MirBSD manpage: systat(1)

SYSTAT(1)                    BSD Reference Manual                    SYSTAT(1)


     systat - display system statistics on a CRT


     systat [-n] [-w wait] [display] [refresh-interval]


     systat displays various system statistics in a screen oriented fashion
     using the curses screen display library, curses(3).

     While systat is running the screen is usually divided into two windows
     (an exception is the vmstat display which uses the entire screen). The
     upper window depicts the current system load average. The information
     displayed in the lower window may vary, depending on user commands. The
     last line on the screen is reserved for user input and error messages.

     By default systat displays the processes getting the largest percentage
     of the processor in the lower window. Other displays show swap space
     usage, disk I/O statistics (a la iostat(8)), virtual memory statistics (a
     la vmstat(8)), network "mbuf" utilization, and network connections (a la

     Input is interpreted at two different levels. A "global" command inter-
     preter processes all keyboard input. If this command interpreter fails to
     recognize a command, the input line is passed to a per-display command
     interpreter. This allows each display to have certain display-specific

     The options are as follows:

     -n                Do not try to reverse-map IP address.

     -w wait           Specifies the screen refresh time interval in seconds.
                       This option is overridden by refresh-interval, if
                       given. The default interval is 5 seconds.

     display           The display argument expects to be one of: pigs,
                       iostat, swap, mbufs, vmstat, ifstat or netstat. These
                       displays can also be requested interactively and are
                       described in full detail below.

     refresh-interval  The refresh-interval specifies the screen refresh time
                       interval in seconds. This is provided for backwards
                       compatibility, and overrides the wait interval speci-
                       fied with the -w flag. The default interval is 5

     Certain characters cause immediate action by systat. These are

     ^L          Refresh the screen.

     ^G          Print the name of the current "display" being shown in the
                 lower window and the refresh interval.

     ^Z          Suspend systat.

     :           Move the cursor to the command line and interpret the input
                 line typed as a command. While entering a command the current
                 character erase, word erase, and line kill characters may be

     The following commands are interpreted by the "global" command inter-

     help        Print the names of the available displays on the command

     load        Print the load average over the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes on
                 the command line.

     stop        Stop refreshing the screen.

     [start] [number]
                 Start (continue) refreshing the screen. If a second, numeric,
                 argument is provided it is interpreted as a refresh interval
                 (in seconds). Supplying only a number will set the refresh
                 interval to this value.

     quit        Exit systat. (This may be abbreviated to q.)

     The available displays are:

     pigs        Display, in the lower window, those processes resident in
                 main memory and getting the largest portion of the processor
                 (the default display). When less than 100% of the processor
                 is scheduled to user processes, the remaining time is ac-
                 counted to the "idle" process.

     iostat      Display, in the lower window, statistics about processor use
                 and disk throughput. Statistics on processor use appear as
                 bar graphs of the amount of time executing in user mode
                 ("user"), in user mode running low priority processes
                 ("nice"), in system mode ("system"), and idle ("idle").
                 Statistics on disk throughput show, for each drive, kilobytes
                 of data transferred, number of disk transactions performed,
                 and time spent in disk accesses (in milliseconds). This in-
                 formation may be displayed as bar graphs or as rows of
                 numbers which scroll downward. Bar graphs are shown by de-

                 The following commands are specific to the iostat display;
                 the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

                 numbers     Show the disk I/O statistics in numeric form.
                             Values are displayed in numeric columns which
                             scroll downward.
                 bars        Show the disk I/O statistics in bar graph form
                 secs        Toggle the display of time in disk activity (the
                             default is to not display time).
                 split       Toggle the display of separate read/write statis-
                             tics (the default is combined statistics).

     swap        Show information about swap space usage on all the swap areas
                 compiled into the kernel. The first column is the device name
                 of the partition. The next column is the total space avail-
                 able in the partition. The Used column indicates the total
                 blocks used so far; the graph shows the percentage of space
                 in use on each partition. If there is more than one swap par-
                 tition in use, a total line is also shown. Areas known to the
                 kernel but not in use are shown as not available.

     mbufs       Display, in the lower window, the number of mbufs allocated
                 for particular uses, i.e., data, socket structures, etc.

     vmstat      Take over the entire display and show a (rather crowded) com-
                 pendium of statistics related to virtual memory usage, pro-
                 cess scheduling, device interrupts, system name translation
                 caching, disk I/O etc.

                 The upper left quadrant of the screen shows the number of
                 users logged in and the load average over the last 1, 5, and
                 15 minute intervals. Below this line are statistics on memory
                 utilization. The first row of the table reports memory usage
                 only among active processes, that is, processes that have run
                 in the previous twenty seconds. The second row reports on
                 memory usage of all processes. The first column reports on
                 the number of physical pages claimed by processes. The second
                 column reports the same figure for virtual pages, that is,
                 the number of pages that would be needed if all processes had
                 all of their pages. Finally, the last column shows the number
                 of physical pages on the free list.

                 Below the memory display is a list of the average number of
                 processes (over the last refresh interval) that are runnable
                 ('r'), in disk wait other than paging ('d'), sleeping ('s'),
                 and swapped out but desiring to run ('w'). Below the queue
                 length listing is a numerical listing and a bar graph showing
                 the amount of system (shown as '='), user (shown as '>'),
                 nice (shown as '-'), and idle time (shown as ' ').

                 To the right of the Proc display are statistics about Context
                 switches ("Csw"), Traps ("Trp"), Syscalls ("Sys"), Interrupts
                 ("Int"), Soft interrupts ("Sof"), and Faults ("Flt") which
                 have occurred during the last refresh interval.

                 Below the CPU Usage graph are statistics on name transla-
                 tions. It lists the number of names translated in the previ-
                 ous interval, the number and percentage of the translations
                 that were handled by the system wide name translation cache,
                 and the number and percentage of the translations that were
                 handled by the per process name translation cache.

                 At the bottom left is the disk usage display. It reports the
                 number of seeks, transfers, number of kilobyte blocks
                 transferred per second averaged over the refresh period of
                 the display (by default, five seconds), and the time spent in
                 disk accesses.

                 Under the date in the upper right hand quadrant are statis-
                 tics on paging and swapping activity. The first two columns
                 report the average number of pages brought in and out per
                 second over the last refresh interval due to page faults and
                 the paging daemon. The third and fourth columns report the
                 average number of pages brought in and out per second over
                 the last refresh interval due to swap requests initiated by
                 the scheduler. The first row of the display shows the average
                 number of disk transfers per second over the last refresh in-
                 terval. The second row of the display shows the average
                 number of pages transferred per second over the last refresh

                 Running down the right hand side of the display is a break-
                 down of the interrupts being handled by the system. At the
                 top of the list is the total interrupts per second over the
                 time interval. The rest of the column breaks down the total
                 on a device by device basis. Only devices that have inter-
                 rupted at least once since boot time are shown.

                 Below the SWAPPING display and slightly to the left of the
                 Interrupts display is a list of virtual memory statistics.
                 The abbreviations are:

                       forks   process forks
                       fkppw   forks where parent waits
                       fksvm   forks where vmspace is shared
                       pwait   fault had to wait on a page
                       relck   fault relock called
                       rlkok   fault relock is successful
                       noram   faults out of ram
                       ndcpy   number of times fault clears "need copy"
                       fltcp   number of times fault promotes with copy
                       zfod    fault promotes with zerofill
                       cow     number of times fault anon cow
                       fmin    min number of free pages
                       ftarg   target number of free pages
                       itarg   target number of inactive pages
                       wired   wired pages
                       pdfre   pages daemon freed since boot
                       pdscn   pages daemon scanned since boot

                 The '%zfod' value is more interesting when observed over a
                 long period, such as from boot time (see the boot option

     ifstat      Display, in the lower window, interface statistics. See below
                 for more options.

     netstat     Display, in the lower window, network connections. By de-
                 fault, network servers awaiting requests are not displayed.
                 Each address is displayed in the format "host.port", with
                 each shown symbolically, when possible. It is possible to
                 have addresses displayed numerically, limit the display to a
                 set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum unambigu-
                 ous prefix may be supplied):

                 all           Toggle the displaying of server processes
                               awaiting requests (this is the equivalent of
                               the -a flag to netstat(1)).

                 numbers       Display network addresses numerically.

                 names         Display network addresses symbolically.

                 protocol      Display only network connections using the in-
                               dicated protocol (currently either "tcp" or

                 ignore [items]
                               Do not display information about connections
                               associated with the specified hosts or ports.
                               Hosts and ports may be specified by name
                               ("vangogh", "ftp"), or numerically. Host ad-
                               dresses use the Internet dot notation
                               (""). Multiple items may be specified
                               with a single command by separating them with

                 display [items]
                               Display information about the connections asso-
                               ciated with the specified hosts or ports. As
                               for ignore, items may be names or numbers.

                 show [ports|hosts]
                               Show, on the command line, the currently
                               selected protocols, hosts, and ports. Hosts and
                               ports which are being ignored are prefixed with
                               a '!'. If ports or hosts is supplied as an ar-
                               gument to show, then only the requested infor-
                               mation will be displayed.

                 reset         Reset the port, host, and protocol matching
                               mechanisms to the default (any protocol, port,
                               or host).

     The following commands are specific to the vmstat and ifstat displays;
     the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

     boot    Display cumulative statistics since the system was booted.
     run     Display statistics as a running total from the point this command
             is given.
     time    Display statistics averaged over the refresh interval (the de-
     zero    Reset running statistics to zero.

     Commands to switch between displays may be abbreviated to the minimum
     unambiguous prefix; for example, "io" for "iostat". Certain information
     may be discarded when the screen size is insufficient for display. For
     example, on a machine with 10 drives the iostat bar graph displays only 3
     drives on a 24 line terminal. When a bar graph would overflow the allot-
     ted screen space it is truncated and the actual value is printed "over
     top" of the bar.

     The following commands are common to each display which shows information
     about disk drives. These commands are used to select a set of drives to
     report on, should your system have more drives configured than can nor-
     mally be displayed on the screen.

     ignore [drives]         Do not display information about the drives indi-
                             cated. Multiple drives may be specified, separat-
                             ed by spaces.
     display [drives]        Display information about the drives indicated.
                             Multiple drives may be specified, separated by


     /etc/hosts     host names
     /etc/networks  network names
     /etc/services  port names


     kill(1), ps(1), top(1), renice(8)


     The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD.


     Takes 2-10 percent of the CPU. Certain displays presume a minimum of 80
     characters per line. The vmstat display looks out of place because it is
     (it was added in as a separate display rather than created as a new pro-

MirBSD #10-current            December 30, 1993                              4

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