MirBSD manpage: cgetcap(3), cgetclose(3), cgetent(3), cgetfirst(3), cgetmatch(3), cgetnext(3), cgetnum(3), cgetset(3), cgetstr(3), cgetusedb(3), cgetustr(3), getcap(3)

GETCAP(3)                  BSD Programmer's Manual                   GETCAP(3)


     cgetent, cgetset, cgetmatch, cgetcap, cgetnum, cgetstr, cgetustr,
     cgetfirst, cgetnext, cgetclose, cgetusedb - capability database access


     #include <stdlib.h>

     cgetent(char **buf, const char **db_array, const char *name);

     cgetset(const char *ent);

     cgetmatch(char *buf, const char *name);

     char *
     cgetcap(char *buf, const char *cap, int type);

     cgetnum(char *buf, const char *cap, long *num);

     cgetstr(char *buf, const char *cap, char **str);

     cgetustr(char *buf, const char *cap, char **str);

     cgetfirst(char **buf, const char **db_array);

     cgetnext(char **buf, const char **db_array);


     cgetusedb(int usedb);


     The cgetent() function extracts the capability record name from the data-
     base specified by the null-terminated file array db_array and returns a
     pointer to a copy of it in buf. cgetent() will first look for files end-
     ing in ".db" (see cap_mkdb(1)) before accessing the ASCII version of the
     capability database. buf must be retained through all subsequent calls to
     cgetmatch(), cgetcap(), cgetnum(), cgetstr(), and cgetustr(), but may
     then be free'd. On success 0 is returned, 1 if the returned record con-
     tains an unresolved tc expansion, -1 if the requested record couldn't be
     found, -2 if a system error occurred (couldn't open or read a file, for
     example) also setting errno, and -3 if a potential reference loop is
     detected (see tc= comments below).

     cgetset() enables the addition of a character buffer containing a single
     capability record entry to the capability database. Conceptually, the en-
     try is added as the first "file" in the database, and is therefore
     searched first on the call to cgetent(). The entry is passed in ent. If
     ent is NULL, the current entry is removed from the database. cgetset()
     must precede the database traversal. It must be called before cgetent().
     If a sequential access is being performed (see below), it must be called
     before the first sequential access call (cgetfirst() or cgetnext()), or
     be directly preceded by a cgetclose() call. On success 0 is returned and
     -1 on failure.

     cgetmatch() will return 0 if name is one of the names of the capability
     record buf, -1 if not.

     cgetcap() searches the capability record buf for the capability cap with
     type type. A type is specified using any single character. If a colon
     (':') is used, an untyped capability will be searched for (see below for
     explanation of types). A pointer to the value of cap in buf is returned
     on success or NULL if the requested capability couldn't be found. The end
     of the capability value is signaled by a ':' or ASCII NUL (see below for
     capability database syntax).

     cgetnum() retrieves the value of the numeric capability cap from the ca-
     pability record pointed to by buf. The numeric value is returned in the
     long pointed to by num. On success 0 is returned, -1 if the requested
     numeric capability couldn't be found.

     cgetstr() retrieves the value of the string capability cap from the capa-
     bility record pointed to by buf. A pointer to a decoded, NUL-terminated,
     malloc'd copy of the string is returned in the char * pointed to by str.
     The number of characters in the decoded string (not including the trail-
     ing NUL) is returned on success, -1 if the requested string capability
     couldn't be found, or -2 if a system error was encountered (storage allo-
     cation failure).

     cgetustr() is identical to cgetstr() except that it does not expand spe-
     cial characters, but rather returns each character of the capability
     string literally.

     cgetfirst() and cgetnext() comprise a function group that provides for
     sequential access of the null-terminated array of file names, db_array.
     cgetfirst() returns the first record in the database and resets the ac-
     cess to the first record. cgetnext() returns the next record in the data-
     base with respect to the record returned by the previous cgetfirst() or
     cgetnext() call. If there is no such previous call, the first record in
     the database is returned. Each record is returned in a malloc'd copy
     pointed to by buf. tc expansion is done (see tc= comments below). Upon
     completion of the database 0 is returned; 1 is returned upon successful
     return of a record with possibly more remaining (the end of the database
     has not been reached yet); 2 is returned if the record contains an un-
     resolved tc expansion; -1 is returned if an system error occurred; and -2
     is returned if a potential reference loop is detected (see tc= comments
     below). Upon completion of database (0 return), the database is closed.

     cgetclose() closes the file descriptor and resets state used for sequen-
     tial access. If neither the cgetfirst() nor the cgetnext() functions have
     been called, cgetclose() has no effect. Note that it does not erase the
     buffer pushed by a call to cgetset(), nor does it free the buffer allo-
     cated by cgetent().

     cgetusedb() allows the user to specify whether to use or ignore database
     files ending in ".db". If usedb is zero, files ending in ".db" will be
     ignored. If usedb is non-zero, files ending in ".db" will be used in
     preference to the text version. The default is to process ".db" files.
     cgetusedb() returns the previous setting.

Capability database syntax

     Capability databases are normally ASCII and may be edited with standard
     text editors. Blank lines and lines beginning with a '#' are comments and
     are ignored. Lines ending with a '\' indicate that the next line is a
     continuation of the current line; the '\' and following newline are ig-
     nored. Long lines are usually continued onto several physical lines by
     ending each line except the last with a '\'.

     Capability databases consist of a series of records, one per logical
     line. Each record contains a variable number of colon-separated fields
     (capabilities). Empty fields consisting entirely of whitespace characters
     (spaces and tabs) are ignored.

     The first capability of each record specifies its names, separated by '|'
     characters. These names are used to reference records in the database. By
     convention, the last name is usually a comment and is not intended as a
     lookup tag. For example, the "vt100" record from the termcap database be-

           d0|vt100|vt100-am|vt100am|dec vt100:

     giving four names that can be used to access the record.

     The remaining non-empty capabilities describe a set of (name, value)
     bindings, consisting of a name optionally followed by a typed value:

           name          typeless [boolean] capability name is present [true]
           nameTvalue    capability (name, T) has value value
           name@         no capability name exists
           nameT@        capability (name, T) does not exist

     Names consist of one or more characters. Names may contain any character
     except ':', but it's usually best to restrict them to the printable char-
     acters and avoid use of graphics like '#', '=', '%', '@', etc. Types are
     single characters used to separate capability names from their associated
     typed values. Types may be any character except a ':'. Typically, graph-
     ics like '#', '=', '%', etc. are used. Values may be any number of char-
     acters and may contain any character except ':'.

Capability database semantics

     Capability records describe a set of (name, value) bindings. Names may
     have multiple values bound to them. Different values for a name are dis-
     tinguished by their types. cgetcap() will return a pointer to a value of
     a name given the capability name and the type of the value.

     The types '#' and '=' are conventionally used to denote numeric and
     string typed values, but no restriction on those types is enforced. The
     functions cgetnum() and cgetstr() can be used to implement the tradition-
     al syntax and semantics of '#' and '='. Typeless capabilities are typi-
     cally used to denote boolean objects with presence or absence indicating
     truth and false values respectively. This interpretation is conveniently
     represented by:

           (getcap(buf, name, ':') != NULL)

     A special capability, tc= name, is used to indicate that the record
     specified by name should be substituted for the tc capability. tc capa-
     bilities may interpolate records which also contain tc capabilities and
     more than one tc capability may be used in a record. A tc expansion scope
     (i.e., where the argument is searched for) contains the file in which the
     tc is declared and all subsequent files in the file array.

     When a database is searched for a capability record, the first matching
     record in the search is returned. When a record is scanned for a capabil-
     ity, the first matching capability is returned; the capability :nameT@:
     will hide any following definition of a value of type T for name; and the
     capability :name@: will prevent any following values of name from being

     These features combined with tc capabilities can be used to generate
     variations of other databases and records by either adding new capabili-
     ties, overriding definitions with new definitions, or hiding following
     definitions via '@' capabilities.

cgetnum() and cgetstr() syntax and semantics

     Two types are predefined by cgetnum() and cgetstr():

           name#number    numeric capability name has value number
           name=string    string capability name has value string
           name#@         the numeric capability name does not exist
           name=@         the string capability name does not exist

     Numeric capability values may be given in one of three numeric bases. If
     the number starts with either '0x' or '0X' it is interpreted as a hexade-
     cimal number (both upper and lower case a-f may be used to denote the ex-
     tended hexadecimal digits). Otherwise, if the number starts with a '0' it
     is interpreted as an octal number. Otherwise the number is interpreted as
     a decimal number.

     String capability values may contain any character. Non-printable ASCII
     codes, new lines, and colons may be conveniently represented by the use
     of escape sequences:

           ^X        ('X' & 037)          control-X
           \b, \B    (ASCII 010)          backspace
           \t, \T    (ASCII 011)          tab
           \n, \N    (ASCII 012)          line feed (newline)
           \f, \F    (ASCII 014)          form feed
           \r, \R    (ASCII 015)          carriage return
           \e, \E    (ASCII 027)          escape
           \c, \C    (:)                  colon
           \\        (\)                  back slash
           \^        (^)                  caret
           \nnn      (ASCII octal nnn)

     A '\' followed by up to three octal digits directly specifies the numeric
     code for a character. The use of ASCII NULs, while easily encoded, causes
     all sorts of problems and must be used with care since NULs are typically
     used to denote the end of strings; many applications use '\200' to
     represent a NUL.


           example|an example of binding multiple values to names:\

     The capability foo has two values bound to it (bar of type '%' and blah
     of type '^') and any other value bindings are hidden. The capability abc
     also has two values bound but only a value of type '$' is prevented from
     being defined in the capability record more.

                new|new_record|a modification of "old":\
                old|old_record|an old database record:\

     The records are extracted by calling cgetent() with file1 preceding
     file2. In the capability record new in file1, fript=bar overrides the de-
     finition of fript=foo interpolated from the capability record old in
     file2, who-cares@ prevents the definition of any who-cares definitions in
     old from being seen, glork#200 is inherited from old, and blah and any-
     thing defined by the record extensions is added to those definitions in
     old. Note that the position of the fript=bar and who-cares@ definitions
     before tc=old is important here. If they were after, the definitions in
     old would take precedence.


     cgetent(), cgetset(), cgetmatch(), cgetnum(), cgetstr(), cgetustr(),
     cgetfirst(), and cgetnext() return a value greater than or equal to 0 on
     success and a value less than 0 on failure. cgetcap() returns a character
     pointer on success and a NULL on failure.

     cgetent() and cgetset() may fail and set errno for any of the errors
     specified for the library functions fopen(3), fclose(3), open(2), and

     cgetent(), cgetset(), cgetstr(), and cgetustr() may fail and set errno as

     [ENOMEM]      No memory to allocate.


     cap_mkdb(1), malloc(3)


     Colon (':') characters cannot be used in names, types, or values.

     There are no checks for tc=name loops in cgetent().

     The buffer added to the database by a call to cgetset() is not unique to
     the database but is rather prepended to any database used.

MirBSD #10-current             November 7, 2020                              4

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