MirBSD manpage: xmlwf(1)

XMLWF(1)            UNIX Programmer's Manual             XMLWF(1)


     xmlwf - Determines if an XML document is well-formed


     xmlwf [ -s]  [ -n]  [ -p]  [ -x]  [ -e encoding]  [ -w]  [
     -d output-dir]  [ -c]  [ -m]  [ -r]  [ -t]  [ -v]  [ file


     xmlwf uses the Expat library to determine if an XML document
     is well-formed.  It is non-validating.

     If you do not specify any files on the command-line, and you
     have a recent version of xmlwf, the input file will be read
     from standard input.

     A well-formed document must adhere to the following rules:

     + The file begins with an XML declaration.  For instance,
       <?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>. NOTE: xmlwf does
       not currently check for a valid XML declaration.

     + Every start tag is either empty (<tag/>) or has a
       corresponding end tag.

     + There is exactly one root element.  This element must con-
       tain all other elements in the document.  Only comments,
       white space, and processing instructions may come after
       the close of the root element.

     + All elements nest properly.

     + All attribute values are enclosed in quotes (either single
       or double).

     If the document has a DTD, and it strictly complies with
     that DTD, then the document is also considered valid. xmlwf
     is a non-validating parser -- it does not check the DTD.
     However, it does support external entities (see the -x


     When an option includes an argument, you may specify the
     argument either separately ("-d output") or concatenated
     with the option ("-doutput").  xmlwf supports both.

     -c   If the input file is well-formed and xmlwf doesn't
          encounter any errors, the input file is simply copied
          to the output directory unchanged. This implies no
          namespaces (turns off -n) and requires -d to specify an

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          output file.

     -d output-dir
          Specifies a directory to contain transformed represen-
          tations of the input files. By default, -d outputs a
          canonical representation (described below). You can
          select different output formats using -c and -m.

          The output filenames will be exactly the same as the
          input filenames or "STDIN" if the input is coming from
          standard input.  Therefore, you must be careful that
          the output file does not go into the same directory as
          the input file.  Otherwise, xmlwf will delete the input
          file before it generates the output file (just like
          running cat < file > file in most shells).

          Two structurally equivalent XML documents have a byte-
          for-byte identical canonical XML representation. Note
          that ignorable white space is considered significant
          and is treated equivalently to data. More on canonical
          XML can be found at
          http://www.jclark.com/xml/canonxml.html .

     -e encoding
          Specifies the character encoding for the document,
          overriding any document encoding declaration.  xmlwf
          supports four built-in encodings: US-ASCII, UTF-8, UTF-
          16, and ISO-8859-1. Also see the -w option.

     -m   Outputs some strange sort of XML file that completely
          describes the the input file, including character pos-
          titions. Requires -d to specify an output file.

     -n   Turns on namespace processing.  (describe namespaces)
          -c disables namespaces.

     -p   Tells xmlwf to process external DTDs and parameter

          Normally xmlwf never parses parameter entities.  -p
          tells it to always parse them. -p implies -x.

     -r   Normally xmlwf memory-maps the XML file before parsing;
          this can result in faster parsing on many platforms. -r
          turns off memory-mapping and uses normal file IO calls
          instead. Of course, memory-mapping is automatically
          turned off when reading from standard input.

          Use of memory-mapping can cause some platforms to
          report substantially higher memory usage for xmlwf, but
          this appears to be a matter of the operating system
          reporting memory in a strange way; there is not a leak

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          in xmlwf.

     -s   Prints an error if the document is not standalone. A
          document is standalone if it has no external subset and
          no references to parameter entities.

     -t   Turns on timings.  This tells Expat to parse the entire
          file, but not perform any processing. This gives a
          fairly accurate idea of the raw speed of Expat itself
          without client overhead. -t turns off most of the out-
          put options (-d, -m, -c, ...).

     -v   Prints the version of the Expat library being used,
          including some information on the compile-time confi-
          guration of the library, and then exits.

     -w   Enables support for Windows code pages. Normally, xmlwf
          will throw an error if it runs across an encoding that
          it is not equipped to handle itself.  With -w, xmlwf
          will try to use a Windows code page.  See also -e.

     -x   Turns on parsing external entities.

          Non-validating parsers are not required to resolve
          external entities, or even expand entities at all.
          Expat always expands internal entities (?), but exter-
          nal entity parsing must be enabled explicitly.

          External entities are simply entities that obtain their
          data from outside the XML file currently being parsed.

          This is an example of an internal entity:

          <!ENTITY vers '1.0.2'>

          And here are some examples of external entities:

          <!ENTITY header SYSTEM "header-&vers;.xml">  (parsed)
          <!ENTITY logo SYSTEM "logo.png" PNG>         (unparsed)

     --   (Two hyphens.) Terminates the list of options.  This is
          only needed if a filename starts with a hyphen.  For

          xmlwf -- -myfile.xml

          will run xmlwf on the file -myfile.xml.

     Older versions of xmlwf do not support reading from standard

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     If an input file is not well-formed, xmlwf prints a single
     line describing the problem to standard output.  If a file
     is well formed, xmlwf outputs nothing. Note that the result
     code is not set.


     According to the W3C standard, an XML file without a
     declaration at the beginning is not considered well-formed.
     However, xmlwf allows this to pass.

     xmlwf returns a 0 - noerr result, even if the file is not
     well-formed.  There is no good way for a program to use
     xmlwf to quickly check a file -- it must parse xmlwf's stan-
     dard output.

     The errors should go to standard error, not standard output.

     There should be a way to get -d to send its output to stan-
     dard output rather than forcing the user to send it to a

     I have no idea why anyone would want to use the -d, -c, and
     -m options.  If someone could explain it to me, I'd like to
     add this information to this manpage.


     Here are some XML validators on the web:



     The Expat home page:        http://www.libexpat.org/
     The W3 XML specification:   http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml


     This manual page was written by Scott Bronson
     <bronson@rinspin.com> for the Debian GNU/Linux system (but
     may be used by others).  Permission is granted to copy, dis-
     tribute and/or modify this document under the same terms as
     Expat itself.

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