MirOS Manual: xauth(1)


XAUTH(1)            UNIX Programmer's Manual             XAUTH(1)

NAME

     xauth - X authority file utility

SYNOPSIS

     xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqibn ] [ command arg ... ]

DESCRIPTION

     The xauth program is used to edit and display the authoriza-
     tion information used in connecting to the X server.  This
     program is usually used to extract authorization records
     from one machine and merge them in on another (as is the
     case when using remote logins or granting access to other
     users).  Commands (described below) may be entered interac-
     tively, on the xauth command line, or in scripts.  Note that
     this program does not contact the X server except when the
     generate command is used. Normally xauth is not used to
     create the authority file entry in the first place; xdm does
     that.

OPTIONS

     The following options may be used with xauth.  They may be
     given individually (e.g., -q -i) or may combined (e.g.,
     -qi).

     -f authfile
             This option specifies the name of the authority file
             to use.  By default, xauth will use the file speci-
             fied by the XAUTHORITY environment variable or .Xau-
             thority in the user's home directory.

     -q      This option indicates that xauth should operate
             quietly and not print unsolicited status messages.
             This is the default if an xauth command is given on
             the command line or if the standard output is not
             directed to a terminal.

     -v      This option indicates that xauth should operate ver-
             bosely and print status messages indicating the
             results of various operations (e.g., how many
             records have been read in or written out).  This is
             the default if xauth is reading commands from its
             standard input and its standard output is directed
             to a terminal.

     -i      This option indicates that xauth should ignore any
             authority file locks.  Normally, xauth will refuse
             to read or edit any authority files that have been
             locked by other programs (usually xdm or another
             xauth).

     -b      This option indicates that xauth should attempt to
             break any authority file locks before proceeding.

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             Use this option only to clean up stale locks.

     -n      This option indicates that xauth should not attempt
             to resolve any hostnames, but should simply always
             print the host address as stored in the authority
             file.

COMMANDS

     The following commands may be used to manipulate authority
     files:

     add displayname protocolname hexkey
             An authorization entry for the indicated display
             using the given protocol and key data is added to
             the authorization file.  The data is specified as an
             even-lengthed string of hexadecimal digits, each
             pair representing one octet.  The first digit of
             each pair gives the most significant 4 bits of the
             octet, and the second digit of the pair gives the
             least significant 4 bits.  For example, a 32 charac-
             ter hexkey would represent a 128-bit value. A proto-
             col name consisting of just a single period is
             treated as an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

     generate displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
             [timeout seconds] [group group-id] [data hexdata]

             This command is similar to add.  The main difference
             is that instead of requiring the user to supply the
             key data, it connects to the server specified in
             displayname and uses the SECURITY extension in order
             to get the key data to store in the authorization
             file.  If the server cannot be contacted or if it
             does not support the SECURITY extension, the command
             fails.  Otherwise, an authorization entry for the
             indicated display using the given protocol is added
             to the authorization file.  A protocol name consist-
             ing of just a single period is treated as an abbre-
             viation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

             If the trusted option is used, clients that connect
             using this authorization will have full run of the
             display, as usual.  If untrusted is used, clients
             that connect using this authorization will be con-
             sidered untrusted and prevented from stealing or
             tampering with data belonging to trusted clients.
             See the SECURITY extension specification for full
             details on the restrictions imposed on untrusted
             clients.  The default is untrusted.

             The timeout option specifies how long in seconds

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             this authorization will be valid.  If the authoriza-
             tion remains unused (no clients are connected with
             it) for longer than this time period, the server
             purges the authorization, and future attempts to
             connect using it will fail.  Note that the purging
             done by the server does not delete the authorization
             entry from the authorization file.  The default
             timeout is 60 seconds.

             The group option specifies the application group
             that clients connecting with this authorization
             should belong to.  See the application group exten-
             sion specification for more details.  The default is
             to not belong to an application group.

             The data option specifies data that the server
             should use to generate the authorization.  Note that
             this is not the same data that gets written to the
             authorization file.  The interpretation of this data
             depends on the authorization protocol.  The hexdata
             is in the same format as the hexkey described in the
             add command. The default is to send no data.

     [n]extract filename displayname...
             Authorization entries for each of the specified
             displays are written to the indicated file.  If the
             nextract command is used, the entries are written in
             a numeric format suitable for non-binary transmis-
             sion (such as secure electronic mail).  The
             extracted entries can be read back in using the
             merge and nmerge commands.  If the filename consists
             of just a single dash, the entries will be written
             to the standard output.

     [n]list [displayname...]
             Authorization entries for each of the specified
             displays (or all if no displays are named) are
             printed on the standard output.  If the nlist com-
             mand is used, entries will be shown in the numeric
             format used by the nextract command; otherwise, they
             are shown in a textual format. Key data is always
             displayed in the hexadecimal format given in the
             description of the add command.

     [n]merge [filename...]
             Authorization entries are read from the specified
             files and are merged into the authorization data-
             base, superceding any matching existing entries. If
             the nmerge command is used, the numeric format given
             in the description of the extract command is used.
             If a filename consists of just a single dash, the

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             standard input will be read if it hasn't been read
             before.

     remove displayname...
             Authorization entries matching the specified
             displays are removed from the authority file.

     source filename
             The specified file is treated as a script containing
             xauth commands to execute.  Blank lines and lines
             beginning with a sharp sign (#) are ignored.  A sin-
             gle dash may be used to indicate the standard input,
             if it hasn't already been read.

     info    Information describing the authorization file,
             whether or not any changes have been made, and from
             where xauth commands are being read is printed on
             the standard output.

     exit    If any modifications have been made, the authority
             file is written out (if allowed), and the program
             exits.  An end of file is treated as an implicit
             exit command.

     quit    The program exits, ignoring any modifications.  This
             may also be accomplished by pressing the interrupt
             character.

     help [string]
             A description of all commands that begin with the
             given string (or all commands if no string is given)
             is printed on the standard output.

     ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on the
             standard output.

DISPLAY NAMES

     Display names for the add, [n]extract, [n]list, [n]merge,
     and remove commands use the same format as the DISPLAY
     environment variable and the common -display command line
     argument.  Display-specific information (such as the screen
     number) is unnecessary and will be ignored. Same-machine
     connections (such as local-host sockets, shared memory, and
     the Internet Protocol hostname localhost) are referred to as
     hostname/unix:displaynumber so that local entries for dif-
     ferent machines may be stored in one authority file.

EXAMPLE

     The most common use for xauth is to extract the entry for
     the current display, copy it to another machine, and merge
     it into the user's authority file on the remote machine:

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             %  xauth extract - $DISPLAY | rsh otherhost xauth merge -

     The following command contacts the server :0 to create an
     authorization using the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol.
     Clients that connect with this authorization will be
     untrusted.
          %  xauth generate :0 .

ENVIRONMENT

     This xauth program uses the following environment variables:

     XAUTHORITY
             to get the name of the authority file to use if the
             -f option isn't used.

     HOME    to get the user's home directory if XAUTHORITY isn't
             defined.

FILES

     $HOME/.Xauthority
             default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

BUGS

     Users that have unsecure networks should take care to use
     encrypted file transfer mechanisms to copy authorization
     entries between machines. Similarly, the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1
     protocol is not very useful in unsecure environments.  Sites
     that are interested in additional security may need to use
     encrypted authorization mechanisms such as Kerberos.

     Spaces are currently not allowed in the protocol name.
     Quoting could be added for the truly perverse.

AUTHOR

     Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium

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