MirBSD manpage: refer(1)

REFER(1)                     BSD Reference Manual                     REFER(1)


     refer - find and insert literature references in documents


     refer [-a] [-b] [-c] [-e] [-fn] [-kx] [-lm,n] [-n] [-p bib] [-skeys]
           [-Bl.m] [-P] [-S] [file ...]


     Refer is a preprocessor for nroff(1) or troff(1) that finds and formats
     references for footnotes or endnotes. It is also the base for a series of
     programs designed to index, search, sort, and print stand-alone bi-
     bliographies, or other data entered in the appropriate form.

     Given an incomplete citation with sufficiently precise keywords, refer
     will search a bibliographic database for references containing these key-
     words anywhere in the title, author, journal, etc. The input file (or
     standard input) is copied to standard output, except for lines between
     '.[' and '.]' delimiters, which are assumed to contain keywords, and are
     replaced by information from the bibliographic database. The user may
     also search different databases, override particular fields, or add new
     fields. The reference data, from whatever source, are assigned to a set
     of troff(1) strings. Macro packages such as ms(7) print the finished
     reference text from these strings. By default references are flagged by
     footnote numbers.

     The following options are available:

     -an   Reverse the first n author names (Jones, J. A. instead of J. A.
           Jones). If n is omitted all author names are reversed.

     -b    Bare mode: do not put any flags in text (neither numbers nor la-

           Capitalize (with CAPS SMALL CAPS) the fields whose key-letters are
           in keys.

     -e    Instead of leaving the references where encountered, accumulate
           them until a sequence of the form
           is encountered, and then write out all references collected so far.
           Collapse references to same source.

     -fn   Set the footnote number to n instead of the default of 1 (one).
           With labels rather than numbers, this flag is a no-op.

     -kx   Instead of numbering references, use labels as specified in a
           reference data line beginning %x; by default x is L.

           Instead of numbering references, use labels made from the senior
           author's last name and the year of publication. Only the first m
           letters of the last name and the last n digits of the date are
           used. If either m or n is omitted the entire name or date respec-
           tively is used.

     -n    Do not search the default file /var/db/Ind. If there is a REFER en-
           vironment variable, the specified file will be searched instead of
           the default file; in this case the -n flag has no effect.

           Take the next argument bib as a file of references to be searched.
           The default file is searched last.

           Sort references by fields whose key-letters are in the keys string;
           permute reference numbers in text accordingly. Implies -e. The key-
           letters in keys may be followed by a number to indicate how many
           such fields are used, with + taken as a very large number. The de-
           fault is AD which sorts on the senior author and then date; to
           sort, for example, on all authors and then title, use -sA+T.

           Bibliography mode. Take a file composed of records separated by
           blank lines, and turn them into troff(1) input. Label l will be
           turned into the macro .m with l defaulting to %X and .m defaulting
           to .AP (annotation paragraph).

     -P    Place punctuation marks '.,:;?! after the reference signal,' rather
           than before. (Periods and commas used to be done with strings.)

     -S    Produce references in the Natural or Social Science format.

     To use your own references, put them in the format described below. They
     can be searched more rapidly by running indxbib(1) on them before using
     refer; failure to index results in a linear search. When refer is used
     with the eqn(1), neqn(1) or tbl(1) preprocessors refer should be first,
     to minimize the volume of data passed through pipes.

     The refer preprocessor and associated programs expect input from a file
     of references composed of records separated by blank lines. A record is a
     set of lines (fields), each containing one kind of information. Fields
     start on a line beginning with a '%', followed by a key-letter, then a
     blank, and finally the contents of the field, and continue until the next
     line starting with '%'. The output ordering and formatting of fields is
     controlled by the macros specified for nroff(1) or troff(1) (for foot-
     notes and endnotes) or roffbib(1) (for stand-alone bibliographies). For a
     list of the most common key-letters and their corresponding fields, see
     addbib(1). An example of a refer entry is given below.


     The following environment variable is used by refer if it exists.

     REFER       Specify an alternate default search file for publication


           %A      M. E. Lesk
           %T      Some Applications of Inverted Indexes on the UNIX System
           %B      UNIX Programmer's Manual
           %V      2b
           %I      Bell Laboratories
           %C      Murray Hill, NJ
           %D      1978


     /usr/share/dict/papers  Directory of default publication lists.
     /var/db/Ind             Default search file (for hunt phase).
     /usr/share/dict/eign    Contains common words.
     /usr/libexec            Directory where companion programs reside.


     addbib(1), sortbib(1), roffbib(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1)


     The Refer command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.


     Mike Lesk


     Blank spaces at the end of lines in bibliography fields will cause the
     records to sort and reverse incorrectly. Sorting large numbers of refer-
     ences causes a core dump.

AT&T 7th Edition                August 8, 1991                               2

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