MirOS Manual: xterm(1)


XTERM(1)            UNIX Programmer's Manual             XTERM(1)

NAME

     xterm - terminal emulator for X

SYNOPSIS

     xterm [-toolkitoption ...] [-option ...]

DESCRIPTION

     The xterm program is a terminal emulator for the X Window
     System. It provides DEC VT102/VT220 (VTxxx) and Tektronix
     4014 compatible terminals for programs that cannot use the
     window system directly. If the underlying operating system
     supports terminal resizing capabilities (for example, the
     SIGWINCH signal in systems derived from 4.3bsd), xterm will
     use the facilities to notify programs running in the window
     whenever it is resized.

     The VTxxx and Tektronix 4014 terminals each have their own
     window so that you can edit text in one and look at graphics
     in the other at the same time. To maintain the correct
     aspect ratio (height/width), Tektronix graphics will be res-
     tricted to the largest box with a 4014's aspect ratio that
     will fit in the window. This box is located in the upper
     left area of the window.

     Although both windows may be displayed at the same time, one
     of them is considered the ``active'' window for receiving
     keyboard input and terminal output. This is the window that
     contains the text cursor. The active window can be chosen
     through escape sequences, the ``VT Options'' menu in the
     VTxxx window, and the ``Tek Options'' menu in the 4014 win-
     dow.

EMULATIONS

     The VT102 emulation is fairly complete, but does not support
     autorepeat. Double-size characters are displayed properly if
     your font server supports scalable fonts. The VT220 emula-
     tion does not support soft fonts, it is otherwise complete.
     Termcap(5) entries that work with xterm include an optional
     platform-specific entry, ``xterm,'' ``vt102,'' ``vt100'' and
     ``ansi,'' and ``dumb.'' xterm automatically searches the
     termcap file in this order for these entries and then sets
     the ``TERM'' and the ``TERMCAP'' environment variables. You
     may also use ``vt220,''  but must set the terminal emulation
     level with the decTerminalID resource. (The ``TERMCAP''
     environment variable is not set if xterm is linked against a
     terminfo library, since the requisite information is not
     provided by the termcap emulation of terminfo libraries).

     Many of the special xterm features may be modified under
     program control through a set of escape sequences different
     from the standard VT102 escape sequences. (See the Xterm
     Control Sequences document.)

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     The Tektronix 4014 emulation is also fairly good. It sup-
     ports 12-bit graphics addressing, scaled to the window size.
     Four different font sizes and five different lines types are
     supported. There is no write-through or defocused mode sup-
     port. The Tektronix text and graphics commands are recorded
     internally by xterm and may be written to a file by sending
     the COPY escape sequence (or through the Tektronix menu; see
     below). The name of the file will be ``COPYyyyy-MM-
     dd.hh:mm:ss'', where yyyy, MM, dd, hh, mm and ss are the
     year, month, day, hour, minute and second when the COPY was
     performed (the file is created in the directory xterm is
     started in, or the home directory for a login xterm).

     Not all of the features described in this manual are neces-
     sarily available in this version of xterm. Some (e.g., the
     non-VT220 extensions) are available only if they were com-
     piled in, though the most commonly-used are in the default
     configuration.

OTHER FEATURES

     Xterm automatically highlights the text cursor when the
     pointer enters the window (selected) and unhighlights it
     when the pointer leaves the window (unselected). If the win-
     dow is the focus window, then the text cursor is highlighted
     no matter where the pointer is.

     In VT102 mode, there are escape sequences to activate and
     deactivate an alternate screen buffer, which is the same
     size as the display area of the window. When activated, the
     current screen is saved and replaced with the alternate
     screen. Saving of lines scrolled off the top of the window
     is disabled until the normal screen is restored. The
     termcap(5) entry for xterm allows the visual editor vi(1) to
     switch to the alternate screen for editing and to restore
     the screen on exit. A popup menu entry makes it simple to
     switch between the normal and alternate screens for cut and
     paste.

     In either VT102 or Tektronix mode, there are escape
     sequences to change the name of the windows. Additionally,
     in VT102 mode, xterm implements the window-manipulation con-
     trol sequences from dtterm, such as resizing the window,
     setting its location on the screen.

     Xterm allows character-based applications to receive mouse
     events (currently button-press and release events, and
     button-motion events) as keyboard control sequences. See
     Xterm Control Sequences for details.

OPTIONS

     The xterm terminal emulator accepts all of the standard X
     Toolkit command line options as well as the following. If

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     the option begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the option is
     restored to its default value. The -version and -help
     options are interpreted even if xterm cannot open the
     display, and are useful for testing and configuration
     scripts:

     -version
             This causes xterm to print a version number to the
             standard output.

     -help   This causes xterm to print out a verbose message
             describing its options. The message is written to
             the standard error.

     The other options are used to control the appearance and
     behavior. Not all options are necessarily configured into
     your copy of xterm.

     -132    Normally, the VT102 DECCOLM escape sequence that
             switches between 80 and 132 column mode is ignored.
             This option causes the DECCOLM escape sequence to be
             recognized, and the xterm window will resize
             appropriately.

     -ah     This option indicates that xterm should always
             highlight the text cursor. By default, xterm will
             display a hollow text cursor whenever the focus is
             lost or the pointer leaves the window.

     +ah     This option indicates that xterm should do text cur-
             sor highlighting based on focus.

     -ai     This option disables active icon support if that
             feature was compiled into xterm. This is equivalent
             to setting the vt100 resource activeIcon to FALSE.

     +ai     This option enables active icon support if that
             feature was compiled into xterm. This is equivalent
             to setting the vt100 resource activeIcon to TRUE.

     -aw     This option indicates that auto-wraparound should be
             allowed. This allows the cursor to automatically
             wrap to the beginning of the next line when when it
             is at the rightmost position of a line and text is
             output.

     +aw     This option indicates that auto-wraparound should
             not be allowed.

     -b number
             This option specifies the size of the inner border
             (the distance between the outer edge of the

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             characters and the window border) in pixels. The
             default is 2.

     +bc     turn off text cursor blinking. This overrides the
             cursorBlink resource.

     -bc     turn on text cursor blinking. This overrides the
             cursorBlink resource.

     -bcf milliseconds
             time text cursor is off when blinking

     -bcn milliseconds
             time text cursor is on when blinking

     -bdc    Set the vt100 resource colorBDMode to FALSE, disa-
             bling the display of characters with bold attribute
             as color

     +bdc    Set the vt100 resource colorBDMode to TRUE, enabling
             the display of characters with bold attribute as
             color rather than bold

     -cb     Set the vt100 resource cutToBeginningOfLine to
             FALSE.

     +cb     Set the vt100 resource cutToBeginningOfLine to TRUE.

     -cc characterclassrange:value[,...]
             This sets classes indicated by the given ranges for
             using in selecting by words. See the section speci-
             fying character classes.

     -cjk_width
             Set the cjkWidth resource to ``true''. When turned
             on, characters with East Asian Ambiguous (A)
             category in UTR 11 have a column width of 2. Othr-
             wise, they have a column width of 1. This may be
             useful for some legacy CJK text terminal-based pro-
             grams assuming box drawings and others to have a
             column width of 2. It also has to be turned on when
             you specify a truetype CJK double-width (bi-
             width/monospace) font either with -fa at the command
             line or faceName resource. The default is ``false''

     +cjk_width
             Reset the cjkWidth resource.

     -class string
             This option allows you to override xterm's resource
             class. Normally it is ``XTerm'', but can be set to
             another class such as ``UXTerm'' to override

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             selected resources.

     -cm     This option disables recognition of ANSI color-
             change escape sequences.

     +cm     This option enables recognition of ANSI color-change
             escape sequences. This is the same as the vt100
             resource colorMode.

     -cn     This option indicates that newlines should not be
             cut in line-mode selections.

     +cn     This option indicates that newlines should be cut in
             line-mode selections.

     -cr color
             This option specifies the color to use for text cur-
             sor. The default is to use the same foreground color
             that is used for text.

     -cu     This option indicates that xterm should work around
             a bug in the more(1) program that causes it to
             incorrectly display lines that are exactly the width
             of the window and are followed by a line beginning
             with a tab (the leading tabs are not displayed).
             This option is so named because it was originally
             thought to be a bug in the curses(3x) cursor motion
             package.

     +cu     This option indicates that xterm should not work
             around the more(1) bug mentioned above.

     -dc     This option disables the escape sequence to change
             dynamic colors: the vt100 foreground and background
             colors, its text cursor color, the pointer cursor
             foreground and background colors, the Tektronix emu-
             lator foreground and background colors, its text
             cursor color and highlight color.

     +dc     This option enables the escape sequence to change
             dynamic colors.

     -e program [ arguments ... ]
             This option specifies the program (and its command
             line arguments) to be run in the xterm window. It
             also sets the window title and icon name to be the
             basename of the program being executed if neither -T
             nor -n are given on the command line. This must be
             the last option on the command line.

     -en encoding
             This option determines the encoding on which xterm

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             runs. It corresponds to the locale resource. Encod-
             ings other than UTF-8 are supported by using luit.
             The -lc option should be used instead of -en for
             systems with locale support.

     -fb font
             This option specifies a font to be used when
             displaying bold text. This font must be the same
             height and width as the normal font. If only one of
             the normal or bold fonts is specified, it will be
             used as the normal font and the bold font will be
             produced by overstriking this font. The default is
             to do overstriking of the normal font. See also the
             discussion of boldFont and boldMode resources.

     -fa pattern
             This option sets the pattern for fonts selected from
             the FreeType library if support for that library was
             compiled into xterm. This corresponds to the
             faceName resource. When a CJK double-width font is
             specified, you also need to turn on the cjkWidth
             resource.

     -fbb    This option indicates that xterm should compare nor-
             mal and bold fonts bounding boxes to ensure they are
             compatible.

     +fbb    This option indicates that xterm should not compare
             normal and bold fonts bounding boxes to ensure they
             are compatible.

     -fbx    This option indicates that xterm should not assume
             that the normal and bold fonts have VT100 line-
             drawing characters. If any are missing, xterm will
             draw the characters directly.

     +fbx    This option indicates that xterm should assume that
             the normal and bold fonts have VT100 line-drawing
             characters.

     -fd pattern
             This option sets the pattern for double-width fonts
             selected from the FreeType library if support for
             that library was compiled into xterm. This
             corresponds to the faceNameDoublesize resource.

     -fi font
             This option sets the font for active icons if that
             feature was compiled into xterm. See also the dis-
             cussion of the iconFont resource.

     -fs size

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             This option sets the pointsize for fonts selected
             from the FreeType library if support for that
             library was compiled into xterm. This corresponds to
             the faceSize resource.

     -fw font
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying wide text. By default, it will attempt to
             use a font twice as wide as the font that will be
             used to draw normal text. If no doublewidth font is
             found, it will improvise, by stretching the normal
             font. This corresponds to the wideFont resource.

     -fwb font
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying bold wide text. By default, it will
             attempt to use a font twice as wide as the font that
             will be used to draw bold text. If no doublewidth
             font is found, it will improvise, by stretching the
             bold font. This corresponds to the wideBoldFont
             resource.

     -fx font
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying the preedit string in the "OverTheSpot"
             input method. See also the discussion of the ximFont
             resource.

     -hc color
             This option specifies the color to use for the back-
             ground of selected or otherwise highlighted text. If
             not specified, reverse video is used.

     -hf     This option indicates that HP Function Key escape
             codes should be generated for function keys.

     +hf     This option indicates that HP Function Key escape
             codes should not be generated for function keys.

     -hold   Turn on the hold resource, i.e., xterm will not
             immediately destroy its window when the shell com-
             mand completes. It will wait until you use the win-
             dow manager to destroy/kill the window, or if you
             use the menu entries that send a signal, e.g., HUP
             or KILL.

     +hold   Turn off the hold resource, i.e., xterm will immedi-
             ately destroy its window when the shell command com-
             pletes.

     -ie     Turn on the ptyInitialErase resource, i.e., use the
             pseudo-terminal's sense of the stty erase value.

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     +ie     Turn off the ptyInitialErase resource, i.e., set the
             stty erase value using the kb string from the
             termcap entry as a reference, if available.

     -im     Turn on the useInsertMode resource.

     +im     Turn off the useInsertMode resource.

     -into windowId
             Given an X window identifier (a decimal integer),
             xterm will reparent its top-level shell widget to
             that window. This is used to embed xterm within
             other applications.

     -j      This option indicates that xterm should do jump
             scrolling. Normally, text is scrolled one line at a
             time; this option allows xterm to move multiple
             lines at a time so that it does not fall as far
             behind. Its use is strongly recommended since it
             makes xterm much faster when scanning through large
             amounts of text. The VT100 escape sequences for ena-
             bling and disabling smooth scroll as well as the
             ``VT Options'' menu can be used to turn this feature
             on or off.

     +j      This option indicates that xterm should not do jump
             scrolling.

     -k8     This option sets the allowC1Printable resource. When
             allowC1Printable is set, xterm overrides the mapping
             of C1 control characters (code 128-159) to treat
             them as printable.

     +k8     This option resets the allowC1Printable resource.

     -l      Turn logging on. Normally logging is not supported,
             due to security concerns. Some versions of xterm may
             have logging enabled. The logfile is written to the
             directory from which xterm is invoked. The filename
             is generated, of the form

                  XtermLog.XXXXXX

             or

                  Xterm.log.hostname.yyyy.mm.dd.hh.mm.ss.XXXXXX

             depending on how xterm was built.

     +l      Turn logging off.

     -lc     Turn on support of various encodings according to

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             the users' locale setting, i.e., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,
             or LANG environment variables. This is achieved by
             turning on UTF-8 mode and by invoking luit for
             conversion between locale encodings and UTF-8. (luit
             is not invoked in UTF-8 locales.) This corresponds
             to the locale resource.

             The actual list of encodings which are supported is
             determined by luit. Consult the luit manual page for
             further details. See also the discussion of the -u8
             option which supports UTF-8 locales.

     +lc     Turn off support of automatic selection of locale
             encodings. Conventional 8bit mode or, in UTF-8
             locales or with -u8 option, UTF-8 mode will be used.

     -lcc path
             File name for the encoding converter from/to locale
             encodings and UTF-8 which is used with -lc option or
             locale resource. This corresponds to the locale-
             Filter resource.

     -leftbar
             Force scrollbar to the left side of VT100 screen.
             This is the default, unless you have set the
             rightScrollBar resource.

     -lf filename
             Specify the log-filename. See the -l option.

     -ls     This option indicates that the shell that is started
             in the xterm window will be a login shell (i.e., the
             first character of argv[0] will be a dash, indicat-
             ing to the shell that it should read the user's
             .login or .profile).

             The -ls flag and the loginShell resource are ignored
             if -e is also given, because xterm does not know how
             to make the shell start the given command after
             whatever it does when it is a login shell - the
             user's shell of choice need not be a Bourne shell
             after all. Also, xterm -e is supposed to provide a
             consistent functionality for other applications that
             need to start text-mode programs in a window, and if
             loginShell were not ignored, the result of ~/.pro-
             file might interfere with that.

             If you do want the effect of -ls and -a simultane-
             ously, you may get away with something like
                    xterm -e /bin/bash -l -c "my command here"

             Finally, -ls is not completely ignored, because

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             xterm -ls -e does write a /etc/wtmp entry (if con-
             figured to do so), whereas xterm -e does not.

     +ls     This option indicates that the shell that is started
             should not be a login shell (i.e., it will be a nor-
             mal ``subshell'').

     -mb     This option indicates that xterm should ring a mar-
             gin bell when the user types near the right end of a
             line. This option can be turned on and off from the
             ``VT Options'' menu.

     +mb     This option indicates that margin bell should not be
             rung.

     -mc milliseconds
             This option specifies the maximum time between
             multi-click selections.

     -mesg   Turn off the messages resource, i.e., disallow write
             access to the terminal.

     +mesg   Turn on the messages resource, i.e., allow write
             access to the terminal.

     -ms color
             This option specifies the color to be used for the
             pointer cursor. The default is to use the foreground
             color.

     -nb number
             This option specifies the number of characters from
             the right end of a line at which the margin bell, if
             enabled, will ring. The default is 10.

     -nul    This option disables the display of underlining.

     +nul    This option enables the display of underlining.

     -pc     This option enables the PC-style use of bold colors
             (see boldColors resource).

     +pc     This option disables the PC-style use of bold
             colors.

     -pob    This option indicates that the window should be
             raised whenever a Control-G is received.

     +pob    This option indicates that the window should not be
             raised whenever a Control-G is received.

     -rightbar

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             Force scrollbar to the right side of VT100 screen.

     -rvc    This option disables the display of characters with
             reverse attribute as color.

     +rvc    This option enables the display of characters with
             reverse attribute as color.

     -rw     This option indicates that reverse-wraparound should
             be allowed. This allows the cursor to back up from
             the leftmost column of one line to the rightmost
             column of the previous line. This is very useful for
             editing long shell command lines and is encouraged.
             This option can be turned on and off from the ``VT
             Options'' menu.

     +rw     This option indicates that reverse-wraparound should
             not be allowed.

     -s      This option indicates that xterm may scroll asyn-
             chronously, meaning that the screen does not have to
             be kept completely up to date while scrolling. This
             allows xterm to run faster when network latencies
             are very high and is typically useful when running
             across a very large internet or many gateways.

     +s      This option indicates that xterm should scroll syn-
             chronously.

     -samename
             Does not send title and icon name change requests
             when the request would have no effect: the name is
             not changed. This has the advantage of preventing
             flicker and the disadvantage of requiring an extra
             round trip to the server to find out the previous
             value. In practice this should never be a problem.

     +samename
             Always send title and icon name change requests.

     -sb     This option indicates that some number of lines that
             are scrolled off the top of the window should be
             saved and that a scrollbar should be displayed so
             that those lines can be viewed. This option may be
             turned on and off from the ``VT Options'' menu.

     +sb     This option indicates that a scrollbar should not be
             displayed.

     -sf     This option indicates that Sun Function Key escape
             codes should be generated for function keys.

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     +sf     This option indicates that the standard escape codes
             should be generated for function keys.

     -si     This option indicates that output to a window should
             not automatically reposition the screen to the bot-
             tom of the scrolling region. This option can be
             turned on and off from the ``VT Options'' menu.

     +si     This option indicates that output to a window should
             cause it to scroll to the bottom.

     -sk     This option indicates that pressing a key while
             using the scrollbar to review previous lines of text
             should cause the window to be repositioned automati-
             cally in the normal position at the bottom of the
             scroll region.

     +sk     This option indicates that pressing a key while
             using the scrollbar should not cause the window to
             be repositioned.

     -sl number
             This option specifies the number of lines to save
             that have been scrolled off the top of the screen.
             This corresponds to the saveLines resource. The
             default is 64.

     -sm     This option, corresponding to the sessionMgt
             resource, indicates that xterm should set up session
             manager callbacks.

     +sm     This option indicates that xterm should not set up
             session manager callbacks.

     -sp     This option indicates that Sun/PC keyboard should be
             assumed, providing mapping for keypad `+' to `,',
             and CTRL-F1 to F13, CTRL-F2 to F14, etc.

     +sp     This option indicates that the standard escape codes
             should be generated for keypad and function keys.

     -t      This option indicates that xterm should start in
             Tektronix mode, rather than in VT102 mode. Switching
             between the two windows is done using the
             ``Options'' menus. Termcap(5) entries that work with
             xterm ``tek4014,'' ``tek4015,'' ``tek4012'',
             ``tek4013'' and ``tek4010,'' and ``dumb.'' xterm
             automatically searches the termcap file in this
             order for these entries and then sets the ``TERM''
             and the ``TERMCAP'' environment variables.

     +t      This option indicates that xterm should start in

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             VT102 mode.

     -ti term_id
             Specify the name used by xterm to select the correct
             response to terminal ID queries. It also specifies
             the emulation level, used to determine the type of
             response to a DA control sequence. Valid values
             include vt52, vt100, vt101, vt102, and vt220 (the
             "vt" is optional). The default is vt100. The term_id
             argument specifies the terminal ID to use. (This is
             the same as the decTerminalID resource).

     -tm string
             This option specifies a series of terminal setting
             keywords followed by the characters that should be
             bound to those functions, similar to the stty pro-
             gram. The keywords and their values are described in
             detail in the ttyModes resource.

     -tn name
             This option specifies the name of the terminal type
             to be set in the TERM environment variable. It
             corresponds to the termName resource. This terminal
             type must exist in the terminal database (termcap or
             terminfo, depending on how xterm is built) and
             should have li# and co# entries. If the terminal
             type is not found, xterm uses the built-in list
             ``xterm'', ``vt102'', etc.

     -u8     This option sets the utf8 resource. When utf8 is
             set, xterm interprets incoming data as UTF-8. This
             sets the wideChars resource as a side-effect, but
             the UTF-8 mode set by this option prevents it from
             being turned off. If you must turn it on and off,
             use the wideChars resource.

             This option and the utf8 resource are overridden by
             the -lc and -en options and locale resource. That
             is, if xterm has been compiled to support luit, and
             the locale resource is not ``false'' this option is
             ignored. We recommend using the -lc option or the
             ``locale: true'' resource in UTF-8 locales when your
             operating system supports locale, or -en UTF-8
             option or the ``locale: UTF-8'' resource when your
             operating system does not support locale.

     +u8     This option resets the utf8 resource.

     -ulc    This option disables the display of characters with
             underline attribute as color rather than with under-
             lining.

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     +ulc    This option enables the display of characters with
             underline attribute as color rather than with under-
             lining.

     -ut     This option indicates that xterm should not write a
             record into the the system utmp log file.

     +ut     This option indicates that xterm should write a
             record into the system utmp log file.

     -vb     This option indicates that a visual bell is pre-
             ferred over an audible one. Instead of ringing the
             terminal bell whenever a Control-G is received, the
             window will be flashed.

     +vb     This option indicates that a visual bell should not
             be used.

     -wc     This option sets the wideChars resource. When
             wideChars is set, xterm maintains internal struc-
             tures for 16-bit characters. If you do not set this
             resource to ``true'', xterm will ignore the escape
             sequence which turns UTF-8 mode on and off. The
             default is ``false''.

     +wc     This option resets the wideChars resource.

     -wf     This option indicates that xterm should wait for the
             window to be mapped the first time before starting
             the subprocess so that the initial terminal size
             settings and environment variables are correct. It
             is the application's responsibility to catch subse-
             quent terminal size changes.

     +wf     This option indicates that xterm show not wait
             before starting the subprocess.

     -ziconbeep percent
             Same as zIconBeep resource. If percent is non-zero,
             xterms that produce output while iconified will
             cause an XBell sound at the given volume and have
             "***" prepended to their icon titles. Most window
             managers will detect this change immediately, show-
             ing you which window has the output. (A similar
             feature was in x10 xterm.)

     -C      This option indicates that this window should
             receive console output. This is not supported on all
             systems. To obtain console output, you must be the
             owner of the console device, and you must have read
             and write permission for it. If you are running X
             under xdm on the console screen you may need to have

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             the session startup and reset programs explicitly
             change the ownership of the console device in order
             to get this option to work.

     -Sccn   This option allows xterm to be used as an input and
             output channel for an existing program and is some-
             times used in specialized applications. The option
             value specifies the last few letters of the name of
             a pseudo-terminal to use in slave mode, plus the
             number of the inherited file descriptor. If the
             option contains a ``/'' character, that delimits the
             characters used for the pseudo-terminal name from
             the file descriptor. Otherwise, exactly two charac-
             ters are used from the option for the pseudo-
             terminal name, the remainder is the file descriptor.
             Examples:
                    -S123/45
                    -Sab34

             Note that xterm does not close any file descriptor
             which it did not open for its own use. It is possi-
             ble (though probably not portable) to have an appli-
             cation which passes an open file descriptor down to
             xterm past the initialization or the -S option to a
             process running in the xterm.

     The following command line arguments are provided for compa-
     tibility with older versions. They may not be supported in
     the next release as the X Toolkit provides standard options
     that accomplish the same task.

     %geom   This option specifies the preferred size and posi-
             tion of the Tektronix window. It is shorthand for
             specifying the ``*tekGeometry'' resource.

      #geom  This option specifies the preferred position of the
             icon window. It is shorthand for specifying the
             ``*iconGeometry'' resource.

     -T string
             This option specifies the title for xterm's windows.
             It is equivalent to -title.

     -n string
             This option specifies the icon name for xterm's win-
             dows. It is shorthand for specifying the ``*icon-
             Name'' resource. Note that this is not the same as
             the toolkit option -name (see below). The default
             icon name is the application name.

     -r      This option indicates that reverse video should be
             simulated by swapping the foreground and background

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             colors. It is equivalent to -rv.

     -w number
             This option specifies the width in pixels of the
             border surrounding the window. It is equivalent to
             -borderwidth or -bw.

     The following standard X Toolkit command line arguments are
     commonly used with xterm:

     -bd color
             This option specifies the color to use for the
             border of the window. The default is ``black.''

     -bg color
             This option specifies the color to use for the back-
             ground of the window. The default is ``white.''

     -bw number
             This option specifies the width in pixels of the
             border surrounding the window.

     -display display
             This option specifies the X server to contact; see
             X(7).

     -fg color
             This option specifies the color to use for display-
             ing text. The default is ``black.''

     -fn font
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying normal text. The default is fixed.

     -font font
             This is the same as -fn.

     -geometry geometry
             This option specifies the preferred size and posi-
             tion of the VT102 window; see X(7).

     -iconic This option indicates that xterm should ask the win-
             dow manager to start it as an icon rather than as
             the normal window.

     -name name
             This option specifies the application name under
             which resources are to be obtained, rather than the
             default executable file name. Name should not con-
             tain ``.'' or ``*'' characters.

     -rv     This option indicates that reverse video should be

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             simulated by swapping the foreground and background
             colors.

     +rv     Disable the simulation of reverse video by swapping
             foreground and background colors.

     -title string
             This option specifies the window title string, which
             may be displayed by window managers if the user so
             chooses. The default title is the command line
             specified after the -e option, if any, otherwise the
             application name.

     -xrm resourcestring
             This option specifies a resource string to be used.
             This is especially useful for setting resources that
             do not have separate command line options.

RESOURCES

     The program understands all of the core X Toolkit resource
     names and classes. Application specific resources (e.g.,
     "XTerm.NAME") follow:

     backarrowKeyIsErase (class BackarrowKeyIsErase)
             Tie the VTxxx backarrowKey and ptyInitialErase
             resources together by setting the DECBKM state
             according to whether the initial value of stty erase
             is a backspace (8) or delete (127) character. The
             default is ``false'', which disables this feature.

     hold (class Hold)
             If true, xterm will not immediately destroy its win-
             dow when the shell command completes. It will wait
             until you use the window manager to destroy/kill the
             window, or if you use the menu entries that send a
             signal, e.g., HUP or KILL. You may scroll back,
             select text, etc., to perform most graphical opera-
             tions. Resizing the display will lose data, however,
             since this involves interaction with the shell which
             is no longer running.

     hpFunctionKeys (class HpFunctionKeys)
             Specifies whether or not HP Function Key escape
             codes should be generated for function keys instead
             of standard escape sequences.

     iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)
             Specifies the preferred size and position of the
             application when iconified. It is not necessarily
             obeyed by all window managers.

     iconName (class IconName)

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             Specifies the icon name. The default is the applica-
             tion name.

     messages (class Messages)
             Specifies whether write access to the terminal is
             allowed initially. See mesg(1). The default is
             ``true''.

     ptyHandshake (classPtyHandshake)
             If ``true'', xterm will perform handshaking during
             initialization to ensure that the parent and child
             processes update the utmp and stty state. Platforms
             with newer pseudo-terminal interfaces do not require
             this feature; normally it is not configured. The
             default is ``true''.

     ptyInitialErase (class PtyInitialErase)
             If ``true'', xterm will use the pseudo-terminal's
             sense of the stty erase value. If ``false'', xterm
             will set the stty erase value to match its own con-
             figuration, using the kb string from the termcap
             entry as a reference, if available. In either case,
             the result is applied to the TERMCAP variable which
             xterm sets. The default is ``false''.

     sameName (class SameName)
             If the value of this resource is ``true'', xterm
             does not send title and icon name change requests
             when the request would have no effect: the name is
             not changed. This has the advantage of preventing
             flicker and the disadvantage of requiring an extra
             round trip to the server to find out the previous
             value. In practice this should never be a problem.
             The default is ``true''.

     scoFunctionKeys (class ScoFunctionKeys)
             Specifies whether or not SCP Function Key escape
             codes should be generated for function keys instead
             of standard escape sequences.

     sessionMgt (class SessionMgt)
             If the value of this resource is ``true'', xterm
             sets up session manager callbacks for XtNdieCallback
             and XtNsaveCallback. The default is ``true''.

     sunFunctionKeys (class SunFunctionKeys)
             Specifies whether or not Sun Function Key escape
             codes should be generated for function keys instead
             of standard escape sequences.

     sunKeyboard (class SunKeyboard)
             Specifies whether or not Sun/PC keyboard layout

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             should be assumed rather than DEC VT220. This causes
             the keypad `+' to be mapped to `,'. and CTRL F1-F12
             to F11-F20, depending on the setting of the
             ctrlFKeys resource. so xterm emulates a DEC VT220
             more accurately. Otherwise (the default, with sun-
             Keyboard set to ``false''), xterm uses PC-style
             bindings for the function keys and keypad.

             PC-style bindings use the Shift, Alt, Control and
             Meta keys as modifiers for function-keys and keypad
             (see the document Xterm Control Sequences for
             details). The PC-style bindings are analogous to
             PCTerm, but not the same thing. Normally these bind-
             ings do not conflict with the use of the Meta key as
             described for the eightBitInput resource. If they
             do, note that the PC-style bindings are evaluated
             first.

     termName (class TermName)
             Specifies the terminal type name to be set in the
             TERM environment variable.

     title (class Title)
             Specifies a string that may be used by the window
             manager when displaying this application.

     ttyModes (class TtyModes)
             Specifies a string containing terminal setting key-
             words and the characters to which they may be bound.
             Allowable keywords include: brk, dsusp, eof, eol,
             eol2, erase, erase2, flush, intr, kill, lnext, quit,
             rprnt, start, status, stop, susp, swtch and weras.
             Control characters may be specified as ^char (e.g.,
             ^c or ^u) and ^? may be used to indicate delete
             (127). Use ^- to denote undef. Use \034 to represent
             ^\, since a literal backslash in an X resource
             escapes the next character.

             This is very useful for overriding the default ter-
             minal settings without having to do an stty every
             time an xterm is started. Note, however, that the
             stty program on a given host may use different key-
             words; xterm's table is built-in.

     useInsertMode (class UseInsertMode)
             Force use of insert mode by adding appropriate
             entries to the TERMCAP environment variable. This is
             useful if the system termcap is broken. The default
             is ``false.''

     utmpDisplayId (class UtmpDisplayId)
             Specifies whether or not xterm should try to record

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             the display identifier (display number and screen
             number) as well as the hostname in the system utmp
             log file. The default is ``true.''

     utmpInhibit (class UtmpInhibit)
             Specifies whether or not xterm should try to record
             the user's terminal in the system utmp log file. If
             true, xterm will not try. The default is ``false.''

     waitForMap (class WaitForMap)
             Specifies whether or not xterm should wait for the
             initial window map before starting the subprocess.
             The default is ``false.''

     zIconBeep (class ZIconBeep)
             Same as -ziconbeep command line argument. If the
             value of this resource is non-zero, xterms that pro-
             duce output while iconified will cause an XBell
             sound at the given volume and have "***" prepended
             to their icon titles. Most window managers will
             detect this change immediately, showing you which
             window has the output. (A similar feature was in x10
             xterm.) The default is ``false.''

     The following resources are specified as part of the vt100
     widget (class VT100): These are specified by patterns such
     as "XTerm.vt100.NAME":

     activeIcon (class ActiveIcon)
             Specifies whether or not active icon windows are to
             be used when the xterm window is iconified, if this
             feature is compiled into xterm. The active icon is a
             miniature representation of the content of the win-
             dow and will update as the content changes. Not all
             window managers necessarily support application icon
             windows. Some window managers will allow you to
             enter keystrokes into the active icon window. The
             default is ``false.''

     allowC1Printable (class AllowC1Printable)
             If true, overrides the mapping of C1 controls (codes
             128-159) to make them be treated as if they were
             printable characters. Although this corresponds to
             no particular standard, some users insist it is a
             VT100. The default is ``false.''

     allowFontOps (class AllowFontOps)
             Specifies whether control sequences that set/query
             the font should be allowed. The default is
             ``false.''

     allowSendEvents (class AllowSendEvents)

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             Specifies whether or not synthetic key and button
             events (generated using the X protocol SendEvent
             request) should be interpreted or discarded. The
             default is ``false'' meaning they are discarded.
             Note that allowing such events creates a very large
             security hole. The default is ``false.''

     allowWindowOps (class AllowWindowOps)
             Specifies whether extended window control sequences
             (as used in dtterm) for should be allowed. The
             default is ``false.''

     alwaysHighlight (class AlwaysHighlight)
             Specifies whether or not xterm should always display
             a highlighted text cursor. By default (if this
             resource is false), a hollow text cursor is
             displayed whenever the pointer moves out of the win-
             dow or the window loses the input focus. The default
             is ``false.''

     alwaysUseMods (class AlwaysUseMods)
             Override the numLock resource, telling xterm to use
             the Alt and Meta modifiers to construct parameters
             for function key sequences even if those modifiers
             appear in the translations resource. The default is
             ``false.''

     answerbackString (class AnswerbackString)
             Specifies the string that xterm sends in response to
             an ENQ (control/E) character from the host. The
             default is a blank string, i.e., ``''. A hardware
             VT100 implements this feature as a setup option.

     appcursorDefault (class AppcursorDefault)
             If ``true,'' the cursor keys are initially in appli-
             cation mode. This is the same as the VT102 private
             DECCKM mode, The default is ``false.''

     appkeypadDefault (class AppkeypadDefault)
             If ``true,'' the keypad keys are initially in appli-
             cation mode. The default is ``false.''

     autoWrap (class AutoWrap)
             Specifies whether or not auto-wraparound should be
             enabled. This is the same as the VT102 DECAWM. The
             default is ``true.''

     awaitInput (class AwaitInput)
             Specifies whether or not the xterm uses a 50 mil-
             lisecond timeout to await input (i.e., to support
             the Xaw3d arrow scrollbar). The default is
             ``false.''

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     backarrowKey (class BackarrowKey)
             Specifies whether the backarrow key transmits a
             backspace (8) or delete (127) character. This
             corresponds to the DECBKM control sequence. The
             default (backspace) is ``true.'' Pressing the con-
             trol key toggles this behavior.

     background (class Background)
             Specifies the color to use for the background of the
             window. The default is ``white.''

     bellOnReset (class BellOnReset)
             Specifies whether to sound a bell when doing a hard
             reset. The default is ``true.''

     bellSuppressTime (class BellSuppressTime)
             Number of milliseconds after a bell command is sent
             during which additional bells will be suppressed.
             Default is 200. If set non-zero, additional bells
             will also be suppressed until the server reports
             that processing of the first bell has been com-
             pleted; this feature is most useful with the visible
             bell.

     boldColors (class ColorMode)
             Specifies whether to combine bold attribute with
             colors like the IBM PC, i.e., map colors 0 through 7
             to colors 8 through 15. These normally are the
             brighter versions of the first 8 colors, hence bold.
             The default is ``true.''

     boldFont (class BoldFont)
             Specifies the name of the bold font to use instead
             of overstriking. There is no default for this
             resource.

     boldMode (class BoldMode)
             This specifies whether or not text with the bold
             attribute should be overstruck to simulate bold
             fonts if the resolved bold font is the same as the
             normal font. It may be desirable to disable bold
             fonts when color is being used for the bold attri-
             bute. Note that xterm has one bold font which you
             may set explicitly. It attempts to match a bold font
             for the other font selections (font1 through font6).
             If the normal and bold fonts are distinct, this
             resource has no effect. The default is ``true.''

             Although xterm attempts to match a bold font for
             other font selections, the font server may not
             cooperate. Since X11R6, bitmap fonts have been
             scaled. The font server claims to provide the bold

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             font that xterm requests, but the result is not
             always readable. XFree86 provides a feature which
             can be used to suppress the scaling. In the X
             server's configuration file (e.g.,
             "/etc/X11/XFree86"), you can add ":unscaled" to the
             end of the directory specification for the "misc"
             fonts, which comprise the fixed-pitch fonts that are
             used by xterm. For example
                  FontPath  "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc/"

             would become
                  FontPath  "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc/:unscaled"

             Depending on your configuration, the font server may
             have its own configuration file. The same ":uns-
             caled" can be added to its configuration file at the
             end of the directory specification for "misc".

     brokenLinuxOSC (class BrokenLinuxOSC)
             If true, xterm applies a workaround to ignore mal-
             formed control sequences that a Linux script might
             send. Compare the palette control sequences docu-
             mented in console_codes with ECMA-48. The default is
             ``true.''

     brokenSelections (class BrokenSelections)
             If true, xterm in 8-bit mode will interpret STRING
             selections as carrying text in the current locale's
             encoding. Normally STRING selections carry ISO-
             8859-1 encoded text. Setting this resource to
             ``true'' violates the ICCCM; it may, however, be
             useful for interacting with some broken X clients.
             The default is ``false.''

     brokenStringTerm (class BrokenStringTerm)
             provides a work-around for some ISDN routers which
             start an application control string without complet-
             ing it. Set this to ``true'' if xterm appears to
             freeze when connecting. The default is ``false.''

     c132 (class C132)
             Specifies whether or not the VT102 DECCOLM escape
             sequence, used to switch between 80 and 132 columns,
             should be honored. The default is ``false.''

     cacheDoublesize (class CacheDoublesize)
             Specifies the maximum number of double-sized fonts
             which are cached by xterm. The default (8) may be
             too large for some X terminals with limited memory.
             Set this to zero to disable doublesize fonts alto-
             gether.

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     charClass (class CharClass)
             Specifies comma-separated lists of character class
             bindings of the form [low-]high:value. These are
             used in determining which sets of characters should
             be treated the same when doing cut and paste. See
             the CHARACTER CLASSES section.

     cjkWidth (class CjkWidth)
             Specifies whether xterm should follow the tradi-
             tional East Asian width convention. When turned on,
             characters with East Asian Ambiguous (A) category in
             UTR 11 have a column width of 2. You may have to set
             this option to ``true'' if you have some old East
             Asian terminal based programs that assume that
             line-drawing characters have a column width of 2.
             The default is ``false.''

     color0 (class Color0)

     color1 (class Color1)

     color2 (class Color2)

     color3 (class Color3)

     color4 (class Color4)

     color5 (class Color5)

     color6 (class Color6)

     color7 (class Color7)
             These specify the colors for the ISO 6429 extension.
             The defaults are, respectively, black, red3, green3,
             yellow3, a customizable dark blue, magenta3, cyan3,
             and gray90. The default shades of color are chosen
             to allow the colors 8-15 to be used as brighter ver-
             sions.

     color8 (class Color8)

     color9 (class Color9)

     color10 (class Color10)

     color11 (class Color11)

     color12 (class Color12)

     color13 (class Color13)

     color14 (class Color14)

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     color15 (class Color15)
             These specify the colors for the ISO 6429 extension
             if the bold attribute is also enabled. The default
             resource values are respectively, gray30, red,
             green, yellow, a customizable light blue, magenta,
             cyan, and white.

     color16 (class Color16)

     through

     color255 (class Color255)
             These specify the colors for the 256-color exten-
             sion. The default resource values are for colors 16
             through 231 to make a 6x6x6 color cube, and colors
             232 through 255 to make a grayscale ramp.

     colorAttrMode (class ColorAttrMode)
             Specifies whether ``colorBD'', ``colorBL'',
             ``colorUL'', and ``colorRV'' should override ANSI
             colors. If not, these are displayed only when no
             ANSI colors have been set for the corresponding
             position. The default is ``false.''

     colorBD (class ColorBD)
             This specifies the color to use to display bold
             characters if the ``colorBDMode'' resource is
             enabled. The default is ``XtDefaultForeground.''

     colorBDMode (class ColorAttrMode)
             Specifies whether characters with the bold attribute
             should be displayed in color or as bold characters.
             Note that setting colorMode off disables all colors,
             including bold. The default is ``false.''

     colorBL (class ColorBL)
             This specifies the color to use to display blink
             characters if the ``colorBLMode'' resource is
             enabled. The default is ``XtDefaultForeground.''

     colorBLMode (class ColorAttrMode)
             Specifies whether characters with the blink attri-
             bute should be displayed in color. Note that setting
             colorMode off disables all colors, including this.
             The default is ``false.''

     colorMode (class ColorMode)
             Specifies whether or not recognition of ANSI (ISO
             6429) color change escape sequences should be
             enabled. The default is ``true.''

     colorRV (class ColorRV)

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             This specifies the color to use to display reverse
             characters if the ``colorRVMode'' resource is
             enabled. The default is ``XtDefaultForeground.''

     colorRVMode (class ColorAttrMode)
             Specifies whether characters with the reverse attri-
             bute should be displayed in color. Note that setting
             colorMode off disables all colors, including this.
             The default is ``false.''

     colorUL (class ColorUL)
             This specifies the color to use to display under-
             lined characters if the ``colorULMode'' resource is
             enabled. The default is ``XtDefaultForeground.''

     colorULMode (class ColorAttrMode)
             Specifies whether characters with the underline
             attribute should be displayed in color or as under-
             lined characters. Note that setting colorMode off
             disables all colors, including underlining. The
             default is ``false.''

     ctrlFKeys (class CtrlFKeys)
             In VT220 keyboard mode (see sunKeyboard resource),
             specifies the amount by which to shift F1-F12 given
             a control modifier (CTRL). This allows you to gen-
             erate key symbols for F10-F20 on a Sun/PC keyboard.
             The default is ``10'', which means that CTRL F1 gen-
             erates the key symbol for F11.

     curses (class Curses)
             Specifies whether or not the last column bug in
             more(1) should be worked around. See the -cu option
             for details. The default is ``false.''

     cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
             Specifies whether to make the cursor blink. The
             default is ``false.''

     cursorColor (class CursorColor)
             Specifies the color to use for the text cursor. The
             default is ``black.''

     cursorOffTime (class CursorOffTime)
             Specifies the duration of the "off" part of the cur-
             sor blink cycle-time in milliseconds. The same timer
             is used for text blinking. The default is 300.

     cursorOnTime (class CursorOnTime)
             Specifies the duration of the "on" part of the cur-
             sor blink cycle-time, in milliseconds. The same
             timer is used for text blinking. The default is 600.

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     cutNewline (class CutNewline)
             If ``false'', triple clicking to select a line does
             not include the Newline at the end of the line. If
             ``true'', the Newline is selected. The default is
             ``true.''

     cutToBeginningOfLine (class CutToBeginningOfLine)
             If ``false'', triple clicking to select a line
             selects only from the current word forward. If
             ``true'', the entire line is selected. The default
             is ``true.''

     decTerminalID (class DecTerminalID)
             Specifies the emulation level (100=VT100, 220=VT220,
             etc.), used to determine the type of response to a
             DA control sequence. Leading non-digit characters
             are ignored, e.g., "vt100" and "100" are the same.
             The default is 100.

     deleteIsDEL (class DeleteIsDEL)
             Specifies whether the Delete key on the editing
             keypad should send DEL (127) or the VT220-style
             Remove escape sequence. The default is ``false,''
             for the latter.

     dynamicColors (class DynamicColors)
             Specifies whether or not escape sequences to change
             colors assigned to different attributes are recog-
             nized.

     eightBitControl (class EightBitControl)
             Specifies whether or not control sequences sent by
             the terminal should be eight-bit characters or
             escape sequences. The default is ``false.''

     eightBitInput (class EightBitInput)
             If ``true'', Meta characters (a character combined
             with the keys modifier key) input from the keyboard
             are presented as a single character with the eighth
             bit turned on. The terminal is put into 8-bit mode.
             If ``false'', Meta characters are converted into a
             two-character sequence with the character itself
             preceded by ESC. The terminal is put into 7-bit
             mode. The metaSendsEscape resource may override
             this. The default is ``true.''

             Note that the Alt key is not necessarily the same as
             the Meta modifier. xmodmap lists your key modifiers.
             X defines modifiers for shift, (caps) lock and con-
             trol, as well as 5 additional modifiers which are
             generally used to configure key modifiers. xterm
             inspects the same information to find the modifier

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             associated with either Meta key (left or right), and
             uses that key as the Meta modifier. It also looks
             for the NumLock key, to recognize the modifier which
             is associated with that.

             If your xmodmap configuration uses the same keycodes
             for Alt- and Meta-keys, xterm will only see the
             Alt-key definitions, since those are tested before
             Meta-keys. NumLock is tested first. It is important
             to keep these keys distinct; otherwise some of
             xterm's functionality is not available.

     eightBitOutput (class EightBitOutput)
             Specifies whether or not eight-bit characters sent
             from the host should be accepted as is or stripped
             when printed. The default is ``true,'' which means
             that they are accepted as is.

     faceName (class FaceName)
             Specify the pattern for fonts selected from the
             FreeType library if support for that library was
             compiled into xterm. There is no default. If not
             specified, or if there is no match for both normal
             and bold fonts, xterm uses the font and related
             resources.

     faceNameDoublesize (class FaceNameDoublesize)
             Specify an double-width font for cases where an
             application requires this, e.g., in CJK applica-
             tions. There is no default. If the application uses
             double-wide characters and this resource is not
             given, xterm  will use a scaled version of the font
             given by faceName.

     faceSize (class FaceSize)
             Specify the pointsize for fonts selected from the
             FreeType library if support for that library was
             compiled into xterm. The default is ``14.''

     font (class Font)
             Specifies the name of the normal font. The default
             is ``fixed.''

             See the discussion of the locale resource, which
             describes how this font may be overridden.

             NOTE: some resource files use patterns such as
             *font: fixed

             which are overly broad, affecting both
             xterm.vt100.font

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             and
             xterm.vt100..utf8fonts.font

             which is probably not what you intended.

     font1 (class Font1)
             Specifies the name of the first alternative font.

     font2 (class Font2)
             Specifies the name of the second alternative font.

     font3 (class Font3)
             Specifies the name of the third alternative font.

     font4 (class Font4)
             Specifies the name of the fourth alternative font.

     font5 (class Font5)
             Specifies the name of the fifth alternative font.

     font6 (class Font6)
             Specifies the name of the sixth alternative font.

     fontDoublesize (class FontDoublesize)
             Specifies whether xterm should attempt to use font
             scaling to draw doublesize characters. Some older
             font servers cannot do this properly, will return
             misleading font metrics. The default is ``true''. If
             disabled, xterm will simulate doublesize characters
             by drawing normal characters with spaces between
             them.

     forceBoxChars (class ForceBoxChars)
             Specifies whether xterm should assume the normal and
             bold fonts have VT100 line-drawing characters. The
             fixed-pitch fonts used by xterm normally have the
             VT100 line-drawing glyphs in cells 1-31. Other
             fixed-pitch fonts may be more attractive, but lack
             these glyphs. If ``false'', xterm will check for
             missing glyphs in cells 1-31 and make line-drawing
             characters directly. If ``true'', xterm uses what-
             ever is in cells 1-31 without checking. The default
             is ``false.''

     foreground (class Foreground)
             Specifies the color to use for displaying text in
             the window. Setting the class name instead of the
             instance name is an easy way to have everything that
             would normally appear in the text color change
             color. The default is ``black.''

     freeBoldBox (class freeBoldBox)

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             Specifies whether xterm should assume the bounding
             boxes for normal and bold fonts are compatible. If
             ``false'', xterm compares them and will reject
             choices of bold fonts that do not match the size of
             the normal font. The default is ``false'', which
             means that the comparison is performed.

     geometry (class Geometry)
             Specifies the preferred size and position of the
             VT102 window. There is no default for this resource.

     highlightColor (class HighlightColor)
             Specifies the color to use for the background of
             selected or otherwise highlighted text. If not
             specified, reverse video is used. The default is
             ``XtDefaultForeground.''

     highlightSelection (class HighlightSelection)
             If ``false'', selecting with the mouse highlights
             all positions on the screen between the beginning of
             the selection and the current position. If ``true'',
             xterm highlights only the positions that contain
             text that can be selected. The default is ``false.''

             Depending on the way your applications write to the
             screen, there may be trailing blanks on a line.
             Xterm stores data as it is shown on the screen.
             Erasing the display changes the internal state of
             each cell so it is not considered a blank for the
             purpose of selection. Blanks written since the last
             erase are selectable. If you do not wish to have
             trailing blanks in a selection, use the trimSelec-
             tion resource.

     hpLowerleftBugCompat (class HpLowerleftBugCompat)
             Specifies whether to work around a bug in HP's xdb,
             which ignores termcap and always sends ESC F to move
             to the lower left corner. ``true'' causes xterm to
             interpret ESC F as a request to move to the lower
             left corner of the screen. The default is ``false.''

     i18nSelections (class I18nSelections)
             If false, xterm will never request the targets
             COMPOUND_TEXT or TEXT. The default is ``true.'' It
             may be set to false in order to work around ICCCM
             violations by other X clients.

     iconBorderColor (class BorderColor)
             Specifies the border color for the active icon win-
             dow if this feature is compiled into xterm. Not all
             window managers will make the icon border visible.

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     iconBorderWidth (class BorderWidth)
             Specifies the border width for the active icon win-
             dow if this feature is compiled into xterm. The
             default is 0 (no border). Not all window managers
             will make the border visible.

     iconFont (class IconFont)
             Specifies the font for the miniature active icon
             window, if this feature is compiled into xterm. The
             default is "nil2".

     internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
             Specifies the number of pixels between the charac-
             ters and the window border. The default is 2.

     jumpScroll (class JumpScroll)
             Specifies whether or not jump scroll should be used.
             This corresponds to the VT102 DECSCLM private mode.
             The default is ``true.''

     keyboardDialect (class KeyboardDialect)
             Specifies the initial keyboard dialect, as well as
             the default value when the terminal is reset. The
             value given is the same as the final character in
             the control sequences which change character sets.
             The default is ``B'', which corresponds to US ASCII.

     nameKeymap (class NameKeymap)
             See the discussion of the keymap() action.

     limitResize (class LimitResize)
             Limits resizing of the screen via control sequence
             to a given multiple of the display dimensions. The
             default is ``1''.

     locale (class Locale)
             Specifies how to use luit, an encoding converter
             between UTF-8 and locale encodings. The resource
             value (ignoring case) may be:

             true
                 xterm will use the encoding specified by the
                 users' LC_CTYPE locale (i.e., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,
                 or LANG variables) as far as possible. This is
                 realized by always enabling UTF-8 mode and
                 invoking luit in non-UTF-8 locales.

             medium
                 xterm will follow users' LC_CTYPE locale only
                 for UTF-8, east Asian, and Thai locales, where
                 the encodings were not supported by conventional
                 8bit mode with changing fonts. For other

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                 locales, xterm will use conventional 8bit mode.

             checkfont
                 If mini-luit is compiled-in, xterm will check if
                 a Unicode font has been specified.  If so, it
                 checks if the character encoding for the current
                 locale is POSIX, Latin-1 or Latin-9, uses the
                 appropriate mapping to support those with the
                 Unicode font. For other encodings, xterm assumes
                 that UTF-8 encoding is required.

             false
                 xterm will use conventional 8bit mode or UTF-8
                 mode according to utf8 resource or -u8 option.

             Any other value, e.g., ``UTF-8'' or ``ISO8859-2'',
             is assumed to be an encoding name; luit will be
             invoked to support the encoding. The actual list of
             supported encodings depends on luit. The default is
             ``medium''.

             Regardless of your locale and encoding, you need an
             ISO-10646-1 font to display the result. Your confi-
             guration may not include this font, or locale-
             support by xterm may not be needed. At startup,
             xterm uses a mechanism equivalent to the load-vt-
             fonts(utf8Fonts, Utf8Fonts) action to load font name
             subresources of the VT100 widget. That is, resource
             patterns such as "*vt100.utf8Fonts.font" will be
             loaded, and (if this resource is enabled), override
             the normal fonts. If no subresources are found, the
             normal fonts such as "*vt100.font", etc., are used.
             The resource files distributed with xterm use ISO-
             10646-1 fonts, but do not rely on them unless you
             are using the locale mechanism.

     localeFilter (class LocaleFilter)
             Specifies the file name for the encoding converter
             from/to locale encodings and UTF-8 which is used
             with the -lc option or locale resource. The help
             message shown by ``xterm -help'' lists the default
             value, which depends on your system configuration.

     loginShell (class LoginShell)
             Specifies whether or not the shell to be run in the
             window should be started as a login shell. The
             default is ``false.''

     marginBell (class MarginBell)
             Specifies whether or not the bell should be rung
             when the user types near the right margin. The
             default is ``false.''

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     metaSendsEscape (class MetaSendsEscape)
             If ``true'', Meta characters (a character combined
             with the Meta modifier key) are converted into a
             two-character sequence with the character itself
             preceded by ESC. This applies as well to function
             key control sequences, unless xterm sees that Meta
             is used in your key translations. If ``false'', Meta
             characters input from the keyboard are handled
             according to the eightBitInput resource. The default
             is ``false.''

     modifyCursorKeys (class ModifyCursorKeys)
             Tells how to handle the special case where Control-,
             Shift-, Alt- or Meta-modifiers are used to add a
             parameter to the escape sequence returned by a
             cursor-key. Set it to 0 to use the old/obsolete
             behavior. Set it to 1 to prefix modified sequences
             with CSI. Set it to 2 to force the modifier to be
             the second parameter. Set it to 3 to mark the
             sequence with a '>' to hint that it is private. The
             default is ``2''.

     multiClickTime (class MultiClickTime)
             Specifies the maximum time in milliseconds between
             multi-click select events. The default is 250 mil-
             liseconds.

     multiScroll (class MultiScroll)
             Specifies whether or not scrolling should be done
             asynchronously. The default is ``false.''

     nMarginBell (class Column)
             Specifies the number of characters from the right
             margin at which the margin bell should be rung, when
             enabled.

     numLock (class NumLock)
             If ``true'', xterm checks if NumLock is used as a
             modifier (see xmodmap(1)). If so, this modifier is
             used to simplify the logic when implementing special
             NumLock for the sunKeyboard resource. Also (when
             sunKeyboard is false), similar logic is used to find
             the modifier associated with the left and right Alt
             keys. The default is ``true.''

     oldXtermFKeys (class OldXtermFKeys)
             If ``true'', xterm will use old-style control
             sequences for function keys F1 to F4, for compati-
             bility with X Consortium xterm. Otherwise, it uses
             the VT100-style codes for PF1 to PF4. The default is
             ``false.''

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     pointerColor (class PointerColor)
             Specifies the foreground color of the pointer. The
             default is ``XtDefaultForeground.''

     pointerColorBackground (class PointerColorBackground)
             Specifies the background color of the pointer. The
             default is ``XtDefaultBackground.''

     pointerShape (class Cursor)
             Specifies the name of the shape of the pointer. The
             default is ``xterm.''

     popOnBell (class PopOnBell)
             Specifies whether the window whould be raised when
             Control-G is received. The default is ``false.''

     printAttributes (class PrintAttributes)
             Specifies whether to print graphic attributes along
             with the text. A real DEC VTxxx terminal will print
             the underline, highlighting codes but your printer
             may not handle these. A ``0'' disables the attri-
             butes. A ``1'' prints the normal set of attributes
             (bold, underline, inverse and blink) as VT100-style
             control sequences. A ``2'' prints ANSI color attri-
             butes as well. The default is ``1.''

     printerAutoClose (class PrinterAutoClose)
             If ``true'', xterm will close the printer (a pipe)
             when the application switches the printer offline
             with a Media Copy command. The default is ``false.''

     printerCommand (class PrinterCommand)
             Specifies a shell command to which xterm will open a
             pipe when the first MC (Media Copy) command is ini-
             tiated. The default is ``lpr.'' If the resource
             value is given as a blank string, the printer is
             disabled.

     printerControlMode (class PrinterControlMode)
             Specifies the printer control mode. A ``1'' selects
             autoprint mode, which causes xterm to print a line
             from the screen when you move the cursor off that
             line with a line feed, form feed or vertical tab
             character, or an autowrap occurs. Autoprint mode is
             overridden by printer controller mode (a ``2''),
             which causes all of the output to be directed to the
             printer. The default is ``0.''

     printerExtent (class PrinterExtent)
             Controls whether a print page function will print
             the entire page (true), or only the the portion
             within the scrolling margins (false). The default is

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             ``false.''

     printerFormFeed (class PrinterFormFeed)
             Controls whether a form feed is sent to the printer
             at the end of a print page function. The default is
             ``false.''

     renderFont (class RenderFont)
             If xterm is built with the Xft library, this con-
             trols whether the faceName resource is used. The
             default is ``true.''

     resizeGravity (class ResizeGravity)
             Affects the behavior when the window is resized to
             be taller or shorter. NorthWest specifies that the
             top line of text on the screen stay fixed. If the
             window is made shorter, lines are dropped from the
             bottom; if the window is made taller, blank lines
             are added at the bottom. This is compatible with the
             behavior in R4. SouthWest (the default) specifies
             that the bottom line of text on the screen stay
             fixed. If the window is made taller, additional
             saved lines will be scrolled down onto the screen;
             if the window is made shorter, lines will be
             scrolled off the top of the screen, and the top
             saved lines will be dropped.

     reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
             Specifies whether or not reverse video should be
             simulated. The default is ``false.''

     reverseWrap (class ReverseWrap)
             Specifies whether or not reverse-wraparound should
             be enabled. This corresponds to xterm's private mode
             45. The default is ``false.''

     rightScrollBar (class RightScrollBar)
             Specifies whether or not the scrollbar should be
             displayed on the right rather than the left. The
             default is ``false.''

     saveLines (class SaveLines)
             Specifies the number of lines to save beyond the top
             of the screen when a scrollbar is turned on. The
             default is 64.

     scrollBar (class ScrollBar)
             Specifies whether or not the scrollbar should be
             displayed. The default is ``false.''

     scrollKey (class ScrollCond)
             Specifies whether or not pressing a key should

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             automatically cause the scrollbar to go to the bot-
             tom of the scrolling region. This corresponds to
             xterm's private mode 1011. The default is ``false.''

     scrollLines (class ScrollLines)
             Specifies the number of lines that the scroll-back
             and scroll-forw actions should use as a default. The
             default value is 1.

     scrollTtyOutput (class ScrollCond)
             Specifies whether or not output to the terminal
             should automatically cause the scrollbar to go to
             the bottom of the scrolling region. The default is
             ``true.''

     shiftFonts (class ShiftFonts)
             Specifies whether to enable the actions larger-vt-
             font() and smaller-vt-font(), which are normally
             bound to the shifted KP_Add and KP_Subtract. The
             default is ``true.''

     showBlinkAsBold (class ShowBlinkAsBold)
             Tells xterm whether to display text with blink-
             attribute the same as bold. If xterm has not been
             configured to support blinking text, the default is
             ``true.'', which corresponds to older versions of
             xterm, otherwise the default is ``false.''

     showMissingGlyphs (class ShowMissingGlyphs)
             Tells xterm whether to display a box outlining
             places where a character has been used that the font
             does not represent. The default is ``false.''

     signalInhibit (class SignalInhibit)
             Specifies whether or not the entries in the ``Main
             Options'' menu for sending signals to xterm should
             be disallowed. The default is ``false.''

     tekGeometry (class Geometry)
             Specifies the preferred size and position of the
             Tektronix window. There is no default for this
             resource.

     tekInhibit (class TekInhibit)
             Specifies whether or not the escape sequence to
             enter Tektronix mode should be ignored. The default
             is ``false.''

     tekSmall (class TekSmall)
             Specifies whether or not the Tektronix mode window
             should start in its smallest size if no explicit
             geometry is given. This is useful when running xterm

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             on displays with small screens. The default is
             ``false.''

     tekStartup (class TekStartup)
             Specifies whether or not xterm should start up in
             Tektronix mode. The default is ``false.''

     tiXtraScroll (class TiXtraScroll)
             Specifies whether xterm should scroll to a new page
             when processing the ti termcap entry, i.e., the
             private modes 47, 1047 or 1049. This is only in
             effect if titeInhibit is ``true'', because the
             intent of this option is to provide a picture of the
             full-screen application's display on the scrollback
             without wiping out the text that would be shown
             before the application was initialized. The default
             for this resource is ``false.''

     titeInhibit (class TiteInhibit)
             Specifies whether or not xterm should remove ti and
             te termcap entries (used to switch between alternate
             screens on startup of many screen-oriented programs)
             from the TERMCAP string. If set, xterm also ignores
             the escape sequence to switch to the alternate
             screen. Xterm supports terminfo in a different way,
             supporting composite control sequences (also known
             as private modes) 1047, 1048 and 1049 which have the
             same effect as the original 47 control sequence. The
             default for this resource is ``false.''

     translations (class Translations)
             Specifies the key and button bindings for menus,
             selections, ``programmed strings,'' etc. The trans-
             lations resource, which provides much of xterm's
             configurability, is a feature of the X Toolkit
             Intrinsics library (Xt). See the ACTIONS section.

     trimSelection (class TrimSelection)
             If you set highlightSelection, you can see the text
             which is selected, including any trailing spaces.
             Clearing the screen (or a line) resets it to a state
             containing no spaces. Some lines may contain trail-
             ing spaces when an application writes them to the
             screen. However, you may not wish to paste lines
             with trailing spaces. If this resource is true,
             xterm will trim trailing spaces from text which is
             selected. It does not affect spaces which result in
             a wrapped line, nor will it trim the trailing new-
             line from your selection. The default is ``false.''

     underLine (class UnderLine)
             This specifies whether or not text with the

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             underline attribute should be underlined. It may be
             desirable to disable underlining when color is being
             used for the underline attribute. The default is
             ``true.''

     utf8 (class Utf8)
             This specifies whether xterm will run in UTF-8 mode.
             If you set this resource, xterm also sets the
             wideChars resource as a side-effect. The resource is
             an integer, expected to range from 0 to 3:

             0    UTF-8 mode is initially off. Escape sequences
                  for turning UTF-8 mode on/off are allowed.

             1    UTF-8 mode is initially on. Escape sequences
                  for turning UTF-8 mode on/off are allowed.

             2    The command-line option -u8 sets the resource
                  to this value. Escape sequences for turning
                  UTF-8 mode on/off are ignored.

             3    This is the default value of the resource. It
                  is changed during initialization depending on
                  whether the locale resource was set, to 0 or 2.
                  See the locale resource for additional discus-
                  sion of non-UTF-8 locales.

             If you want to set the value of utf8, it should be
             in this range. Other nonzero values are treated the
             same a ``1'', i.e., UTF-8 mode is initially on, and
             escape sequences for turning UTF-8 mode on/off are
             allowed.

     utf8Fonts (class Utf8Fonts)
             See the discussion of the locale resource.

     veryBoldColors (class VeryBoldColors)
             Specifies whether to combine video attributes with
             colors specified by colorBD, colorBL and colorUL.
             The resource value is the sum of values for each
             attribute: 2 for underline, 4 for bold and 8 for
             blink. The default is ``0.''

     visualBell (class VisualBell)
             Specifies whether or not a visible bell (i.e.,
             flashing) should be used instead of an audible bell
             when Control-G is received. The default is
             ``false.''

     visualBellDelay (class VisualBellDelay)
             Number of milliseconds to delay when displaying a
             visual bell. Default is 100. If set to zero, no

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             visual bell is displayed. This is useful for very
             slow displays, e.g., an LCD display on a laptop.

     vt100Graphics (class VT100Graphics)
             This specifies whether xterm will interpret VT100
             graphic character escape sequences while in UTF-8
             mode. The default is ``true'', to provide support
             for various legacy applications.

     wideBoldFont (class WideBoldFont)
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying bold wide text. By default, it will
             attempt to use a font twice as wide as the font that
             will be used to draw bold text. If no doublewidth
             font is found, it will improvise, by stretching the
             bold font.

     wideChars (class WideChars)
             Specifies if xterm should respond to control
             sequences that process 16-bit characters. The
             default is ``false.''

     wideFont (class WideFont)
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying wide text. By default, it will attempt to
             use a font twice as wide as the font that will be
             used to draw normal text. If no doublewidth font is
             found, it will improvise, by stretching the normal
             font.

     ximFont (class XimFont)
             This option specifies the font to be used for
             displaying the preedit string in the "OverTheSpot"
             input method.

             In "OverTheSpot" preedit type, the preedit
             (preconversion) string is displayed at the position
             of the cursor. It is the XIM server's responsibility
             to display the preedit string. The XIM client must
             inform the XIM server of the cursor position. For
             best results, the preedit string must be displayed
             with a proper font. Therefore, xterm informs the XIM
             server of the proper font. The font is be supplied
             by a "fontset", whose default value is "*". This
             matches every font, the X library automatically
             chooses fonts with proper charsets. The ximFont
             resource is provided to override this default font
             setting.

     The following resources are specified as part of the tek4014
     widget (class Tek4014). These are specified by patterns such
     as "XTerm.tek4014.NAME":

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     font2 (class Font)
             Specifies font number 2 to use in the Tektronix win-
             dow.

     font3 (class Font)
             Specifies font number 3 to use in the Tektronix win-
             dow.

     fontLarge (class Font)
             Specifies the large font to use in the Tektronix
             window.

     fontSmall (class Font)
             Specifies the small font to use in the Tektronix
             window.

     ginTerminator (class GinTerminator)
             Specifies what character(s) should follow a GIN
             report or status report. The possibilities are
             ``none,'' which sends no terminating characters,
             ``CRonly,'' which sends CR, and ``CR&EOT,'' which
             sends both CR and EOT. The default is ``none.''

     height (class Height)
             Specifies the height of the Tektronix window in pix-
             els.

     initialFont (class InitialFont)
             Specifies which of the four Tektronix fonts to use
             initially. Values are the same as for the set-tek-
             text action. The default is ``large.''

     width (class Width)
             Specifies the width of the Tektronix window in pix-
             els.

     The resources that may be specified for the various menus
     are described in the documentation for the Athena SimpleMenu
     widget. The name and classes of the entries in each of the
     menus are listed below. Resources named "lineN" where N is a
     number are separators with class SmeLine.

     The mainMenu has the following entries:

     toolbar (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-toolbar(toggle) action.

     securekbd (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the secure() action.

     allowsends (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the allow-send-events(toggle)

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             action.

     redraw (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the redraw() action.

     logging (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the logging(toggle) action.

     print (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the print() action.

     print-redir (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the print-redir() action.

     8-bit-control (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-8-bit-control(toggle)
             action.

     backarrow key (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-backarrow(toggle) action.

     num-lock (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-num-lock(toggle) action.

     meta-esc (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the meta-sends-escape(toggle)
             action.

     delete-is-del (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the delete-is-del(toggle) action.

     oldFunctionKeys (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the old-function-keys(toggle)
             action.

     hpFunctionKeys (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the hp-function-keys(toggle)
             action.

     scoFunctionKeys (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the sco-function-keys(toggle)
             action.

     sunFunctionKeys (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the sun-function-keys(toggle)
             action.

     sunKeyboard (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the sunKeyboard(toggle) action.

     suspend (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the send-signal(tstp) action on

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             systems that support job control.

     continue (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the send-signal(cont) action on
             systems that support job control.

     interrupt (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the send-signal(int) action.

     hangup (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the send-signal(hup) action.

     terminate (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the send-signal(term) action.

     kill (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the send-signal(kill) action.

     quit (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the quit() action.

     The vtMenu has the following entries:

     scrollbar (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-scrollbar(toggle) action.

     jumpscroll (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-jumpscroll(toggle)
             action.

     reversevideo (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-reverse-video(toggle)
             action.

     autowrap (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-autowrap(toggle) action.

     reversewrap (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-reversewrap(toggle)
             action.

     autolinefeed (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-autolinefeed(toggle)
             action.

     appcursor (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-appcursor(toggle) action.

     appkeypad (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-appkeypad(toggle) action.

     scrollkey (class SmeBSB)

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             This entry invokes the set-scroll-on-key(toggle)
             action.

     scrollttyoutput (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-scroll-on-tty-
             output(toggle) action.

     allow132 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-allow132(toggle) action.

     cursesemul (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-cursesemul(toggle)
             action.

     visualbell (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-visualbell(toggle)
             action.

     poponbell (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-poponbell(toggle) action.

     marginbell (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-marginbell(toggle)
             action.

     cursorblink (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-cursorblink(toggle)
             action.

     titeInhibit (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-titeInhibit(toggle)
             action.

     activeicon (class SmeBSB)
             This entry toggles active icons on and off if this
             feature was compiled into xterm. It is enabled only
             if xterm was started with the command line option
             +ai or the activeIcon resource is set to ``True.''

     softreset (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the soft-reset() action.

     hardreset (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the hard-reset() action.

     clearsavedlines (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the clear-saved-lines() action.

     tekshow (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-visibility(tek,toggle)
             action.

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     tekmode (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-terminal-type(tek)
             action.

     vthide (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-visibility(vt,off)
             action.

     altscreen (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-altscreen(toggle) action.

     The fontMenu has the following entries:

     fontdefault (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(d) action.

     font1 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(1) action.

     font2 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(2) action.

     font3 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(3) action.

     font4 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(4) action.

     font5 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(5) action.

     font6 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(6) action.

     fontescape (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(e) action.

     fontsel (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-vt-font(s) action.

     font-linedrawing (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-font-linedrawing(s)
             action.

     font-doublesize (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-font-doublesize(s)
             action.

     render-font (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-render-font(s) action.

     utf8-mode (class SmeBSB)

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             This entry invokes the set-utf8-mode(s) action.

     The tekMenu has the following entries:

     tektextlarge (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-tek-text(l) action.

     tektext2 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-tek-text(2) action.

     tektext3 (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-tek-text(3) action.

     tektextsmall (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-tek-text(s) action.

     tekpage (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the tek-page() action.

     tekreset (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the tek-reset() action.

     tekcopy (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the tek-copy() action.

     vtshow (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-visibility(vt,toggle)
             action.

     vtmode (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-terminal-type(vt) action.

     tekhide (class SmeBSB)
             This entry invokes the set-visibility(tek,toggle)
             action.

     The following resources are useful when specified for the
     Athena Scrollbar widget:

     thickness (class Thickness)
             Specifies the width in pixels of the scrollbar.

     background (class Background)
             Specifies the color to use for the background of the
             scrollbar.

     foreground (class Foreground)
             Specifies the color to use for the foreground of the
             scrollbar. The ``thumb'' of the scrollbar is a sim-
             ple checkerboard pattern alternating pixels for
             foreground and background color.

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POINTER USAGE

     Once the VT102 window is created, xterm allows you to select
     text and copy it within the same or other windows.

     The selection functions are invoked when the pointer buttons
     are used with no modifiers, and when they are used with the
     ``shift'' key. The assignment of the functions described
     below to keys and buttons may be changed through the
     resource database; see ACTIONS below.

     Pointer button one (usually left) is used to save text into
     the cut buffer. Move the cursor to beginning of the text,
     and then hold the button down while moving the cursor to the
     end of the region and releasing the button. The selected
     text is highlighted and is saved in the global cut buffer
     and made the PRIMARY selection when the button is released.
     Double-clicking selects by words. Triple-clicking selects by
     lines. Quadruple-clicking goes back to characters, etc.
     Multiple-click is determined by the time from button up to
     button down, so you can change the selection unit in the
     middle of a selection. Logical words and lines selected by
     double- or triple-clicking may wrap across more than one
     screen line if lines were wrapped by xterm itself rather
     than by the application running in the window. If the
     key/button bindings specify that an X selection is to be
     made, xterm will leave the selected text highlighted for as
     long as it is the selection owner.

     Pointer button two (usually middle) `types' (pastes) the
     text from the PRIMARY selection, if any, otherwise from the
     cut buffer, inserting it as keyboard input.

     Pointer button three (usually right) extends the current
     selection. (Without loss of generality, you can swap
     ``right'' and ``left'' everywhere in the rest of this para-
     graph.)  If pressed while closer to the right edge of the
     selection than the left, it extends/contracts the right edge
     of the selection. If you contract the selection past the
     left edge of the selection, xterm assumes you really meant
     the left edge, restores the original selection, then
     extends/contracts the left edge of the selection. Extension
     starts in the selection unit mode that the last selection or
     extension was performed in; you can multiple-click to cycle
     through them.

     By cutting and pasting pieces of text without trailing new
     lines, you can take text from several places in different
     windows and form a command to the shell, for example, or
     take output from a program and insert it into your favorite
     editor. Since cut buffers are globally shared among dif-
     ferent applications, you may regard each as a `file' whose
     contents you know. The terminal emulator and other text

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     programs should be treating it as if it were a text file,
     i.e., the text is delimited by new lines.

     The scroll region displays the position and amount of text
     currently showing in the window (highlighted) relative to
     the amount of text actually saved. As more text is saved (up
     to the maximum), the size of the highlighted area decreases.

     Clicking button one with the pointer in the scroll region
     moves the adjacent line to the top of the display window.

     Clicking button three moves the top line of the display win-
     dow down to the pointer position.

     Clicking button two moves the display to a position in the
     saved text that corresponds to the pointer's position in the
     scrollbar.

     Unlike the VT102 window, the Tektronix window does not allow
     the copying of text. It does allow Tektronix GIN mode, and
     in this mode the cursor will change from an arrow to a
     cross. Pressing any key will send that key and the current
     coordinate of the cross cursor. Pressing button one, two, or
     three will return the letters `l', `m', and `r', respec-
     tively. If the `shift' key is pressed when a pointer button
     is pressed, the corresponding upper case letter is sent. To
     distinguish a pointer button from a key, the high bit of the
     character is set (but this is bit is normally stripped
     unless the terminal mode is RAW; see tty(4) for details).

MENUS

     Xterm has four menus, named mainMenu, vtMenu, fontMenu, and
     tekMenu. Each menu pops up under the correct combinations of
     key and button presses. Each menu is divided into sections,
     separated by a horizontal line. Some menu entries correspond
     to modes that can be altered. A check mark appears next to a
     mode that is currently active. Selecting one of these modes
     toggles its state. Other menu entries are commands; select-
     ing one of these performs the indicated function.

     All of the menu entries correspond to X actions. In the list
     below, the menu label is shown followed by the action's name
     in parenthesis.

     The xterm mainMenu pops up when the ``control'' key and
     pointer button one are pressed in a window. This menu con-
     tains items that apply to both the VT102 and Tektronix win-
     dows. There are several sections:

     Commands for managing X events:

          Secure Keyboard (securekbd)

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               The Secure Keyboard mode is helpful when typing in
               passwords or other sensitive data in an unsecure
               environment; see SECURITY below (but read the lim-
               itations carefully).

          Allow SendEvents (allowsends )
               Specifies whether or not synthetic key and button
               events generated using the X protocol SendEvent
               request should be interpreted or discarded. This
               corresponds to the allowSendEvents resource.

          Redraw Window (redraw)
               Forces the X display to repaint; useful in some
               environments.

     Commands for capturing output:

          Log to File (logging)
               Captures text sent to the screen in a logfile, as
               in the -l logging option.

          Print Window (print)
               Sends the text of the current window to the pro-
               gram given in the printerCommand resource.

          Redirect to Printer (print-redir)
               This sets the printerControlMode to 0 or 2. You
               can use this to turn the printer on as if an
               application had sent the appropriate control
               sequence. It is also useful for switching the
               printer off if an application turns it on without
               resetting the print control mode.

     Modes for setting keyboard style:

          8-Bit Controls (8-bit-control)
               Enabled for VT220 emulation, this controls whether
               xterm will send 8-bit control sequences rather
               than using 7-bit (ASCII) controls, e.g., sending a
               byte in the range 128-159 rather than the escape
               character followed by a second byte. Xterm always
               interprets both 8-bit and 7-bit control sequences
               (see the document Xterm Control Sequences). This
               corresponds to the eightBitControl resource.

          Backarrow Key (BS/DEL) (backarrow key)
               Modifies the behavior of the backarrow key, making
               it transmit either a backspace (8) or delete (127)
               character. This corresponds to the backarrowKey
               resource.

          Alt/NumLock Modifiers (num-lock)

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               Controls the treatment of Alt- and NumLock-key
               modifiers. This corresponds to the numLock
               resource.

          Meta Sends Escape (meta-esc)
               Controls whether Meta keys are converted into a
               two-character sequence with the character itself
               preceded by ESC. This corresponds to the
               metaSendsEscape resource.

          Delete is DEL (delete-is-del)
               Controls whether the Delete key on the editing
               keypad should send DEL (127) or the VT220-style
               Remove escape sequence. This corresponds to the
               deleteIsDEL resource.

          Old Function-Keys (oldFunctionKeys)

          HP Function-Keys (hpFunctionKeys)

          SCO Function-Keys (scoFunctionKeys)

          Sun Function-Keys (sunFunctionKeys)

          VT220 Keyboard (sunKeyboard)
               These act as a radio-button, selecting one style
               for the keyboard layout. It corresponds to more
               than one resource setting: sunKeyboard, sunFunc-
               tionKeys, scoFunctionKeys and hpFunctionKeys .

     Commands for process signalling:

          Send STOP Signal (suspend)

          Send CONT Signal (continue)

          Send INT Signal (interrupt)

          Send HUP Signal (hangup)

          Send TERM Signal (terminate)

          Send KILL Signal (kill)
               These send the SIGTSTP, SIGCONT, SIGINT, SIGHUP,
               SIGTERM and SIGKILL signals respectively, to the
               process group of the process running under xterm
               (usually the shell). The SIGCONT function is espe-
               cially useful if the user has accidentally typed
               CTRL-Z, suspending the process.

          Quit (quit)
               Stop processing X events except to support the

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               -hold option, and then send a SIGHUP signal to the
               the process group of the process running under
               xterm (usually the shell).

     The vtMenu sets various modes in the VT102 emulation, and is
     popped up when the ``control'' key and pointer button two
     are pressed in the VT102 window.

     VT102/VT220 Modes:

          Enable Scrollbar (scrollbar)
               Enable (or disable) the scrollbar. This
               corresponds to the -sb option and the scrollBar
               resource.

          Enable Jump Scroll (jumpscroll)
               Enable (or disable) jump scrolling. This
               corresponds to the -j option and the jumpScroll
               resource.

          Enable Reverse Video (reversevideo)
               Enable (or disable) reverse-video. This
               corresponds to the -rv option and the reverseVideo
               resource.

          Enable Auto Wraparound (autowrap)
               Enable (or disable) auto-wraparound. This
               corresponds to the -aw option and the autoWrap
               resource.

          Enable Reverse Wraparound (reversewrap)
               Enable (or disable) reverse wraparound. This
               corresponds to the -rw option and the reverseWrap
               resource.

          Enable Auto Linefeed (autolinefeed)
               Enable (or disable) auto-linefeed. This is the
               VT102 NEL function, which causes the emulator to
               emit a linefeed after each carriage return. There
               is no corresponding command-line option or
               resource setting.

          Enable Application Cursor Keys (appcursor)
               Enable (or disable) application cursor keys. This
               corresponds to the appcursorDefault resource.
               There is no corresponding command-line option.

          Enable Application Keypad (appkeypad)
               Enable (or disable) application keypad keys. This
               corresponds to the appkeypadDefault resource.
               There is no corresponding command-line option.

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          Scroll to Bottom on Key Press (scrollkey)
               Enable (or disable) scrolling to the bottom of the
               scrolling region on a keypress. This corresponds
               to the -sk option and the scrollKey resource.

          Scroll to Bottom on Tty Output (scrollttyoutput)
               Enable (or disable) scrolling to the bottom of the
               scrolling region on output to the terminal.. This
               corresponds to the -si option and the scrollT-
               tyOutput resource.

          Allow 80/132 Column Switching (allow132)
               Enable (or disable) switching between 80 and 132
               columns. This corresponds to the -132 option and
               the c132 resource.

          Enable Curses Emulation (cursesemul)
               Enable (or disable) a workaround for the so-called
               "curses bug". This corresponds to the -cu option
               and the curses resource.

          Enable Visual Bell (visualbell)
               Enable (or disable) visible bell (i.e., flashing)
               instead of an audible bell. This corresponds to
               the -vb option and the visualBell resource.

          Enable Pop on Bell (poponbell)
               Enable (or disable) raising of the window when
               Control-G is received. This corresponds to the -
               pop option and the popOnBell resource.

          Enable Margin Bell (marginbell)
               Enable (or disable) a bell when the user types
               near the right margin. This corresponds to the -mb
               option and the marginBell resource.

          Enable Blinking Cursor (cursorblink)
               Enable (or disable) the blinking-cursor feature.
               This corresponds to the -bc option and the cursor-
               Blink resource. There is also an escape sequence
               (see the document Xterm Control Sequences). The
               menu entry and the escape sequence states are
               XOR'd: if both are enabled, the cursor will not
               blink, if only one is enabled, the cursor will
               blink.

          Enable Alternate Screen Switching (titeInhibit)
               Enable (or disable) switching between the normal
               and alternate screens. This corresponds to the
               titeInhibit resource. There is no corresponding
               command-line option.

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          Enable Active Icon (activeicon)
               Enable (or disable) the active-icon feature. This
               corresponds to the -ai option and the activeIcon
               resource.

     VT102/VT220 Commands:

          Do Soft Reset (softreset)
               Reset scroll regions. This can be convenient when
               some program has left the scroll regions set
               incorrectly (often a problem when using VMS or
               TOPS-20). This corresponds to the VT220 DECSTR
               control sequence.

          Do Full Reset (hardreset)
               The full reset entry will clear the screen, reset
               tabs to every eight columns, and reset the termi-
               nal modes (such as wrap and smooth scroll) to
               their initial states just after xterm has finished
               processing the command line options. This
               corresponds to the VT102 RIS control sequence,
               with a few obvious differences. For example, your
               session is not disconnected as a real VT102 would
               do.

          Reset and Clear Saved Lines (clearsavedlines)
               Perform a full reset, and also clear the saved
               lines.

     Commands for setting the current screen:

          Show Tek Window (tekshow)
               When enabled, pops the Tektronix 4014 window up
               (makes it visible). When disabled, hides the Tek-
               tronix 4014 window.

          Switch to Tek Mode (tekmode)
               When enabled, pops the Tektronix 4014 window up if
               it is not already visible, and switches the input
               stream to that window. When disabled, hides the
               Tektronix 4014 window and switches input back to
               the VTxxx window.

          Hide VT Window (vthide)
               When enabled, hides the VTxxx window, shows the
               Tektronix 4014 window if it was not already visi-
               ble and switches the input stream to that window.
               When disabled, shows the VTxxx window, and
               switches the input stream to that window.

          Show Alternate Screen (altscreen)
               When enabled, shows the alternate screen. When

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               disabled, shows the normal screen. Note that the
               normal screen may have saved lines; the alternate
               screen does not.

     The fontMenu sets the font used in the VT102 window, or
     modifies the way the font is specified or displayed. There
     are three sections.

     The first section allows you to select the font from a set
     of alternatives:

          Default (fontdefault)
               Set the font to the default, i.e., that given by
               the *VT100.font resource.

          Unreadable (font1)
               Set the font to that given by the *VT100.font1
               resource.

          Tiny (font2)
               Set the font to that given by the *VT100.font2
               resource.

          Small (font3)
               Set the font to that given by the *VT100.font3
               resource.

          Medium (font4)
               Set the font to that given by the *VT100.font4
               resource.

          Large (font5)
               Set the font to that given by the *VT100.font5
               resource.

          Huge (font6)
               Set the font to that given by the *VT100.font6
               resource.

          Escape Sequence
               This allows you to set the font last specified by
               the Set Font escape sequence (see the document
               Xterm Control Sequences).

          Selection (fontsel)
               This allows you to set the font specified the
               current selection as a font name (if the PRIMARY
               selection is owned).

     The second section allows you to modify the way it is
     displayed:

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          Line-Drawing Characters (font-linedrawing)
               When set, tells xterm to draw its own line-drawing
               characters. Otherwise it relies on the font con-
               taining these.

          Doublesized Characters (font-doublesize)
               When set, xterm may ask the font server to produce
               scaled versions of the normal font, for VT102
               double-size characters.

     The third section allows you to modify the way it is speci-
     fied:

          TrueType Fonts (render-font)
               If the renderFont and corresponding resources were
               set, this is a further control whether xterm will
               actually use the Xft library calls to obtain a
               font.

          UTF-8 (utf8-mode)
               This controls whether xterm uses UTF-8 encoding of
               input/output. It is useful for temporarily switch-
               ing xterm to display text from an application
               which does not follow the locale settings.

     The tekMenu sets various modes in the Tektronix emulation,
     and is popped up when the ``control'' key and pointer button
     two are pressed in the Tektronix window. The current font
     size is checked in the modes section of the menu.

          Large Characters (tektextlarge)

          #2 Size Characters (tektext2)

          #3 Size Characters (tektext3)

          Small Characters (tektextsmall)

     Commands:

          PAGE (tekpage)
               Clear the Tektronix window.

          RESET (tekreset)

          COPY (tekcopy)

     Windows:

          Show VT Window (vtshow)

          Switch to VT Mode (vtmode)

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          Hide Tek Window (tekhide)

SECURITY

     X environments differ in their security consciousness. Most
     servers, run under xdm, are capable of using a ``magic
     cookie'' authorization scheme that can provide a reasonable
     level of security for many people. If your server is only
     using a host-based mechanism to control access to the server
     (see xhost(1)), then if you enable access for a host and
     other users are also permitted to run clients on that same
     host, it is possible that someone can run an application
     which uses the basic services of the X protocol to snoop on
     your activities, potentially capturing a transcript of
     everything you type at the keyboard. Any process which has
     access to your X display can manipulate it in ways that you
     might not anticipate, even redirecting your keyboard to
     itself and sending events to your application's windows.
     This is true even with the ``magic cookie'' authorization
     scheme. While the allowSendEvents provides some protection
     against rogue applications tampering with your programs,
     guarding against a snooper is harder.

     The possibility of an application spying on your keystrokes
     is of particular concern when you want to type in a password
     or other sensitive data. The best solution to this problem
     is to use a better authorization mechanism than is provided
     by X. Given all of these caveats, a simple mechanism exists
     for protecting keyboard input in xterm.

     The xterm menu (see MENUS above) contains a Secure Keyboard
     entry which, when enabled, attempts to ensure that all key-
     board input is directed only to xterm (using the GrabKey-
     board protocol request). When an application prompts you for
     a password (or other sensitive data), you can enable Secure
     Keyboard using the menu, type in the data, and then disable
     Secure Keyboard using the menu again. This ensures that you
     know which window is accepting your keystrokes. It cannot
     ensure that there are no processes which have access to your
     X display that might be observing the keystrokes as well.

     Only one X client at a time can grab the keyboard, so when
     you attempt to enable Secure Keyboard it may fail. In this
     case, the bell will sound. If the Secure Keyboard succeeds,
     the foreground and background colors will be exchanged (as
     if you selected the Reverse Video entry in the Modes menu);
     they will be exchanged again when you exit secure mode. If
     the colors do not switch, then you should be very suspicious
     that you are being spoofed. If the application you are run-
     ning displays a prompt before asking for the password, it is
     safest to enter secure mode before the prompt gets
     displayed, and to make sure that the prompt gets displayed
     correctly (in the new colors), to minimize the probability

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     of spoofing. You can also bring up the menu again and make
     sure that a check mark appears next to the entry.

     Secure Keyboard mode will be disabled automatically if your
     xterm window becomes iconified (or otherwise unmapped), or
     if you start up a reparenting window manager (that places a
     title bar or other decoration around the window) while in
     Secure Keyboard mode. (This is a feature of the X protocol
     not easily overcome.)  When this happens, the foreground and
     background colors will be switched back and the bell will
     sound in warning.

CHARACTER CLASSES

     Clicking the left mouse button twice in rapid succession
     will cause all characters of the same class (e.g., letters,
     white space, punctuation) to be selected. Since different
     people have different preferences for what should be
     selected (for example, should filenames be selected as a
     whole or only the separate subnames), the default mapping
     can be overridden through the use of the charClass (class
     CharClass) resource.

     This resource is a series of comma-separated of range:value
     pairs. The range is either a single number or low-high in
     the range of 0 to 65535, corresponding to the code for the
     character or characters to be set. The value is arbitrary,
     although the default table uses the character number of the
     first character occurring in the set. When not in UTF-8
     mode, only the first 256 bytes of this table will be used.

     The default table starts as follows -

             static int charClass[256] = {
             /* NUL  SOH  STX  ETX  EOT  ENQ  ACK  BEL */
                 32,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /*  BS   HT   NL   VT   NP   CR   SO   SI */
                  1,  32,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /* DLE  DC1  DC2  DC3  DC4  NAK  SYN  ETB */
                  1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /* CAN   EM  SUB  ESC   FS   GS   RS   US */
                  1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /*  SP    !    "    #    $    %    &    ' */
                 32,  33,  34,  35,  36,  37,  38,  39,
             /*   (    )    *    +    ,    -    .    / */
                 40,  41,  42,  43,  44,  45,  46,  47,
             /*   0    1    2    3    4    5    6    7 */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   8    9    :    ;    <    =    >    ? */
                 48,  48,  58,  59,  60,  61,  62,  63,
             /*   @    A    B    C    D    E    F    G */
                 64,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O */

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                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   X    Y    Z    [    \    ]    ^    _ */
                 48,  48,  48,  91,  92,  93,  94,  48,
             /*   `    a    b    c    d    e    f    g */
                 96,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   h    i    j    k    l    m    n    o */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   x    y    z    {    |    }    ~  DEL */
                 48,  48,  48, 123, 124, 125, 126,   1,
             /* x80  x81  x82  x83  IND  NEL  SSA  ESA */
                  1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /* HTS  HTJ  VTS  PLD  PLU   RI  SS2  SS3 */
                  1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /* DCS  PU1  PU2  STS  CCH   MW  SPA  EPA */
                  1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /* x98  x99  x9A  CSI   ST  OSC   PM  APC */
                  1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,   1,
             /*   -    i   c/    L   ox   Y-    |   So */
                160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167,
             /*  ..   c0   ip   <<    _        R0    - */
                168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175,
             /*   o   +-    2    3    '    u   q|    . */
                176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183,
             /*   ,    1    2   >>  1/4  1/2  3/4    ? */
                184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191,
             /*  A`   A'   A^   A~   A:   Ao   AE   C, */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*  E`   E'   E^   E:   I`   I'   I^   I: */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*  D-   N~   O`   O'   O^   O~   O:    X */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48, 215,
             /*  O/   U`   U'   U^   U:   Y'    P    B */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*  a`   a'   a^   a~   a:   ao   ae   c, */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*  e`   e'   e^   e:    i`  i'   i^   i: */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,
             /*   d   n~   o`   o'   o^   o~   o:   -: */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48, 247,
             /*  o/   u`   u'   u^   u:   y'    P   y: */
                 48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48,  48};

     For example, the string ``33:48,37:48,45-47:48,38:48'' indi-
     cates that the exclamation mark, percent sign, dash, period,
     slash, and ampersand characters should be treated the same
     way as characters and numbers. This is useful for cutting
     and pasting electronic mailing addresses and filenames.

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ACTIONS

     It is possible to rebind keys (or sequences of keys) to
     arbitrary strings for input, by changing the translations
     resources for the vt100 or tek4014 widgets. Changing the
     translations resource for events other than key and button
     events is not expected, and will cause unpredictable
     behavior. The following actions are provided for use within
     the vt100 or tek4014 translations resources:

     allow-send-events(on/off/toggle)
             This action set or toggles the allowSendEvents
             resource and is also invoked by the allowsends entry
             in mainMenu.

     bell([percent])
             This action rings the keyboard bell at the specified
             percentage above or below the base volume.

     clear-saved-lines()
             This action does hard-reset() (see below) and also
             clears the history of lines saved off the top of the
             screen. It is also invoked from the clearsavedlines
             entry in vtMenu. The effect is identical to a
             hardware reset (RIS) control sequence.

     create-menu(m/v/f/t)
             This action creates one of the menus used by xterm,
             if it has not been previously created. The parameter
             values are the menu names: mainMenu, vtMenu,
             fontMenu, tekMenu, respectively.

     dabbrev-expand()
             Expands the word before cursor by searching in the
             preceding text on the screen and in the scrollback
             buffer for words starting with that abbreviation. By
             default bound to Meta /. Repeating dabbrev-expand()
             several times in sequence searches for an alterna-
             tive expansion by looking farther back. Lack of more
             matches is signaled by a beep(). Attempts to expand
             an empty word (i.e., when cursor is preceded by a
             space) yield successively all previous words. Con-
             secutive identical expansions are ignored. The word
             here is defined as a sequence of non-whitespace
             characters. This feature partially emulates the
             behavior of `dynamic abbreviation' expansion in
             Emacs (also bound there to M-/).

     deiconify()
             Changes the window state back to normal, if it was
             iconified.

     delete-is-del()

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             This action toggles the state of the deleteIsDEL
             resource.

     dired-button()
             Handles a button event (other than press and
             release) by echoing the event's position (i.e.,
             character line and column) in the following format:

                     ^X ESC G <line+' '> <col+' '>

     iconify()
             Iconifies the window.

     hard-reset()
             This action resets the scrolling region, tabs, win-
             dow size, and cursor keys and clears the screen. It
             is also invoked from the hardreset entry in vtMenu.

     ignore()
             This action ignores the event but checks for special
             pointer position escape sequences.

     insert()
             This action inserts the character or string associ-
             ated with the key that was pressed.

     insert-eight-bit()
             This action inserts an eight-bit (Meta) version of
             the character or string associated with the key that
             was pressed. The exact action depends on the value
             of the metaSendsEscape and the eightBitInput
             resources.

     insert-selection(sourcename [, ...])
             This action inserts the string found in the selec-
             tion or cutbuffer indicated by sourcename. Sources
             are checked in the order given (case is significant)
             until one is found. Commonly-used selections
             include: PRIMARY, SECONDARY, and CLIPBOARD. Cut
             buffers are typically named CUT_BUFFER0 through
             CUT_BUFFER7.

     insert-seven-bit()
             This action is a synonym for insert()

     interpret(control-sequence)
             Interpret the given control sequence locally, i.e.,
             without passing it to the host. This works by
             inserting the control sequence at the front of the
             input buffer. Use "\" to escape octal digits in the
             string. Xt does not allow you to put a null charac-
             ter (i.e., "\000") in the string.

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     keymap(name)
             This action dynamically defines a new translation
             table whose resource name is name with the suffix
             Keymap (case is significant). The name None restores
             the original translation table.

     larger-vt-font()
             Set the font to the next larger one, based on the
             font dimensions. See also set-vt-font().

     load-vt-fonts(name[,class])
             Load fontnames from the given subresource name and
             class. That is, load the "*VT100.name.font",
             resource as "*VT100.font" etc. If no name is given,
             the original set of fontnames is restored.

             Unlike set-vt-font(), this does not affect the
             escape- and select-fonts, since those are not based
             on resource values. It does affect the fonts loosely
             organized under the ``Default'' menu entry: font,
             boldFont, wideFont and wideBoldFont.

     maximize()
             Resizes the window to fill the screen.

     meta-sends-escape()
             This action toggles the state of the metaSendsEscape
             resource.

     popup-menu(menuname)
             This action displays the specified popup menu. Valid
             names (case is significant) include:  mainMenu,
             vtMenu, fontMenu, and tekMenu.

     print() This action prints the window and is also invoked by
             the print entry in mainMenu.

     print-redir()
             This action toggles the printerControlMode between 0
             and 2. The corresponding popup menu entry is useful
             for switching the printer off if you happen to
             change your mind after deciding to print random
             binary files on the terminal.

     quit()  This action sends a SIGHUP to the subprogram and
             exits. It is also invoked by the quit entry in main-
             Menu.

     redraw()
             This action redraws the window and is also invoked
             by the redraw entry in mainMenu.

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     restore()
             Restores the window to the size before it was last
             maximized.

     scroll-back(count [,units [,mouse] ])
             This action scrolls the text window backward so that
             text that had previously scrolled off the top of the
             screen is now visible.

             The count argument indicates the number of units
             (which may be page, halfpage, pixel, or line) by
             which to scroll.

             An adjustment can be specified for these values by
             appending a "+" or "-" sign followed by a number,
             e.g., page-2 to specify 2 lines less than a page.

             If the third parameter mouse is given, the action is
             ignored when mouse reporting is enabled.

     scroll-forw(count [,units [,mouse] ])
             This action is similar to scroll-back except that it
             scrolls in the other direction.

     secure()
             This action toggles the Secure Keyboard mode
             described in the section named SECURITY, and is
             invoked from the securekbd entry in mainMenu.

     select-cursor-end(destname [, ...])
             This action is similar to select-end except that it
             should be used with select-cursor-start.

     select-cursor-start()
             This action is similar to select-start except that
             it begins the selection at the current text cursor
             position.

     select-end(destname [, ...])
             This action puts the currently selected text into
             all of the selections or cutbuffers specified by
             destname.

     select-extend()
             This action tracks the pointer and extends the
             selection. It should only be bound to Motion events.

     select-set()
             This action stores text that corresponds to the
             current selection, without affecting the selection
             mode.

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     select-start()
             This action begins text selection at the current
             pointer location. See the section on POINTER USAGE
             for information on making selections.

     send-signal(signame)
             This action sends the signal named by signame to the
             xterm subprocess (the shell or program specified
             with the -e command line option) and is also invoked
             by the suspend, continue, interrupt, hangup, ter-
             minate, and kill entries in mainMenu. Allowable sig-
             nal names are (case is not significant): tstp (if
             supported by the operating system), suspend (same as
             tstp), cont (if supported by the operating system),
             int, hup, term, quit, alrm, alarm (same as alrm) and
             kill.

     set-allow132(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the c132 resource and is also
             invoked from the allow132 entry in vtMenu.

     set-altscreen(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles between the alternate and
             current screens.

     set-appcursor(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the handling Application Cursor
             Key mode and is also invoked by the appcursor entry
             in vtMenu.

     set-appkeypad(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the handling of Application
             Keypad mode and is also invoked by the appkeypad
             entry in vtMenu.

     set-autolinefeed(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles automatic insertion of linefeeds
             and is also invoked by the autolinefeed entry in
             vtMenu.

     set-autowrap(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles automatic wrapping of long lines
             and is also invoked by the autowrap entry in vtMenu.

     set-backarrow(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the backarrowKey resource and is
             also invoked from the backarrow key entry in vtMenu.

     set-cursorblink(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the cursorBlink resource and is
             also invoked from the cursorblink entry in vtMenu.

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     set-cursesemul(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the curses resource and is also
             invoked from the cursesemul entry in vtMenu.

     set-font-doublesize(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the fontDoublesize resource and
             is also invoked by the font-doublesize entry in
             fontMenu.

     set-hp-function-keys(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the hpFunctionKeys resource and
             is also invoked by the hpFunctionKeys entry in main-
             Menu.

     set-jumpscroll(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the jumpscroll resource and is
             also invoked by the jumpscroll entry in vtMenu.

     set-font-linedrawing(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the xterm's state regarding
             whether the current font has line-drawing characters
             and whether it should draw them directly. It is also
             invoked by the font-linedrawing entry in fontMenu.

     set-logging()
             This action toggles the state of the logging option.

     set-old-function-keys(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the state of legacy function
             keys and is also invoked by the oldFunctionKeys
             entry in mainMenu.

     set-marginbell(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the marginBell resource and is
             also invoked from the marginbell entry in vtMenu.

     set-num-lock()
             This action toggles the state of the numLock
             resource.

     set-pop-on-bell(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the popOnBell resource and is
             also invoked by the poponbell entry in vtMenu.

     set-render-font(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the renderFont resource and is
             also invoked by the render-font entry in fontMenu.

     set-reverse-video(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the reverseVideo resource and is
             also invoked by the reversevideo entry in vtMenu.

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     set-reversewrap(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the reverseWrap resource and is
             also invoked by the reversewrap entry in vtMenu.

     set-scroll-on-key(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the scrollKey resource and is
             also invoked from the scrollkey entry in vtMenu.

     set-scroll-on-tty-output(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the scrollTtyOutput resource and
             is also invoked from the scrollttyoutput entry in
             vtMenu.

     set-scrollbar(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the scrollbar resource and is
             also invoked by the scrollbar entry in vtMenu.

     set-sco-function-keys(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the scoFunctionKeys resource and
             is also invoked by the scoFunctionKeys entry in
             mainMenu.

     set-sun-function-keys(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the sunFunctionKeys resource and
             is also invoked by the sunFunctionKeys entry in
             mainMenu.

     set-sun-keyboard(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the sunKeyboard resource and is
             also invoked by the sunKeyboard entry in mainMenu.

     set-tek-text(large/2/3/small)
             This action sets font used in the Tektronix window
             to the value of the resources tektextlarge, tek-
             text2, tektext3, and tektextsmall according to the
             argument. It is also by the entries of the same
             names as the resources in tekMenu.

     set-terminal-type(type)
             This action directs output to either the vt or tek
             windows, according to the type string. It is also
             invoked by the tekmode entry in vtMenu and the
             vtmode entry in tekMenu.

     set-titeInhibit(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the titeInhibit resource, which
             controls switching between the alternate and current
             screens.

     set-toolbar(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the toolbar feature and is also
             invoked by the toolbar entry in mainMenu.

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     set-utf8-mode(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the utf8 resource and is also
             invoked by the utf8-mode entry in fontMenu.

     set-visibility(vt/tek,on/off/toggle)
             This action controls whether or not the vt or tek
             windows are visible. It is also invoked from the
             tekshow and vthide entries in vtMenu and the vtshow
             and tekhide entries in tekMenu.

     set-visual-bell(on/off/toggle)
             This action toggles the visualBell resource and is
             also invoked by the visualbell entry in vtMenu.

     set-vt-font(d/1/2/3/4/5/6/e/s [,normalfont [, boldfont]])
             This action sets the font or fonts currently being
             used in the VT102 window. The first argument is a
             single character that specifies the font to be used:

             d or D indicate the default font (the font initially
                  used when xterm was started),

             1 through 6 indicate the fonts specified by the
                  font1 through font6 resources,

             e or E indicate the normal and bold fonts that have
                  been set through escape codes (or specified as
                  the second and third action arguments, respec-
                  tively), and

             s or S indicate the font selection (as made by pro-
                  grams such as xfontsel(1)) indicated by the
                  second action argument.

             If xterm is configured to support wide characters,
             an additional two optional parameters are recognized
             for the e argument: wide font and wide bold font.

     smaller-vt-font()
             Set the font to the next smaller one, based on the
             font dimensions. See also set-vt-font().

     soft-reset()
             This action resets the scrolling region and is also
             invoked from the softreset entry in vtMenu. The
             effect is identical to a soft reset (DECSTR) control
             sequence.

     start-extend()
             This action is similar to select-start except that
             the selection is extended to the current pointer
             location.

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     start-cursor-extend()
             This action is similar to select-extend except that
             the selection is extended to the current text cursor
             position.

     string(string)
             This action inserts the specified text string as if
             it had been typed. Quotation is necessary if the
             string contains whitespace or non-alphanumeric char-
             acters. If the string argument begins with the char-
             acters ``0x'', it is interpreted as a hex character
             constant.

     tek-copy()
             This action copies the escape codes used to generate
             the current window contents to a file in the current
             directory beginning with the name COPY. It is also
             invoked from the tekcopy entry in tekMenu.

     tek-page()
             This action clears the Tektronix window and is also
             invoked by the tekpage entry in tekMenu.

     tek-reset()
             This action resets the Tektronix window and is also
             invoked by the tekreset entry in tekMenu.

     vi-button()
             Handles a button event (other than press and
             release) by echoing a control sequence computed from
             the event's line number in the screen relative to
             the current line:

                     ESC ^P
             or
                     ESC ^N

             according to whether the event is before, or after
             the current line, respectively. The ^N (or ^P) is
             repeated once for each line that the event differs
             from the current line. The control sequence is omit-
             ted altogether if the button event is on the current
             line.

     visual-bell()
             This action flashes the window quickly.

     The Tektronix window also has the following action:

     gin-press(l/L/m/M/r/R)
             This action sends the indicated graphics input code.

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     The default bindings in the VT102 window are:

                   Shift <KeyPress> Prior:scroll-back(1,halfpage) \n\
                    Shift <KeyPress> Next:scroll-forw(1,halfpage) \n\
                  Shift <KeyPress> Select:select-cursor-start() \
                                          select-cursor-end(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0) \n\
                  Shift <KeyPress> Insert:insert-selection(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0) \n\
             Shift~Ctrl <KeyPress> KP_Add:larger-vt-font() \n\
             Shift Ctrl <KeyPress> KP_Add:smaller-vt-font() \n\
             Shift <KeyPress> KP_Subtract:smaller-vt-font() \n\
                         ~Meta <KeyPress>:insert-seven-bit() \n\
                          Meta <KeyPress>:insert-eight-bit() \n\
                         !Ctrl <Btn1Down>:popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
                    !Lock Ctrl <Btn1Down>:popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
          !Lock Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn1Down>:popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
              ! @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn1Down>:popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
                         ~Meta <Btn1Down>:select-start() \n\
                       ~Meta <Btn1Motion>:select-extend() \n\
                         !Ctrl <Btn2Down>:popup-menu(vtMenu) \n\
                    !Lock Ctrl <Btn2Down>:popup-menu(vtMenu) \n\
          !Lock Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn2Down>:popup-menu(vtMenu) \n\
              ! @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn2Down>:popup-menu(vtMenu) \n\
                   ~Ctrl ~Meta <Btn2Down>:ignore() \n\
                          Meta <Btn2Down>:clear-saved-lines() \n\
                     ~Ctrl ~Meta <Btn2Up>:insert-selection(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0) \n\
                         !Ctrl <Btn3Down>:popup-menu(fontMenu) \n\
                    !Lock Ctrl <Btn3Down>:popup-menu(fontMenu) \n\
          !Lock Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn3Down>:popup-menu(fontMenu) \n\
              ! @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn3Down>:popup-menu(fontMenu) \n\
                   ~Ctrl ~Meta <Btn3Down>:start-extend() \n\
                       ~Meta <Btn3Motion>:select-extend() \n\
                          Ctrl <Btn4Down>:scroll-back(1,halfpage,m) \n\
                     Lock Ctrl <Btn4Down>:scroll-back(1,halfpage,m) \n\
           Lock @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn4Down>:scroll-back(1,halfpage,m) \n\
                @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn4Down>:scroll-back(1,halfpage,m) \n\
                               <Btn4Down>:scroll-back(5,line,m)     \n\
                          Ctrl <Btn5Down>:scroll-forw(1,halfpage,m) \n\
                     Lock Ctrl <Btn5Down>:scroll-forw(1,halfpage,m) \n\
           Lock @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn5Down>:scroll-forw(1,halfpage,m) \n\
                @Num_Lock Ctrl <Btn5Down>:scroll-forw(1,halfpage,m) \n\
                               <Btn5Down>:scroll-forw(5,line,m)     \n\
                                  <BtnUp>:select-end(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0) \n\
                                <BtnDown>:ignore()

     The default bindings in the Tektronix window are:

                         ~Meta<KeyPress>: insert-seven-bit() \n\
                          Meta<KeyPress>: insert-eight-bit() \n\
                        !Ctrl <Btn1Down>: popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
                   !Lock Ctrl <Btn1Down>: popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
         !Lock Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn1Down>:popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\

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              !Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn1Down>:popup-menu(mainMenu) \n\
                        !Ctrl <Btn2Down>: popup-menu(tekMenu) \n\
                   !Lock Ctrl <Btn2Down>: popup-menu(tekMenu) \n\
         !Lock Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn2Down>:popup-menu(tekMenu) \n\
              !Ctrl @Num_Lock <Btn2Down>:popup-menu(tekMenu) \n\
                   Shift ~Meta<Btn1Down>:gin-press(L) \n\
                         ~Meta<Btn1Down>:gin-press(l) \n\
                   Shift ~Meta<Btn2Down>:gin-press(M) \n\
                         ~Meta<Btn2Down>:gin-press(m) \n\
                   Shift ~Meta<Btn3Down>:gin-press(R) \n\
                         ~Meta<Btn3Down>:gin-press(r)

     Here is an example which uses shifted select/paste to copy
     to the clipboard, and unshifted select/paste for the primary
     selection. In each case, a (different) cut buffer is also a
     target or source of the select/paste operation. It is impor-
     tant to remember however, that cut buffers store data in
     ISO-8859-1 encoding, while selections can store data in a
     variety of formats and encodings. While xterm owns the
     selection, it highlights it. When it loses the selection, it
     removes the corresponding highlight. But you can still paste
     from the corresponding cut buffer.

         *VT100*translations:    #override \n\
             ~Shift~Ctrl<Btn2Up>: insert-selection(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0) \n\
             Shift~Ctrl<Btn2Up>:  insert-selection(CLIPBOARD, CUT_BUFFER1) \n\
             ~Shift<BtnUp>:       select-end(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0) \n\
             Shift<BtnUp>:        select-end(CLIPBOARD, CUT_BUFFER1)

     Below is a sample how of the keymap() action is used to add
     special keys for entering commonly-typed works:

         *VT100.Translations: #override <Key>F13: keymap(dbx)
         *VT100.dbxKeymap.translations: \
              <Key>F14: keymap(None) \n\
              <Key>F17: string("next") string(0x0d) \n\
              <Key>F18: string("step") string(0x0d) \n\
              <Key>F19: string("continue") string(0x0d) \n\
              <Key>F20: string("print ") insert-selection(PRIMARY, CUT_BUFFER0)

CONTROL SEQUENCES AND KEYBOARD

     The Xterm Control Sequences document lists the control
     sequences which an application can send xterm to make it
     perform various operations. Most of these operations are
     standardized, from either the DEC or Tektronix terminals, or
     from more widely used standards such as ISO 6429.

ENVIRONMENT

     Xterm sets the environment variables ``TERM'' for the window

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     you have created. It also uses and sets the environment
     variable ``DISPLAY'' to specify which bit map display termi-
     nal to use. The environment variable ``WINDOWID'' is set to
     the X window id number of the xterm window.

     Depending on your system configuration, xterm may also set
     the following:

     COLUMNS
          the width of the xterm in characters (cf: "stty
          columns").

     HOME when xterm is configured to update utmp.

     LINES
          the height of the xterm in characters (cf: "stty
          rows").

     LOGNAME
          when xterm is configured to update utmp.

     SHELL
          when xterm is configured to update utmp.

     TERMCAP
          the contents of the termcap entry corresponding to
          $TERM, with lines and columns values substituted for
          the actual size window you have created.

     TERMINFO
          may be defined to a nonstandard location in the config-
          ure script.

FILES

     The actual pathnames given may differ on your system.

     /etc/utmp
          the system logfile, which records user logins.

     /etc/wtmp
          the system logfile, which records user logins and
          logouts.

     /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XTerm
          the xterm default application resources.

     /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XTerm-color
          the xterm color application resources. If your display
          supports color, use this
                    *customization: -color
          in your .Xdefaults file to automatically turn on color
          in xterm and similar applications.

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ERROR MESSAGES

     Most of the fatal error messages from xterm use the follow-
     ing format:
          xterm: Error XXX, errno YYY: ZZZ
     The XXX codes (which are used by xterm as its exit-code) are
     listed below, with a brief explanation.

     1    is used for miscellaneous errors, usually accompanied
          by a specific message,

     11   ERROR_FIONBIO
          main: ioctl() failed on FIONBIO

     12   ERROR_F_GETFL
          main: ioctl() failed on F_GETFL

     13   ERROR_F_SETFL
          main: ioctl() failed on F_SETFL

     14   ERROR_OPDEVTTY
          spawn: open() failed on /dev/tty

     15   ERROR_TIOCGETP
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCGETP

     17   ERROR_PTSNAME
          spawn: ptsname() failed

     18   ERROR_OPPTSNAME
          spawn: open() failed on ptsname

     19   ERROR_PTEM
          spawn: ioctl() failed on I_PUSH/"ptem"

     20   ERROR_CONSEM
          spawn: ioctl() failed on I_PUSH/"consem"

     21   ERROR_LDTERM
          spawn: ioctl() failed on I_PUSH/"ldterm"

     22   ERROR_TTCOMPAT
          spawn: ioctl() failed on I_PUSH/"ttcompat"

     23   ERROR_TIOCSETP
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCSETP

     24   ERROR_TIOCSETC
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCSETC

     25   ERROR_TIOCSETD
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCSETD

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     26   ERROR_TIOCSLTC
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCSLTC

     27   ERROR_TIOCLSET
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCLSET

     28   ERROR_INIGROUPS
          spawn: initgroups() failed

     29   ERROR_FORK
          spawn: fork() failed

     30   ERROR_EXEC
          spawn: exec() failed

     32   ERROR_PTYS
          get_pty: not enough ptys

     34   ERROR_PTY_EXEC
          waiting for initial map

     35   ERROR_SETUID
          spawn: setuid() failed

     36   ERROR_INIT
          spawn: can't initialize window

     46   ERROR_TIOCKSET
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCKSET

     47   ERROR_TIOCKSETC
          spawn: ioctl() failed on TIOCKSETC

     48   ERROR_SPREALLOC
          spawn: realloc of ttydev failed

     49   ERROR_LUMALLOC
          luit: command-line malloc failed

     50   ERROR_SELECT
          in_put: select() failed

     54   ERROR_VINIT
          VTInit: can't initialize window

     57   ERROR_KMMALLOC1
          HandleKeymapChange: malloc failed

     60   ERROR_TSELECT
          Tinput: select() failed

     64   ERROR_TINIT

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          TekInit: can't initialize window

     71   ERROR_BMALLOC2
          SaltTextAway: malloc() failed

     80   ERROR_LOGEXEC
          StartLog: exec() failed

     83   ERROR_XERROR
          xerror: XError event

     84   ERROR_XIOERROR
          xioerror: X I/O error

     90   ERROR_SCALLOC
          Alloc: calloc() failed on base

     91   ERROR_SCALLOC2
          Alloc: calloc() failed on rows

     92   ERROR_SREALLOC
          ScreenResize: realloc() failed on alt base

     96   ERROR_RESIZE
          ScreenResize: malloc() or realloc() failed

     102  ERROR_SAVE_PTR
          ScrnPointers: malloc/realloc() failed

     110  ERROR_SBRALLOC
          ScrollBarOn: realloc() failed on base

     111  ERROR_SBRALLOC2
          ScrollBarOn: realloc() failed on rows

     121  ERROR_MMALLOC
          my_memmove: malloc/realloc failed

BUGS

     Large pastes do not work on some systems. This is not a bug
     in xterm; it is a bug in the pseudo terminal driver of those
     systems. xterm feeds large pastes to the pty only as fast as
     the pty will accept data, but some pty drivers do not return
     enough information to know if the write has succeeded.

     Many of the options are not resettable after xterm starts.

     This program still needs to be rewritten. It should be split
     into very modular sections, with the various emulators being
     completely separate widgets that do not know about each
     other. Ideally, you'd like to be able to pick and choose
     emulator widgets and stick them into a single control

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     widget.

     There needs to be a dialog box to allow entry of the Tek
     COPY file name.

SEE ALSO

     resize(1), luit(1), X(7), pty(4), tty(4)
     Xterm Control Sequences (this is the file ctlseqs.ms).

     http://invisible-island.net/xterm/xterm.html

AUTHORS

     Far too many people, including:

     Loretta Guarino Reid (DEC-UEG-WSL), Joel McCormack (DEC-
     UEG-WSL), Terry Weissman (DEC-UEG-WSL), Edward Moy (Berke-
     ley), Ralph R. Swick (MIT-Athena), Mark Vandevoorde (MIT-
     Athena), Bob McNamara (DEC-MAD), Jim Gettys (MIT-Athena),
     Bob Scheifler (MIT X Consortium), Doug Mink (SAO), Steve
     Pitschke (Stellar), Ron Newman (MIT-Athena), Jim Fulton (MIT
     X Consortium), Dave Serisky (HP), Jonathan Kamens (MIT-
     Athena), Jason Bacon, Stephen P. Wall, David Wexelblat, and
     Thomas Dickey (XFree86 Project).

OPENBSD SPECIFICS

     On OpenBSD and MirOS, the following resources have different
     default values:

     deleteIsDEL: true
             The Delete key generates ^?.

     ptyInitialErase: true
             The erase character for the tty is inherited from
             the parent process setting, generally ^?.

     backarrowKeyIsErase: true
             The back arrow key is set to return the erase char-
             acter defined in the tty, generally ^?.

     Moreover, on OpenBSD and MirOS the termcap(5) entry for
     xterm defines the kb capability as ^?

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