MirBSD manpage: I18N::LangTags::List(3p)

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)


     I18N::LangTags::List -- tags and names for human languages


       use I18N::LangTags::List;
       print "Parlez-vous... ", join(', ',
           I18N::LangTags::List::name('elx') || 'unknown_language',
           I18N::LangTags::List::name('ar-Kw') || 'unknown_language',
           I18N::LangTags::List::name('en') || 'unknown_language',
           I18N::LangTags::List::name('en-CA') || 'unknown_language',
         ), "?\n";


       Parlez-vous... Elamite, Kuwait Arabic, English, Canadian English?


     This module provides a function "I18N::LangTags::List::name(
     langtag ) " that takes a language tag (see I18N::LangTags)
     and returns the best attempt at an English name for it, or
     undef if it can't make sense of the tag.

     The function I18N::LangTags::List::name(...) is not

     This module also provides a function
     "I18N::LangTags::List::is_decent( langtag )" that returns
     true iff the language tag is syntactically valid and is for
     general use (like "fr" or "fr-ca", below).  That is, it
     returns false for tags that are syntactically invalid and
     for tags, like "aus", that are listed in brackets below.
     This function is not exported.

     The map of tags-to-names that it uses is accessable as
     %I18N::LangTags::List::Name, and it's the same as the list
     that follows in this documentation, which should be useful
     to you even if you don't use this module.


     Internet language tags, as defined in RFC 3066, are a for-
     malism for denoting human languages.  The two-letter ISO
     639-1 language codes are well known (as "en" for English),
     as are their forms when qualified by a country code
     ("en-US").  Less well-known are the arbitrary-length non-ISO
     codes (like "i-mingo"), and the recently (in 2001) intro-
     duced three-letter ISO-639-2 codes.

     Remember these important facts:

     +   Language tags are not locale IDs.  A locale ID is writ-
         ten with a "_" instead of a "-", (almost?) always
         matches "m/^\w\w_\w\w\b/", and means something different

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           1

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

         than a language tag.  A language tag denotes a language.
         A locale ID denotes a language as used in a particular
         place, in combination with non-linguistic location-
         specific information such as what currency is used
         there.  Locales also often denote character set informa-
         tion, as in "en_US.ISO8859-1".

     +   Language tags are not for computer languages.

     +   "Dialect" is not a useful term, since there is no objec-
         tive criterion for establishing when two language-forms
         are dialects of eachother, or are separate languages.

     +   Language tags are not case-sensitive.  en-US, en-us,
         En-Us, etc., are all the same tag, and denote the same

     +   Not every language tag really refers to a single
         language.  Some language tags refer to conditions:
         i-default (system-message text in English plus maybe
         other languages), und (undetermined language).  Others
         (notably lots of the three-letter codes) are biblio-
         graphic tags that classify whole groups of languages, as
         with cus "Cushitic (Other)" (i.e., a language that has
         been classed as Cushtic, but which has no more specific
         code) or the even less linguistically coherent sai for
         "South American Indian (Other)".  Though useful in
         bibliography, SUCH TAGS ARE NOT FOR GENERAL USE.  For
         further guidance, email me.

     +   Language tags are not country codes.  In fact, they are
         often distinct codes, as with language tag ja for
         Japanese, and ISO 3166 country code ".jp" for Japan.


     The first part of each item is the language tag, between
     {...}.  It is followed by an English name for the language
     or language-group. Language tags that I judge to be not for
     general use, are bracketed.

     This list is in alphabetical order by English name of the

     {ab} : Abkhazian
         eq Abkhaz

     {ace} : Achinese
     {ach} : Acoli
     {ada} : Adangme
     {ady} : Adyghe
         eq Adygei

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           2

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {aa} : Afar
     {afh} : Afrihili

     {af} : Afrikaans
     [{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)]
     {ak} : Akan
         (Formerly "aka".)

     {akk} : Akkadian

     {sq} : Albanian
     {ale} : Aleut
     [{alg} : Algonquian languages]
         NOT Algonquin!

     [{tut} : Altaic (Other)]
     {am} : Amharic
         NOT Aramaic!

     {i-ami} : Ami
         eq Amis.  eq 'Amis.  eq Pangca.

     [{apa} : Apache languages]
     {ar} : Arabic
         Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken media.
         Notable forms: {ar-ae} UAE Arabic; {ar-bh} Bahrain Ara-
         bic; {ar-dz} Algerian Arabic; {ar-eg} Egyptian Arabic;
         {ar-iq} Iraqi Arabic; {ar-jo} Jordanian Arabic; {ar-kw}
         Kuwait Arabic; {ar-lb} Lebanese Arabic; {ar-ly} Libyan
         Arabic; {ar-ma} Moroccan Arabic; {ar-om} Omani Arabic;
         {ar-qa} Qatari Arabic; {ar-sa} Sauda Arabic; {ar-sy}
         Syrian Arabic; {ar-tn} Tunisian Arabic; {ar-ye} Yemen

     {arc} : Aramaic
         NOT Amharic!  NOT Samaritan Aramaic!

     {arp} : Arapaho
     {arn} : Araucanian
     {arw} : Arawak
     {hy} : Armenian
     {an} : Aragonese
     [{art} : Artificial (Other)]
     {ast} : Asturian
         eq Bable.

     {as} : Assamese
     [{ath} : Athapascan languages]
         eq Athabaskan.  eq Athapaskan.  eq Athabascan.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           3

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     [{aus} : Australian languages]
     [{map} : Austronesian (Other)]
     {av} : Avaric
         (Formerly "ava".)

     {ae} : Avestan
         eq Zend

     {awa} : Awadhi
     {ay} : Aymara
     {az} : Azerbaijani
         eq Azeri

         Notable forms: {az-Arab} Azerbaijani in Arabic script;
         {az-Cyrl} Azerbaijani in Cyrillic script; {az-Latn}
         Azerbaijani in Latin script.

     {ban} : Balinese
     [{bat} : Baltic (Other)]
     {bal} : Baluchi
     {bm} : Bambara
         (Formerly "bam".)

     [{bai} : Bamileke languages]
     {bad} : Banda
     [{bnt} : Bantu (Other)]
     {bas} : Basa
     {ba} : Bashkir
     {eu} : Basque
     {btk} : Batak (Indonesia)
     {bej} : Beja
     {be} : Belarusian
         eq Belarussian.  eq Byelarussian. eq Belorussian.  eq
         Byelorussian. eq White Russian.  eq White Ruthenian. NOT

     {bem} : Bemba
     {bn} : Bengali
         eq Bangla.

     [{ber} : Berber (Other)]
     {bho} : Bhojpuri
     {bh} : Bihari
     {bik} : Bikol
     {bin} : Bini
     {bi} : Bislama
         eq Bichelamar.

     {bs} : Bosnian
     {bra} : Braj
     {br} : Breton
     {bug} : Buginese

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           4

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {bg} : Bulgarian
     {i-bnn} : Bunun
     {bua} : Buriat
     {my} : Burmese
     {cad} : Caddo
     {car} : Carib
     {ca} : Catalan
         eq Catalan.  eq Catalonian.

     [{cau} : Caucasian (Other)]
     {ceb} : Cebuano
     [{cel} : Celtic (Other)]
         Notable forms: {cel-gaulish} Gaulish (Historical)

     [{cai} : Central American Indian (Other)]
     {chg} : Chagatai

     [{cmc} : Chamic languages]
     {ch} : Chamorro
     {ce} : Chechen
     {chr} : Cherokee
         eq Tsalagi

     {chy} : Cheyenne
     {chb} : Chibcha
         (Historical)  NOT Chibchan (which is a language family).

     {ny} : Chichewa
         eq Nyanja.  eq Chinyanja.

     {zh} : Chinese
         Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken media.
         Notable forms: {zh-Hans} Chinese, in simplified script;
         {zh-Hant} Chinese, in traditional script; {zh-tw} Taiwan
         Chinese; {zh-cn} PRC Chinese; {zh-sg} Singapore Chinese;
         {zh-mo} Macau Chinese; {zh-hk} Hong Kong Chinese;
         {zh-guoyu} Mandarin [Putonghua/Guoyu]; {zh-hakka} Hakka
         [formerly "i-hakka"]; {zh-min} Hokkien; {zh-min-nan}
         Southern Hokkien; {zh-wuu} Shanghaiese; {zh-xiang}
         Hunanese; {zh-gan} Gan; {zh-yue} Cantonese.

     {chn} : Chinook Jargon
         eq Chinook Wawa.

     {chp} : Chipewyan
     {cho} : Choctaw
     {cu} : Church Slavic
         eq Old Church Slavonic.

     {chk} : Chuukese
         eq Trukese.  eq Chuuk.  eq Truk.  eq Ruk.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           5

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {cv} : Chuvash
     {cop} : Coptic
     {kw} : Cornish
     {co} : Corsican
         eq Corse.

     {cr} : Cree
         NOT Creek!  (Formerly "cre".)

     {mus} : Creek
         NOT Cree!

     [{cpe} : English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
     [{cpf} : French-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
     [{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
     [{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
     {hr} : Croatian
         eq Croat.

     [{cus} : Cushitic (Other)]
     {cs} : Czech
     {dak} : Dakota
         eq Nakota.  eq Latoka.

     {da} : Danish
     {dar} : Dargwa
     {day} : Dayak
     {i-default} : Default (Fallthru) Language
         Defined in RFC 2277, this is for tagging text (which
         must include English text, and might/should include text
         in other appropriate languages) that is emitted in a
         context where language-negotiation wasn't possible -- in
         SMTP mail failure messages, for example.

     {del} : Delaware
     {din} : Dinka
     {dv} : Divehi
         eq Maldivian.  (Formerly "div".)

     {doi} : Dogri
         NOT Dogrib!

     {dgr} : Dogrib
         NOT Dogri!

     [{dra} : Dravidian (Other)]
     {dua} : Duala
     {nl} : Dutch
         eq Netherlander.  Notable forms: {nl-nl} Netherlands
         Dutch; {nl-be} Belgian Dutch.

     {dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350)

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           6

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)


     {dyu} : Dyula
     {dz} : Dzongkha
     {efi} : Efik
     {egy} : Ancient Egyptian

     {eka} : Ekajuk
     {elx} : Elamite

     {en} : English
         Notable forms: {en-au} Australian English; {en-bz} Bel-
         ize English; {en-ca} Canadian English; {en-gb} UK
         English; {en-ie} Irish English; {en-jm} Jamaican
         English; {en-nz} New Zealand English; {en-ph} Philippine
         English; {en-tt} Trinidad English; {en-us} US English;
         {en-za} South African English; {en-zw} Zimbabwe English.

     {enm} : Old English (1100-1500)

     {ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100)
         eq Anglo-Saxon.  (Historical)

     {i-enochian} : Enochian (Artificial)
     {myv} : Erzya
     {eo} : Esperanto

     {et} : Estonian
     {ee} : Ewe
         (Formerly "ewe".)

     {ewo} : Ewondo
     {fan} : Fang
     {fat} : Fanti
     {fo} : Faroese
     {fj} : Fijian
     {fi} : Finnish
     [{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)]
         eq Finno-Ugric.  NOT Ugaritic!

     {fon} : Fon
     {fr} : French
         Notable forms: {fr-fr} France French; {fr-be} Belgian
         French; {fr-ca} Canadian French; {fr-ch} Swiss French;
         {fr-lu} Luxembourg French; {fr-mc} Monaco French.

     {frm} : Middle French (ca.1400-1600)

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           7

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400)

     {fy} : Frisian
     {fur} : Friulian
     {ff} : Fulah
         (Formerly "ful".)

     {gaa} : Ga
     {gd} : Scots Gaelic
         NOT Scots!

     {gl} : Gallegan
         eq Galician

     {lg} : Ganda
         (Formerly "lug".)

     {gay} : Gayo
     {gba} : Gbaya
     {gez} : Geez
         eq Ge'ez

     {ka} : Georgian
     {de} : German
         Notable forms: {de-at} Austrian German; {de-be} Belgian
         German; {de-ch} Swiss German; {de-de} Germany German;
         {de-li} Liechtenstein German; {de-lu} Luxembourg German.

     {gmh} : Middle High German (ca.1050-1500)

     {goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050)

     [{gem} : Germanic (Other)]
     {gil} : Gilbertese
     {gon} : Gondi
     {gor} : Gorontalo
     {got} : Gothic

     {grb} : Grebo
     {grc} : Ancient Greek
         (Historical)  (Until 15th century or so.)

     {el} : Modern Greek
         (Since 15th century or so.)

     {gn} : Guarani

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           8

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {gu} : Gujarati
     {gwi} : Gwich'in
         eq Gwichin

     {hai} : Haida
     {ht} : Haitian
         eq Haitian Creole

     {ha} : Hausa
     {haw} : Hawaiian

     {he} : Hebrew
         (Formerly "iw".)

     {hz} : Herero
     {hil} : Hiligaynon
     {him} : Himachali
     {hi} : Hindi
     {ho} : Hiri Motu
     {hit} : Hittite

     {hmn} : Hmong
     {hu} : Hungarian
     {hup} : Hupa
     {iba} : Iban
     {is} : Icelandic
     {io} : Ido

     {ig} : Igbo
         (Formerly "ibo".)

     {ijo} : Ijo
     {ilo} : Iloko
     [{inc} : Indic (Other)]
     [{ine} : Indo-European (Other)]
     {id} : Indonesian
         (Formerly "in".)

     {inh} : Ingush
     {ia} : Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association)
         (Artificial)  NOT Interlingue!

     {ie} : Interlingue
         (Artificial)  NOT Interlingua!

     {iu} : Inuktitut
         A subform of "Eskimo".

     {ik} : Inupiaq

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           9

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

         A subform of "Eskimo".

     [{ira} : Iranian (Other)]
     {ga} : Irish
     {mga} : Middle Irish (900-1200)

     {sga} : Old Irish (to 900)

     [{iro} : Iroquoian languages]
     {it} : Italian
         Notable forms: {it-it} Italy Italian; {it-ch} Swiss

     {ja} : Japanese
         (NOT "jp"!)

     {jv} : Javanese
         (Formerly "jw" because of a typo.)

     {jrb} : Judeo-Arabic
     {jpr} : Judeo-Persian
     {kbd} : Kabardian
     {kab} : Kabyle
     {kac} : Kachin
     {kl} : Kalaallisut
         eq Greenlandic "Eskimo"

     {xal} : Kalmyk
     {kam} : Kamba
     {kn} : Kannada
         eq Kanarese.  NOT Canadian!

     {kr} : Kanuri
         (Formerly "kau".)

     {krc} : Karachay-Balkar
     {kaa} : Kara-Kalpak
     {kar} : Karen
     {ks} : Kashmiri
     {csb} : Kashubian
         eq Kashub

     {kaw} : Kawi
     {kk} : Kazakh
     {kha} : Khasi
     {km} : Khmer
         eq Cambodian.  eq Kampuchean.

     [{khi} : Khoisan (Other)]
     {kho} : Khotanese

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          10

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {ki} : Kikuyu
         eq Gikuyu.

     {kmb} : Kimbundu
     {rw} : Kinyarwanda
     {ky} : Kirghiz
     {i-klingon} : Klingon
     {kv} : Komi
     {kg} : Kongo
         (Formerly "kon".)

     {kok} : Konkani
     {ko} : Korean
     {kos} : Kosraean
     {kpe} : Kpelle
     {kro} : Kru
     {kj} : Kuanyama
     {kum} : Kumyk
     {ku} : Kurdish
     {kru} : Kurukh
     {kut} : Kutenai
     {lad} : Ladino
         eq Judeo-Spanish.  NOT Ladin (a minority language in

     {lah} : Lahnda
         NOT Lamba!

     {lam} : Lamba
         NOT Lahnda!

     {lo} : Lao
         eq Laotian.

     {la} : Latin
         (Historical)  NOT Ladin!  NOT Ladino!

     {lv} : Latvian
         eq Lettish.

     {lb} : Letzeburgesch
         eq Luxemburgian, eq Luxemburger.  (Formerly "i-lux".)

     {lez} : Lezghian
     {li} : Limburgish
         eq Limburger, eq Limburgan.  NOT Letzeburgesch!

     {ln} : Lingala
     {lt} : Lithuanian
     {nds} : Low German
         eq Low Saxon.  eq Low German.  eq Low Saxon.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          11

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {art-lojban} : Lojban (Artificial)
     {loz} : Lozi
     {lu} : Luba-Katanga
         (Formerly "lub".)

     {lua} : Luba-Lulua
     {lui} : Luiseno
         eq Luisen~o.

     {lun} : Lunda
     {luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
     {lus} : Lushai
     {mk} : Macedonian
         eq the modern Slavic language spoken in what was Yugos-
         lavia. NOT the form of Greek spoken in Greek Macedonia!

     {mad} : Madurese
     {mag} : Magahi
     {mai} : Maithili
     {mak} : Makasar
     {mg} : Malagasy
     {ms} : Malay
         NOT Malayalam!

     {ml} : Malayalam
         NOT Malay!

     {mt} : Maltese
     {mnc} : Manchu
     {mdr} : Mandar
         NOT Mandarin!

     {man} : Mandingo
     {mni} : Manipuri
         eq Meithei.

     [{mno} : Manobo languages]
     {gv} : Manx
     {mi} : Maori
         NOT Mari!

     {mr} : Marathi
     {chm} : Mari
         NOT Maori!

     {mh} : Marshall
         eq Marshallese.

     {mwr} : Marwari
     {mas} : Masai
     [{myn} : Mayan languages]
     {men} : Mende

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          12

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {mic} : Micmac
     {min} : Minangkabau
     {i-mingo} : Mingo
         eq the Irquoian language West Virginia Seneca.  NOT New
         York Seneca!

     [{mis} : Miscellaneous languages]
         Don't use this.

     {moh} : Mohawk
     {mdf} : Moksha
     {mo} : Moldavian
         eq Moldovan.

     [{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)]
     {lol} : Mongo
     {mn} : Mongolian
         eq Mongol.

     {mos} : Mossi
     [{mul} : Multiple languages]
         Not for normal use.

     [{mun} : Munda languages]
     {nah} : Nahuatl
     {nap} : Neapolitan
     {na} : Nauru
     {nv} : Navajo
         eq Navaho.  (Formerly "i-navajo".)

     {nd} : North Ndebele
     {nr} : South Ndebele
     {ng} : Ndonga
     {ne} : Nepali
         eq Nepalese.  Notable forms: {ne-np} Nepal Nepali;
         {ne-in} India Nepali.

     {new} : Newari
     {nia} : Nias
     [{nic} : Niger-Kordofanian (Other)]
     [{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)]
     {niu} : Niuean
     {nog} : Nogai
     {non} : Old Norse

     [{nai} : North American Indian]
         Do not use this.

     {no} : Norwegian
         Note the two following forms:

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          13

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {nb} : Norwegian Bokmal
         eq Bokmaal, (A form of Norwegian.)  (Formerly "no-bok".)

     {nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk
         (A form of Norwegian.)  (Formerly "no-nyn".)

     [{nub} : Nubian languages]
     {nym} : Nyamwezi
     {nyn} : Nyankole
     {nyo} : Nyoro
     {nzi} : Nzima
     {oc} : Occitan (post 1500)
         eq Provencal, eq Provencal

     {oj} : Ojibwa
         eq Ojibwe.  (Formerly "oji".)

     {or} : Oriya
     {om} : Oromo
     {osa} : Osage
     {os} : Ossetian; Ossetic
     [{oto} : Otomian languages]
         Group of languages collectively called "Otomi".

     {pal} : Pahlavi
         eq Pahlevi

     {i-pwn} : Paiwan
         eq Pariwan

     {pau} : Palauan
     {pi} : Pali

     {pam} : Pampanga
     {pag} : Pangasinan
     {pa} : Panjabi
         eq Punjabi

     {pap} : Papiamento
         eq Papiamentu.

     [{paa} : Papuan (Other)]
     {fa} : Persian
         eq Farsi.  eq Iranian.

     {peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.)
     [{phi} : Philippine (Other)]
     {phn} : Phoenician

     {pon} : Pohnpeian

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          14

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

         NOT Pompeiian!

     {pl} : Polish
     {pt} : Portuguese
         eq Portugese.  Notable forms: {pt-pt} Portugal Por-
         tuguese; {pt-br} Brazilian Portuguese.

     [{pra} : Prakrit languages]
     {pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500)
         eq Old Provencal.  (Historical.)

     {ps} : Pushto
         eq Pashto.  eq Pushtu.

     {qu} : Quechua
         eq Quecha.

     {rm} : Raeto-Romance
         eq Romansh.

     {raj} : Rajasthani
     {rap} : Rapanui
     {rar} : Rarotongan
     [{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.]
     [{roa} : Romance (Other)]
         NOT Romanian!  NOT Romany!  NOT Romansh!

     {ro} : Romanian
         eq Rumanian.  NOT Romany!

     {rom} : Romany
         eq Rom.  NOT Romanian!

     {rn} : Rundi
     {ru} : Russian
         NOT White Russian!  NOT Rusyn!

     [{sal} : Salishan languages]
         Large language group.

     {sam} : Samaritan Aramaic
         NOT Aramaic!

     {se} : Northern Sami
         eq Lappish.  eq Lapp.  eq (Northern) Saami.

     {sma} : Southern Sami
     {smn} : Inari Sami
     {smj} : Lule Sami
     {sms} : Skolt Sami
     [{smi} : Sami languages (Other)]
     {sm} : Samoan

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          15

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {sad} : Sandawe
     {sg} : Sango
     {sa} : Sanskrit

     {sat} : Santali
     {sc} : Sardinian
         eq Sard.

     {sas} : Sasak
     {sco} : Scots
         NOT Scots Gaelic!

     {sel} : Selkup
     [{sem} : Semitic (Other)]
     {sr} : Serbian
         eq Serb.  NOT Sorbian.

         Notable forms: {sr-Cyrl} : Serbian in Cyrillic script;
         {sr-Latn} : Serbian in Latin script.

     {srr} : Serer
     {shn} : Shan
     {sn} : Shona
     {sid} : Sidamo
     {sgn-...} : Sign Languages
         Always use with a subtag.  Notable forms: {sgn-gb} Brit-
         ish Sign Language (BSL); {sgn-ie} Irish Sign Language
         (ESL); {sgn-ni} Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN); {sgn-us}
         American Sign Language (ASL).

         (And so on with other country codes as the subtag.)

     {bla} : Siksika
         eq Blackfoot.  eq Pikanii.

     {sd} : Sindhi
     {si} : Sinhalese
         eq Sinhala.

     [{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)]
     [{sio} : Siouan languages]
     {den} : Slave (Athapascan)
         ("Slavey" is a subform.)

     [{sla} : Slavic (Other)]
     {sk} : Slovak
         eq Slovakian.

     {sl} : Slovenian
         eq Slovene.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          16

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {sog} : Sogdian
     {so} : Somali
     {son} : Songhai
     {snk} : Soninke
     {wen} : Sorbian languages
         eq Wendish.  eq Sorb.  eq Lusatian.  eq Wend.  NOT
         Venda!  NOT Serbian!

     {nso} : Northern Sotho
     {st} : Southern Sotho
         eq Sutu.  eq Sesotho.

     [{sai} : South American Indian (Other)]
     {es} : Spanish
         Notable forms: {es-ar} Argentine Spanish; {es-bo}
         Bolivian Spanish; {es-cl} Chilean Spanish; {es-co}
         Colombian Spanish; {es-do} Dominican Spanish; {es-ec}
         Ecuadorian Spanish; {es-es} Spain Spanish; {es-gt}
         Guatemalan Spanish; {es-hn} Honduran Spanish; {es-mx}
         Mexican Spanish; {es-pa} Panamanian Spanish; {es-pe}
         Peruvian Spanish; {es-pr} Puerto Rican Spanish; {es-py}
         Paraguay Spanish; {es-sv} Salvadoran Spanish; {es-us} US
         Spanish; {es-uy} Uruguayan Spanish; {es-ve} Venezuelan

     {suk} : Sukuma
     {sux} : Sumerian

     {su} : Sundanese
     {sus} : Susu
     {sw} : Swahili
         eq Kiswahili

     {ss} : Swati
     {sv} : Swedish
         Notable forms: {sv-se} Sweden Swedish; {sv-fi} Finland

     {syr} : Syriac
     {tl} : Tagalog
     {ty} : Tahitian
     [{tai} : Tai (Other)]
         NOT Thai!

     {tg} : Tajik
     {tmh} : Tamashek
     {ta} : Tamil
     {i-tao} : Tao
         eq Yami.

     {tt} : Tatar

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          17

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {i-tay} : Tayal
         eq Atayal.  eq Atayan.

     {te} : Telugu
     {ter} : Tereno
     {tet} : Tetum
     {th} : Thai
         NOT Tai!

     {bo} : Tibetan
     {tig} : Tigre
     {ti} : Tigrinya
     {tem} : Timne
         eq Themne.  eq Timene.

     {tiv} : Tiv
     {tli} : Tlingit
     {tpi} : Tok Pisin
     {tkl} : Tokelau
     {tog} : Tonga (Nyasa)
         NOT Tsonga!

     {to} : Tonga (Tonga Islands)
         (Pronounced "Tong-a", not "Tong-ga")

         NOT Tsonga!

     {tsi} : Tsimshian
         eq Sm'algyax

     {ts} : Tsonga
         NOT Tonga!

     {i-tsu} : Tsou
     {tn} : Tswana
         Same as Setswana.

     {tum} : Tumbuka
     [{tup} : Tupi languages]
     {tr} : Turkish
         (Typically in Roman script)

     {ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928)
         (Typically in Arabic script)  (Historical)

     {crh} : Crimean Turkish
         eq Crimean Tatar

     {tk} : Turkmen
         eq Turkmeni.

     {tvl} : Tuvalu

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          18

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {tyv} : Tuvinian
         eq Tuvan.  eq Tuvin.

     {tw} : Twi
     {udm} : Udmurt
     {uga} : Ugaritic
         NOT Ugric!

     {ug} : Uighur
     {uk} : Ukrainian
     {umb} : Umbundu
     {und} : Undetermined
         Not a tag for normal use.

     {ur} : Urdu
     {uz} : Uzbek
         eq Oezbek

         Notable forms: {uz-Cyrl} Uzbek in Cyrillic script;
         {uz-Latn} Uzbek in Latin script.

     {vai} : Vai
     {ve} : Venda
         NOT Wendish!  NOT Wend!  NOT Avestan!  (Formerly "ven".)

     {vi} : Vietnamese
         eq Viet.

     {vo} : Volapuk
         eq Volapuek.  (Artificial)

     {vot} : Votic
         eq Votian.  eq Vod.

     [{wak} : Wakashan languages]
     {wa} : Walloon
     {wal} : Walamo
         eq Wolaytta.

     {war} : Waray
         Presumably the Philippine language Waray-Waray
         (Samaren~o), not the smaller Philippine language Waray
         Sorsogon, nor the extinct Australian language Waray.

     {was} : Washo
         eq Washoe

     {cy} : Welsh
     {wo} : Wolof
     {x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use)
         "x-" is a prefix for language tags that are not
         registered with ISO or IANA.  Example, x-double-dutch

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          19

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

     {xh} : Xhosa
     {sah} : Yakut
     {yao} : Yao
         (The Yao in Malawi?)

     {yap} : Yapese
         eq Yap

     {ii} : Sichuan Yi
     {yi} : Yiddish
         Formerly "ji".  Usually in Hebrew script.

         Notable forms: {yi-latn} Yiddish in Latin script

     {yo} : Yoruba
     [{ypk} : Yupik languages]
         Several "Eskimo" languages.

     {znd} : Zande
     [{zap} : Zapotec]
         (A group of languages.)

     {zen} : Zenaga
         NOT Zend.

     {za} : Zhuang
     {zu} : Zulu
     {zun} : Zuni
         eq Zun~i


     I18N::LangTags and its "See Also" section.


     Copyright (c) 2001+ Sean M. Burke. All rights reserved.

     You can redistribute and/or modify this document under the
     same terms as Perl itself.

     This document is provided in the hope that it will be use-
     ful, but without any warranty; without even the implied war-
     ranty of accuracy, authoritativeness, completeness, merchan-
     tability, or fitness for a particular purpose.

     Email any corrections or questions to me.


     Sean M. Burke, sburke@cpan.org

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          20

Generated on 2022-12-24 01:00:14 by $MirOS: src/scripts/roff2htm,v 1.113 2022/12/21 23:14:31 tg Exp $ — This product includes material provided by mirabilos.

These manual pages and other documentation are copyrighted by their respective writers; their sources are available at the project’s CVSweb, AnonCVS and other mirrors. The rest is Copyright © 2002–2022 MirBSD.

This manual page’s HTML representation is supposed to be valid XHTML/1.1; if not, please send a bug report — diffs preferred.

Kontakt / Impressum & Datenschutzerklärung