MirBSD manpage: wait(2), wait3(2), wait4(2), waitpid(2), WCOREDUMP(2), WIFCONTINUED(2), WIFEXITED(2), WIFSIGNALED(2), WIFSTOPPED(2), WSTOPSIG(2), WTERMSIG(2)

WAIT(2)                    BSD Programmer's Manual                     WAIT(2)


     wait, waitpid, wait4, wait3 - wait for process termination


     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/wait.h>

     wait(int *status);

     waitpid(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options);

     #include <sys/resource.h>

     wait3(int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage);

     wait4(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage);


     The wait() function suspends execution of its calling process until
     status information is available for a terminated child process, or a sig-
     nal is received. On return from a successful wait() call, the status
     area, if non-zero, is filled in with termination information about the
     process that exited (see below).

     The wait4() call provides a more general interface for programs that need
     to wait for certain child processes, that need resource utilization
     statistics accumulated by child processes, or that require options. The
     other wait functions are implemented using wait4().

     The wpid parameter specifies the set of child processes for which to
     wait. The following symbolic constants are currently defined in

           #define WAIT_ANY        (-1)    /* any process */
           #define WAIT_MYPGRP     0       /* any process in my process group */

     If wpid is set to WAIT_ANY, the call waits for any child process. If wpid
     is set to WAIT_MYPGRP, the call waits for any child process in the pro-
     cess group of the caller. If wpid is greater than zero, the call waits
     for the process with process ID wpid. If wpid is less than -1, the call
     waits for any process whose process group ID equals the absolute value of

     The status parameter is defined below. The options parameter contains the
     bitwise OR of any of the following options:

     WCONTINUED  Causes status to be reported for stopped child processes that
                 have been continued by receipt of a SIGCONT signal.

     WNOHANG     Indicates that the call should not block if there are no
                 processes that wish to report status.

     WUNTRACED   If set, children of the current process that are stopped due
                 to a SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP, or SIGSTOP signal also have
                 their status reported.

     If rusage is non-zero, a summary of the resources used by the terminated
     process and all its children is returned (this information is currently
     not available for stopped processes).

     When the WNOHANG option is specified and no processes wish to report
     status, wait4() returns a process ID of 0.

     The waitpid() call is identical to wait4() with an rusage value of zero.
     The older wait3() call is the same as wait4() with a wpid value of -1.

     The following macros may be used to test the manner of exit of the pro-
     cess. One of the first three macros will evaluate to a non-zero (true)

             True if the process has not terminated, and has continued after a
             job control stop. This macro can be true only if the wait call
             specified the WCONTINUED option).

             True if the process terminated normally by a call to _exit(2) or

             True if the process terminated due to receipt of a signal.

             True if the process has not terminated, but has stopped and can
             be restarted. This macro can be true only if the wait call speci-
             fied the WUNTRACED option or if the child process is being traced
             (see ptrace(2)).

     Depending on the values of those macros, the following macros produce the
     remaining status information about the child process:

             If WIFEXITED(status) is true, evaluates to the low-order 8 bits
             of the argument passed to _exit(2) or exit(3) by the child.

             If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the
             signal that caused the termination of the process.

             If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates as true if the termina-
             tion of the process was accompanied by the creation of a core
             file containing an image of the process when the signal was re-

             If WIFSTOPPED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the
             signal that caused the process to stop.


     See sigaction(2) for a list of termination signals. A status of 0 indi-
     cates normal termination.

     If a parent process terminates without waiting for all of its child
     processes to terminate, the remaining child processes are assigned the
     parent process 1 ID (the init process ID).

     If a signal is caught while any of the wait() calls is pending, the call
     may be interrupted or restarted when the signal-catching routine returns,
     depending on the options in effect for the signal; for further informa-
     tion, see siginterrupt(3).


     If wait() returns due to a stopped or terminated child process, the pro-
     cess ID of the child is returned to the calling process. Otherwise, a
     value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

     If wait4(), wait3() or waitpid() returns due to a stopped or terminated
     child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling
     process. If there are no children not previously awaited, -1 is returned
     with errno set to [ECHILD]. Otherwise, if WNOHANG is specified and there
     are no stopped or exited children, 0 is returned. If an error is detected
     or a caught signal aborts the call, a value of -1 is returned and errno
     is set to indicate the error.


     wait() will fail and return immediately if:

     [ECHILD]      The calling process has no existing unwaited-for child

     [EFAULT]      The status or rusage arguments point to an illegal address.
                   (May not be detected before exit of a child process.)

     [EINTR]       The call was interrupted by a caught signal, or the signal
                   did not have the SA_RESTART flag set.

     [EINVAL]      Invalid or undefined flags were passed in the options argu-


     _exit(2), sigaction(2), exit(3)


     The wait() and waitpid() functions are defined by POSIX; wait4() and
     wait3() are not specified by POSIX. The WCOREDUMP() macro and the ability
     to restart a pending wait() call are extensions to the POSIX interface.


     A wait() function call appeared in Version 2 AT&T UNIX.

MirBSD #10-current            November 29, 2021                              2

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