(W), 274X(T), 284X, 2910, 2915, 2920, 2930C, 2930U2,
     2940, 2940J, 2940N, 2940U, 2940AU, 2940UW, 2940UW Dual, 2940UW Pro,
     2940U2W, 2940U2B, 2950U2W, 2950U2B, 19160B, 29160B, 29160N, 3940, 3940U,
     3940AU, 3940UW, 3940AUW, 3940U2W, 3950U2, 3960, 39160, 3985, and 4944UW.

     Driver features include support for twin and wide buses, fast, ultra, ul-
     tra2 and ultra160 synchronous transfers depending on controller type,
     tagged queuing, and SCB paging, and target mode.

     Memory mapped I/O can be enabled for PCI devices with the
     "AHC_ALLOW_MEMIO" configuration option. Memory mapped I/O is more effi-
     cient than the alternative, programmed I/O. Most PCI BIOSes will map dev-
     ices so that either technique for communicating with the card is avail-
     able. In some cases, usually when the PCI device is sitting behind a PCI-
     >PCI bridge, the BIOS may fail to properly initialize the chip for memory
     mapped I/O. The typical symptom of this problem is a system hang if
     memory mapped I/O is attempted. Most modern motherboards perform the ini-
     tialization correctly and work fine with this option enabled.

     Individual controllers may be configured to operate in the target role
     through the "AHC_TMODE_ENABLE" configuration option. The value assigned
     to this option should be a bitmap of all units where target mode is
     desired. For example, a value of 0x25, would enable target mode on units
     0, 2, and 5. A value of 0x8a enables it for units 1, 3, and 7.

     Per target configuration performed in the SCSI-Select menu, accessible at
     boot in non-EISA models, or through an EISA configuration utility for
     EISA models, is honored by this driver. This includes
     synchronous/asynchronous transfers, maximum synchronous negotiation rate,
     wide transfers, disconnection, the host adapter's SCSI ID, and, in the
     case of EISA Twin Channel controllers, the primary channel selection. For
     systems that store non-volatile settings in a system specific manner
     rather than a serial eeprom directly connected to the aic7xxx controller,
     the BIOS must be enabled for the driver to access this information. This
     restriction applies to all EISA and many motherboard configurations.

     Note that I/O addresses are determined automatically by the probe rou-
     tines, but care should be taken when using a 284x (VESA local bus
     controller) in an EISA system. The jumpers setting the I/O area for the
     284x should match the EISA slot into which the card is inserted to
     prevent conflicts with other EISA cards.

     Performance and feature sets vary throughout the aic7xxx product line.
     The following table provides a comparison of the different chips support-
     ed by the ahc driver. Note that wide and twin channel features, although
     always supported by a particular chip, may be disabled in a particular
     motherboard or card design.

           Chip       MIPS    Bus      MaxSync   MaxWidth  SCBs  Features
           aic7770     10    EISA/VL    10MHz     16Bit     4    1
           aic7850     10    PCI/32     10MHz      8Bit     3
           aic7860     10    PCI/32     20MHz      8Bit     3
           aic7870     10    PCI/32     10MHz     16Bit    16
           aic7880     10    PCI/32     20MHz     16Bit    16
           aic7890     20    PCI/32     40MHz     16Bit    16        3 4 5 6 7 8
           aic7891     20    PCI/64     40MHz     16Bit    16        3 4 5 6 7 8
           aic7892     20    PCI/64     80MHz     16Bit    16        3 4 5 6 7 8
           aic7895     15    PCI/32     20MHz     16Bit    16      2 3 4 5
           aic7895C    15    PCI/32     20MHz     16Bit    16      2 3 4 5     8
           aic7896     20    PCI/32     40MHz     16Bit    16      2 3 4 5 6 7 8
           aic7897     20    PCI/64     40MHz     16Bit    16      2 3 4 5 6 7 8
           aic7899     20    PCI/64     80MHz     16Bit    16      2 3 4 5 6 7 8

           1.   Multiplexed Twin Channel Device - One controller servicing two
           2.   Multi-function Twin Channel Device - Two controllers on one
           3.   Command Channel Secondary DMA Engine - Allows scatter gather
                list and SCB prefetch.
           4.   64 Byte SCB Support - SCSI CDB is embedded in the SCB to elim-
                inate an extra DMA.
           5.   Block Move Instruction Support - Doubles the speed of certain
                sequencer operations.
           6.   'Bayonet' style Scatter Gather Engine - Improves S/G prefetch
           7.   Queuing Registers - Allows queuing of new transactions without
                pausing the sequencer.
           8.   Ultra160 support.
           9.   Multiple Target IDs - Allows the controller to respond to
                selection as a target on multiple SCSI IDs.

     Every transaction sent to a device on the SCSI bus is assigned a 'SCSI
     Control Block' (SCB). The SCB contains all of the information required by
     the controller to process a transaction. The chip feature table lists the
     number of SCBs that can be stored in on-chip memory. All chips with model
     numbers greater than or equal to 7870 allow for the on-chip SCB space to
     be augmented with external SRAM up to a maximum of 255 SCBs. Very few
     Adaptec controller configurations have external SRAM.

     If external SRAM is not available, SCBs are a limited resource. Using the
     SCBs in a straight forward manner would only allow the driver to handle
     as many concurrent transactions as there are physical SCBs. To fully
     utilize the SCSI bus and the devices on it, requires much more concurren-
     cy. The solution to this problem is SCB Paging, a concept similar to
     memory paging. SCB paging takes advantage of the fact that devices usual-
     ly disconnect from the SCSI bus for long periods of time without talking
     to the controller. The SCBs for disconnected transactions are only of use
     to the controller when the transfer is resumed. When the host queues
     another transaction for the controller to execute, the controller
     firmware will use a free SCB if one is available. Otherwise, the state of
     the most recently disconnected (and therefore most likely to stay discon-
     nected) SCB is saved, via DMA, to host memory, and the local SCB reused
     to start the new transaction. This allows the controller to queue up to
     255 transactions regardless of the amount of SCB space. Since the local
     SCB space serves as a cache for disconnected transactions, the more SCB
     space available, the less host bus traffic consumed saving and restoring
     SCB data.


     cd(4), ch(4), intro(4), isa(4), pci(4), scsi(4), sd(4), ss(4), st(4),


     The core ahc driver, the AIC7xxx sequencer-code assembler, and the
     firmware running on the aic7xxx chips were written by Justin T. Gibbs.

     The OpenBSD platform dependent code was written by Steve P. Murphree, Jr
     and Kenneth R. Westerback.


     Some Quantum drives (at least the Empire 2100 and 1080s) will not run on
     an AIC7870 Rev B in synchronous mode at 10MHz. Controllers with this
     problem have a 42 MHz clock crystal on them and run slightly above 10MHz.
     This confuses the drive and hangs the bus. Setting a maximum synchronous
     negotiation rate of 8MHz in the SCSI-Select utility will allow normal

     Although the Ultra2 and Ultra160 products have sufficient instruction ram
     space to support both the initiator and target roles concurrently, this
     configuration is disabled in favor of allowing the target role to respond
     on multiple target ids. A method for configuring dual role mode should be

     Tagged Queuing is not supported in target mode.

     Reselection in target mode fails to function correctly on all high vol-
     tage differential boards as shipped by Adaptec. Information on how to
     modify HVD board to work correctly in target mode is available from Adap-

     The EISA support was dropped in MirBSD #8.

MirBSD #10-current              March 4, 2002                                2

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