MirOS Manual: xcalc(1)


XCALC(1)            UNIX Programmer's Manual             XCALC(1)

NAME

     xcalc - scientific calculator for X

SYNOPSIS

     xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]

DESCRIPTION

     xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can
     emulate a TI-30 or an HP-10C.

OPTIONS

     xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command line
     options along with two additional options:

     -stipple
             This option indicates that the background of the
             calculator should be drawn using a stipple of the
             foreground and background colors.  On monochrome
             displays improves the appearance.

     -rpn    This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation
             should be used.  In this mode the calculator will
             look and behave like an HP-10C.  Without this flag,
             it will emulate a TI-30.

OPERATION

     Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer but-
     ton 1, or in some cases, with the keyboard. Many common cal-
     culator operations have keyboard accelerators. To quit,
     press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI calculator,
     or the ON key of the HP calculator.

     Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/-
     key, and the +, -, *, /, and = keys all do exactly what you
     would expect them to.  It should be noted that the operators
     obey the standard rules of precedence.  Thus, entering
     "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35".  The parentheses can be
     used to override this.  For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)="
     results in "6*15=90".

     The entire number in the calculator display can be selected,
     in order to paste the result of a calculation into text.

     The action procedures associated with each function are
     given below.  These are useful if you are interested in
     defining a custom calculator. The action used for all digit
     keys is digit(n), where n is the corresponding digit, 0..9.

     1/x       Replaces the number in the display with its
               reciprocal. The corresponding action procedure is
               reciprocal().

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     x^2       Squares the number in the display. The correspond-
               ing action procedure is square().

     SQRT      Takes the square root of the number in the
               display. The corresponding action procedure is
               squareRoot().

     CE/C      When pressed once, clears the number in the
               display without clearing the state of the machine.
               Allows you to re-enter a number if you make a mis-
               take. Pressing it twice clears the state, also.
               The corresponding action procedure for TI mode is
               clear().

     AC        Clears the display, the state, and the memory.
               Pressing it with the third pointer button turns
               off the calculator, in that it exits the program.
               The action procedure to clear the state is off();
               to quit, quit().

     INV       Invert function.  See the individual function keys
               for details. The corresponding action procedure is
               inverse().

     sin       Computes the sine of the number in the display, as
               interpreted by the current DRG mode (see DRG,
               below).  If inverted, it computes the arcsine. The
               corresponding action procedure is sine().

     cos       Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.
               The corresponding action procedure is cosine().

     tan       Computes the tangent, or arctangent when inverted.
               The corresponding action procedure is tangent().

     DRG       Changes the DRG mode, as indicated by 'DEG',
               'RAD', or 'GRAD' at the bottom of of the calcula-
               tor ``liquid crystal'' display. When in 'DEG'
               mode, numbers in the display are taken as being
               degrees.  In 'RAD' mode, numbers are in radians,
               and in 'GRAD' mode, numbers are in grads.  When
               inverted, the DRG key has a feature of converting
               degrees to radians to grads and vice-versa.  Exam-
               ple:  put the calculator into 'DEG' mode, and
               enter "45 INV DRG".  The display should now show
               something along the lines of ".785398", which is
               45 degrees converted to radians. The corresponding
               action procedure is degree().

     e         The constant 'e'.  (2.7182818...). The correspond-
               ing action procedure is e().

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     EE        Used for entering exponential numbers.  For exam-
               ple, to get "-2.3E-4" you'd enter "2 . 3 +/- EE 4
               +/-". The corresponding action procedure is scien-
               tific().

     log       Calculates the log (base 10) of the number in the
               display.  When inverted, it raises "10.0" to the
               number in the display. For example, entering "3
               INV log" should result in "1000". The correspond-
               ing action procedure is logarithm().

     ln        Calculates the log (base e) of the number in the
               display.  When inverted, it raises "e" to the
               number in the display.  For example, entering "e
               ln" should result in "1". The corresponding action
               procedure is naturalLog().

     y^x       Raises the number on the left to the power of the
               number on the right.  For example "2 y^x 3 ="
               results in "8", which is 2^3.  For a further exam-
               ple, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6 y^x 3" which
               equals "216". The corresponding action procedure
               is power().

     PI        The constant 'pi'.  (3.1415927....) The
               corresponding action procedure is pi().

     x!        Computes the factorial of the number in the
               display.  The number in the display must be an
               integer in the range 0-500, though, depending on
               your math library, it might overflow long before
               that. The corresponding action procedure is fac-
               torial().

     (         Left parenthesis.  The corresponding action pro-
               cedure for TI calculators is leftParen().

     )         Right parenthesis.  The corresponding action pro-
               cedure for TI calculators is rightParen().

     /         Division.  The corresponding action procedure is
               divide().

     *         Multiplication.  The corresponding action pro-
               cedure is multiply().

     -         Subtraction.  The corresponding action procedure
               is subtract().

     +         Addition.  The corresponding action procedure is
               add().

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     =         Perform calculation.  The TI-specific action pro-
               cedure is equal().

     STO       Copies the number in the display to the memory
               location. The corresponding action procedure is
               store().

     RCL       Copies the number from the memory location to the
               display. The corresponding action procedure is
               recall().

     SUM       Adds the number in the display to the number in
               the memory location. The corresponding action pro-
               cedure is sum().

     EXC       Swaps the number in the display with the number in
               the memory location. The corresponding action pro-
               cedure for the TI calculator is exchange().

     +/-       Negate; change sign.  The corresponding action
               procedure is negate().

     .         Decimal point.  The action procedure is decimal().

     Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS
     (change sign), +, -, *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly what
     you would expect them to do.  Many of the remaining keys are
     the same as in TI mode.  The differences are detailed below.
     The action procedure for the ENTR key is enter().

     <-        This is a backspace key that can be used if you
               make a mistake while entering a number.  It will
               erase digits from the display.  (See BUGS).
               Inverse backspace will clear the X register. The
               corresponding action procedure is back().

     ON        Clears the display, the state, and the memory.
               Pressing it with the third pointer button turns
               off the calculator, in that it exits the program.
               To clear state, the action procedure is off; to
               quit, quit().

     INV       Inverts the meaning of the function keys.  This
               would be the  f key on an HP calculator, but xcalc
               does not display multiple legends on each key.
               See the individual function keys for details.

     10^x      Raises "10.0" to the number in the top of the
               stack. When inverted, it calculates the log (base
               10) of the number in the display. The

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               corresponding action procedure is tenpower().

     e^x       Raises "e" to the number in the top of the stack.
               When inverted, it calculates the log (base e) of
               the number in the display. The action procedure is
               epower().

     STO       Copies the number in the top of the stack to a
               memory location.  There are 10 memory locations.
               The desired memory is specified by following this
               key with a digit key.

     RCL       Pushes the number from the specified memory loca-
               tion onto the stack.

     SUM       Adds the number on top of the stack to the number
               in the specified memory location.

     x:y       Exchanges the numbers in the top two stack posi-
               tions, the X and Y registers. The corresponding
               action procedure is XexchangeY().

     R v       Rolls the stack downward.  When inverted, it rolls
               the stack upward. The corresponding action pro-
               cedure is roll().

     blank     These keys were used for programming functions on
               the HP-10C.  Their functionality has not been
               duplicated in xcalc.

     Finally, there are two additional action procedures: bell(),
     which rings the bell; and selection(), which performs a cut
     on the entire number in the calculator's ``liquid crystal''
     display.

ACCELERATORS

     Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands.  xcalc
     provides some sample keyboard accelerators; also users can
     customize accelerators. The numeric keypad accelerators pro-
     vided by xcalc should be intuitively correct. The accelera-
     tors defined by xcalc on the main keyboard are given below:

          TI Key    HP Key    Keyboard Accelerator     TI Function    HP Function

          SQRT SQRT r              squareRoot()   squareRoot()
          AC   ON   space               clear()        clear()
          AC   <-   Delete              clear()        back()
          AC   <-   Backspace      clear()        back()
          AC   <-   Control-H      clear()        back()
          AC        Clear               clear()
          AC   ON   q              quit()         quit()
          AC   ON   Control-C      quit()         quit()

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          INV  i    i              inverse()      inverse()
          sin  s    s              sine()         sine()
          cos  c    c              cosine()       cosine()
          tan  t    t              tangent() tangent()
          DRG  DRG  d              degree()       degree()

          e         e              e()
          ln   ln   l              naturalLog()   naturalLog()
          y^x  y^x  ^              power()        power()

          PI   PI   p              pi()      pi()
          x!   x!   !              factorial()    factorial()
          (         (              leftParen()
          )         )              rightParen()

          /    /    /              divide()       divide()
          *    *    *              multiply()     multiply()
          -    -    -              subtract()     subtract()
          +    +    +              add()          add()
          =         =              equal()

          0..9 0..9 0..9           digit()        digit()
          .    .    .              decimal() decimal()
          +/-  CHS  n              negate()       negate()

               x:y  x                        XexchangeY()
               ENTR Return                        enter()
               ENTR Linefeed                      enter()

CUSTOMIZATION

     The application class name is XCalc.

     xcalc has an enormous application defaults file which speci-
     fies the position, label, and function of each key on the
     calculator. It also gives translations to serve as keyboard
     accelerators. Because these resources are not specified in
     the source code, you can create a customized calculator by
     writing a private application defaults file, using the
     Athena Command and Form widget resources to specify the size
     and position of buttons, the label for each button, and the
     function of each button.

     The foreground and background colors of each calculator key
     can be individually specified. For the TI calculator, a
     classical color resource specification might be:

     XCalc.ti.Command.background:  gray50
     XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:  white

     For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
     XCalc.ti.button20.background: black
     XCalc.ti.button20.foreground: white

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     For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37,
     38, and 39:
     XCalc.ti.button22.background: white
     XCalc.ti.button22.foreground: black

WIDGET HIERARCHY

     In order to specify resources, it is useful to know the
     hierarchy of the widgets which compose xcalc.  In the nota-
     tion below, indentation indicates hierarchical structure.
     The widget class name is given first, followed by the widget
     instance name.

     XCalc xcalc
          Form  ti  or  hp    (the name depends on the mode)
               Form  bevel
                    Form  screen
                         Label  M
                         Toggle  LCD
                         Label  INV
                         Label  DEG
                         Label  RAD
                         Label  GRAD
                         Label  P
               Command  button1
               Command  button2
               Command  button3
     and so on, ...
               Command  button38
               Command  button39
               Command  button40

APPLICATION RESOURCES

     rpn (Class Rpn)
             Specifies that the rpn mode should be used.  The
             default is TI mode.

     stipple (Class Stipple)
             Indicates that the background should be stippled.
             The default is ``on'' for monochrome displays, and
             ``off'' for color displays.

     cursor (Class Cursor)
             The name of the symbol used to represent the
             pointer. The default is ``hand2''.

COLORS

     If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the
     following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read
     with xrdb:

     *customization:                 -color

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     This will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the app-
     defaults color customization file: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-
     defaults/XCalc-color.

SEE ALSO

     X(7), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set

BUGS

     HP mode:  A bug report claims that the sequence of keys 5,
     ENTER, <- should clear the display, but it doesn't.

COPYRIGHT

     Copyright 1994 X Consortium
     See X(7) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

AUTHORS

     John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
     Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
     Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium

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