MirOS Manual: ExtUtils::MM_Any(3p)


ExtUtils::MM_Any(Perl Programmers Reference GExtUtils::MM_Any(3p)

NAME

     ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform-agnostic MM methods

SYNOPSIS

       FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY!

       package ExtUtils::MM_SomeOS;

       # Temporarily, you have to subclass both.  Put MM_Any first.
       require ExtUtils::MM_Any;
       require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;
       @ISA = qw(ExtUtils::MM_Any ExtUtils::Unix);

DESCRIPTION

     FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY!

     ExtUtils::MM_Any is a superclass for the ExtUtils::MM_* set
     of modules.  It contains methods which are either inherently
     cross-platform or are written in a cross-platform manner.

     Subclass off of ExtUtils::MM_Any and ExtUtils::MM_Unix.
     This is a temporary solution.

     THIS MAY BE TEMPORARY!

METHODS

     Any methods marked Abstract must be implemented by subc-
     lasses.

     Cross-platform helper methods

     These are methods which help writing cross-platform code.

     os_flavor  Abstract

         my @os_flavor = $mm->os_flavor;

     @os_flavor is the style of operating system this is, usually
     corresponding to the MM_*.pm file we're using.

     The first element of @os_flavor is the major family (ie.
     Unix, Windows, VMS, OS/2, etc...) and the rest are sub fami-
     lies.

     Some examples:

         Cygwin98       ('Unix',  'Cygwin', 'Cygwin9x')
         Windows NT     ('Win32', 'WinNT')
         Win98          ('Win32', 'Win9x')
         Linux          ('Unix',  'Linux')
         MacOS X        ('Unix',  'Darwin', 'MacOS', 'MacOS X')
         OS/2           ('OS/2')

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     This is used to write code for styles of operating system.
     See os_flavor_is() for use.

     os_flavor_is

         my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is($this_flavor);
         my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is(@one_of_these_flavors);

     Checks to see if the current operating system is one of the
     given flavors.

     This is useful for code like:

         if( $mm->os_flavor_is('Unix') ) {
             $out = `foo 2>&1`;
         }
         else {
             $out = `foo`;
         }

     split_command

         my @cmds = $MM->split_command($cmd, @args);

     Most OS have a maximum command length they can execute at
     once.  Large modules can easily generate commands well past
     that limit.  Its necessary to split long commands up into a
     series of shorter commands.

     "split_command" will return a series of @cmds each process-
     ing part of the args.  Collectively they will process all
     the arguments.  Each individual line in @cmds will not be
     longer than the $self->max_exec_len being careful to take
     into account macro expansion.

     $cmd should include any switches and repeated initial argu-
     ments.

     If no @args are given, no @cmds will be returned.

     Pairs of arguments will always be preserved in a single com-
     mand, this is a heuristic for things like pm_to_blib and
     pod2man which work on pairs of arguments.  This makes things
     like this safe:

         $self->split_command($cmd, %pod2man);

     echo

         my @commands = $MM->echo($text);
         my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file);
         my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file, $appending);

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     Generates a set of @commands which print the $text to a
     $file.

     If $file is not given, output goes to STDOUT.

     If $appending is true the $file will be appended to rather
     than overwritten.

     wraplist

       my $args = $mm->wraplist(@list);

     Takes an array of items and turns them into a well-formatted
     list of arguments.  In most cases this is simply something
     like:

         FOO \
         BAR \
         BAZ

     cd  Abstract

       my $subdir_cmd = $MM->cd($subdir, @cmds);

     This will generate a make fragment which runs the @cmds in
     the given $dir.  The rough equivalent to this, except cross
     platform.

       cd $subdir && $cmd

     Currently $dir can only go down one level.  "foo" is fine.
     "foo/bar" is not.  "../foo" is right out.

     The resulting $subdir_cmd has no leading tab nor trailing
     newline.  This makes it easier to embed in a make string.
     For example.

           my $make = sprintf <<'CODE', $subdir_cmd;
       foo :
           $(ECHO) what
           %s
           $(ECHO) mouche
       CODE

     oneliner  Abstract

       my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code);
       my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code, \@switches);

     This will generate a perl one-liner safe for the particular
     platform you're on based on the given $perl_code and
     @switches (a -e is assumed) suitable for using in a make

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     target.  It will use the proper shell quoting and escapes.

     $(PERLRUN) will be used as perl.

     Any newlines in $perl_code will be escaped.  Leading and
     trailing newlines will be stripped.  Makes this idiom much
     easier:

         my $code = $MM->oneliner(<<'CODE', [...switches...]);
     some code here
     another line here
     CODE

     Usage might be something like:

         # an echo emulation
         $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('print "Foo\n"');
         $make = '$oneliner > somefile';

     All dollar signs must be doubled in the $perl_code if you
     expect them to be interpreted normally, otherwise it will be
     considered a make macro.  Also remember to quote make macros
     else it might be used as a bareword.  For example:

         # Assign the value of the $(VERSION_FROM) make macro to $vf.
         $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('$$vf = "$(VERSION_FROM)"');

     Its currently very simple and may be expanded sometime in
     the figure to include more flexible code and switches.

     quote_literal  Abstract

         my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text);

     This will quote $text so it is interpreted literally in the
     shell.

     For example, on Unix this would escape any single-quotes in
     $text and put single-quotes around the whole thing.

     escape_newlines  Abstract

         my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_newlines($text);

     Shell escapes newlines in $text.

     max_exec_len  Abstract

         my $max_exec_len = $MM->max_exec_len;

     Calculates the maximum command size the OS can exec.  Effec-
     tively, this is the max size of a shell command line.

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     Targets

     These are methods which produce make targets.

     all_target

     Generate the default target 'all'.

     blibdirs_target

         my $make_frag = $mm->blibdirs_target;

     Creates the blibdirs target which creates all the direc-
     tories we use in blib/.

     The blibdirs.ts target is deprecated.  Depend on blibdirs
     instead.

     clean (o)

     Defines the clean target.

     clean_subdirs_target

       my $make_frag = $MM->clean_subdirs_target;

     Returns the clean_subdirs target.  This is used by the clean
     target to call clean on any subdirectories which contain
     Makefiles.

     dir_target

         my $make_frag = $mm->dir_target(@directories);

     Generates targets to create the specified directories and
     set its permission to 0755.

     Because depending on a directory to just ensure it exists
     doesn't work too well (the modified time changes too often)
     dir_target() creates a .exists file in the created direc-
     tory.  It is this you should depend on. For portability pur-
     poses you should use the $(DIRFILESEP) macro rather than a
     '/' to seperate the directory from the file.

         yourdirectory$(DIRFILESEP).exists

     distdir

     Defines the scratch directory target that will hold the dis-
     tribution before tar-ing (or shar-ing).

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     dist_test

     Defines a target that produces the distribution in the
     scratchdirectory, and runs 'perl Makefile.PL; make ;make
     test' in that subdirectory.

     dynamic (o)

     Defines the dynamic target.

     makemakerdflt_target

       my $make_frag = $mm->makemakerdflt_target

     Returns a make fragment with the makemakerdeflt_target
     specified. This target is the first target in the Makefile,
     is the default target and simply points off to 'all' just in
     case any make variant gets confused or something gets snuck
     in before the real 'all' target.

     manifypods_target

       my $manifypods_target = $self->manifypods_target;

     Generates the manifypods target.  This target generates man
     pages from all POD files in MAN1PODS and MAN3PODS.

     metafile_target

         my $target = $mm->metafile_target;

     Generate the metafile target.

     Writes the file META.yml YAML encoded meta-data about the
     module in the distdir.  The format follows Module::Build's
     as closely as possible.  Additionally, we include:

         version_from
         installdirs

     distmeta_target

         my $make_frag = $mm->distmeta_target;

     Generates the distmeta target to add META.yml to the MANI-
     FEST in the distdir.

     realclean (o)

     Defines the realclean target.

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     realclean_subdirs_target

       my $make_frag = $MM->realclean_subdirs_target;

     Returns the realclean_subdirs target.  This is used by the
     realclean target to call realclean on any subdirectories
     which contain Makefiles.

     signature_target

         my $target = $mm->signature_target;

     Generate the signature target.

     Writes the file SIGNATURE with "cpansign -s".

     distsignature_target

         my $make_frag = $mm->distsignature_target;

     Generates the distsignature target to add SIGNATURE to the
     MANIFEST in the distdir.

     special_targets

       my $make_frag = $mm->special_targets

     Returns a make fragment containing any targets which have
     special meaning to make.  For example, .SUFFIXES and .PHONY.

     Init methods

     Methods which help initialize the MakeMaker object and mac-
     ros.

     init_INST

         $mm->init_INST;

     Called by init_main.  Sets up all INST_* variables except
     those related to XS code.  Those are handled in init_xs.

     init_INSTALL

         $mm->init_INSTALL;

     Called by init_main.  Sets up all INSTALL_* variables
     (except INSTALLDIRS) and *PREFIX.

     init_INSTALL_from_PREFIX

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       $mm->init_INSTALL_from_PREFIX;

     init_from_INSTALLBASE

         $mm->init_from_INSTALLBASE

     init_VERSION  Abstract

         $mm->init_VERSION

     Initialize macros representing versions of MakeMaker and
     other tools

     MAKEMAKER: path to the MakeMaker module.

     MM_VERSION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker Version

     MM_REVISION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker version control revision
     (for backwards
                  compat)

     VERSION: version of your module

     VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the version (usually
     'VERSION')

     VERSION_SYM: like version but safe for use as an RCS revi-
     sion number

     DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the module version when com-
     piling

     XS_VERSION: version in your .xs file.  Defaults to $(VER-
     SION)

     XS_VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the XS version.

     XS_DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the xs version when com-
     piling.

     Called by init_main.

     init_others  Abstract

         $MM->init_others();

     Initializes the macro definitions used by tools_other() and
     places them in the $MM object.

     If there is no description, its the same as the parameter to
     WriteMakefile() documented in ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

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     Defines at least these macros.

       Macro             Description

       NOOP              Do nothing
       NOECHO            Tell make not to display the command itself

       MAKEFILE
       FIRST_MAKEFILE
       MAKEFILE_OLD
       MAKE_APERL_FILE   File used by MAKE_APERL

       SHELL             Program used to run
                         shell commands

       ECHO              Print text adding a newline on the end
       RM_F              Remove a file
       RM_RF             Remove a directory
       TOUCH             Update a file's timestamp
       TEST_F            Test for a file's existence
       CP                Copy a file
       MV                Move a file
       CHMOD             Change permissions on a
                         file

       UMASK_NULL        Nullify umask
       DEV_NULL          Supress all command output

     init_DIRFILESEP  Abstract

       $MM->init_DIRFILESEP;
       my $dirfilesep = $MM->{DIRFILESEP};

     Initializes the DIRFILESEP macro which is the seperator
     between the directory and filename in a filepath.  ie. / on
     Unix, \ on Win32 and nothing on VMS.

     For example:

         # instead of $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.ld
         $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)$(DIRFILESEP)extralibs.ld

     Something of a hack but it prevents a lot of code duplica-
     tion between MM_* variants.

     Do not use this as a seperator between directories.  Some
     operating systems use different seperators between subdirec-
     tories as between directories and filenames (for example:
     VOLUME:[dir1.dir2]file on VMS).

     init_linker  Abstract

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         $mm->init_linker;

     Initialize macros which have to do with linking.

     PERL_ARCHIVE: path to libperl.a equivalent to be linked to
     dynamic extensions.

     PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER: path to a library which should be put on
     the linker command line after the external libraries to be
     linked to dynamic extensions.  This may be needed if the
     linker is one-pass, and Perl includes some overrides for C
     RTL functions, such as malloc().

     EXPORT_LIST: name of a file that is passed to linker to
     define symbols to be exported.

     Some OSes do not need these in which case leave it blank.

     init_platform

         $mm->init_platform

     Initialize any macros which are for platform specific use
     only.

     A typical one is the version number of your OS specific
     mocule. (ie. MM_Unix_VERSION or MM_VMS_VERSION).

     Tools

     A grab bag of methods to generate specific macros and com-
     mands.

     manifypods

     Defines targets and routines to translate the pods into man-
     pages and put them into the INST_* directories.

     POD2MAN_macro

       my $pod2man_macro = $self->POD2MAN_macro

     Returns a definition for the POD2MAN macro.  This is a pro-
     gram which emulates the pod2man utility.  You can add more
     switches to the command by simply appending them on the
     macro.

     Typical usage:

         $(POD2MAN) --section=3 --perm_rw=$(PERM_RW) podfile1 man_page1 ...

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     test_via_harness

       my $command = $mm->test_via_harness($perl, $tests);

     Returns a $command line which runs the given set of $tests
     with Test::Harness and the given $perl.

     Used on the t/*.t files.

     test_via_script

       my $command = $mm->test_via_script($perl, $script);

     Returns a $command line which just runs a single test
     without Test::Harness.  No checks are done on the results,
     they're just printed.

     Used for test.pl, since they don't always follow
     Test::Harness formatting.

     tool_autosplit

     Defines a simple perl call that runs autosplit. May be
     deprecated by pm_to_blib soon.

     File::Spec wrappers

     ExtUtils::MM_Any is a subclass of File::Spec.  The methods
     noted here override File::Spec.

     catfile

     File::Spec <= 0.83 has a bug where the file part of catfile
     is not canonicalized.  This override fixes that bug.

     Misc

     Methods I can't really figure out where they should go yet.

     find_tests

       my $test = $mm->find_tests;

     Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return
     all tests in t/*.t.

     extra_clean_files

         my @files_to_clean = $MM->extra_clean_files;

     Returns a list of OS specific files to be removed in the
     clean target in addition to the usual set.

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     installvars

         my @installvars = $mm->installvars;

     A list of all the INSTALL* variables without the INSTALL
     prefix.  Useful for iteration or building related variable
     sets.

     libscan

       my $wanted = $self->libscan($path);

     Takes a path to a file or dir and returns an empty string if
     we don't want to include this file in the library.  Other-
     wise it returns the the $path unchanged.

     Mainly used to exclude version control administrative direc-
     tories from installation.

     platform_constants

         my $make_frag = $mm->platform_constants

     Returns a make fragment defining all the macros initialized
     in init_platform() rather than put them in constants().

AUTHOR

     Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> and the denizens of
     makemaker@perl.org with code from ExtUtils::MM_Unix and
     ExtUtils::MM_Win32.

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