MirOS Manual: perlmodinstall(1)


PERLMODINSTALL(1)Perl Programmers Reference GuidPERLMODINSTALL(1)

NAME

     perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION

     You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of reus-
     able Perl code; see perlmod for details.  Whenever anyone
     creates a chunk of Perl code that they think will be useful
     to the world, they register as a Perl developer at
     http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html so that they can
     then upload their code to the CPAN.  The CPAN is the
     Comprehensive Perl Archive Network and can be accessed at
     http://www.cpan.org/ , and searched at
     http://search.cpan.org/ .

     This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN
     modules and install them on their own computer.

     PREAMBLE

     First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your
     system?  Try "perl -MFoo -e 1".  (Replace "Foo" with the
     name of the module; for instance, "perl -MCGI::Carp -e 1".

     If you don't see an error message, you have the module.  (If
     you do see an error message, it's still possible you have
     the module, but that it's not in your path, which you can
     display with "perl -e "print qq(@INC)"".)  For the remainder
     of this document, we'll assume that you really honestly
     truly lack an installed module, but have found it on the
     CPAN.

     So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often,
     .zip).  You know there's a tasty module inside.  There are
     four steps you must now take:

     DECOMPRESS the file
     UNPACK the file into a directory
     BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)
     INSTALL the module.

     Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.
     This is <not> a substitute for reading the README and
     INSTALL files that might have come with your module!

     Also note that these instructions are tailored for instal-
     ling the module into your system's repository of Perl
     modules -- but you can install modules into any directory
     you wish.  For instance, where I say "perl Makefile.PL", you
     can substitute "perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory"
     to install the modules into "/my/perl_directory".  Then you
     can use the modules from your Perl programs with "use lib
     "/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl";" or sometimes just "use

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     "/my/perl_directory";".  If you're on a system that requires
     superuser/root access to install modules into the direc-
     tories you see when you type "perl -e "print qq(@INC)"",
     you'll want to install them into a local directory (such as
     your home directory) and use this approach.

     +   If you're on a Unix or Unix-like system,

         You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module (
         http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN ) to automate
         the following steps, from DECOMPRESS through INSTALL.

         A. DECOMPRESS

         Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

         You can get gzip from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/

         Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk
         space:

              gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xf -

         B. UNPACK

         Unpack the result with "tar -xf yourmodule.tar"

         C. BUILD

         Go into the newly-created directory and type:

               perl Makefile.PL
               make test

         or

               perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory

         to install it locally.  (Remember that if you do this,
         you'll have to put "use lib "/my/perl_directory";" near
         the top of the program that is to use this module.

         D. INSTALL

         While still in that directory, type:

               make install

         Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to
         install the module in your Perl 5 library directory.
         Often, you'll need to be root.

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         That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic
         linking. Most Unix systems have dynamic linking -- if
         yours doesn't, or if for another reason you have a
         statically-linked perl, and the module requires compila-
         tion, you'll need to build a new Perl binary that
         includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to be
         root.

     +   If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP, Linux,
         Solaris)

         First, type "ppm" from a shell and see whether
         ActiveState's PPM repository has your module.  If so,
         you can install it with "ppm" and you won't have to
         bother with any of the other steps here.  You might be
         able to use the CPAN instructions from the "Unix or
         Linux" section above as well; give it a try.  Otherwise,
         you'll have to follow the steps below.

            A. DECOMPRESS

         You can use the shareware Winzip ( http://www.winzip.com
         ) to decompress and unpack modules.

            B. UNPACK

         If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.

            C. BUILD

         You'll need the "nmake" utility, available at
         http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe
         or dmake, available on CPAN.
         http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/

         Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have
         files that end in .xs, .c, .h, .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?
         If it does, life is now officially tough for you,
         because you have to compile the module yourself -- no
         easy feat on Windows.  You'll need a compiler such as
         Visual C++.  Alternatively, you can download a pre-built
         PPM package from ActiveState.
         http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Downloads/ActivePerl/PPM/

         Go into the newly-created directory and type:

               perl Makefile.PL
               nmake test

            D. INSTALL

         While still in that directory, type:

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               nmake install

     +   If you're using a Macintosh with "Classic" MacOS and
         MacPerl,

         A. DECOMPRESS

         First, make sure you have the latest cpan-mac distribu-
         tion ( http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/ ), which
         has utilities for doing all of the steps.  Read the
         cpan-mac directions carefully and install it.  If you
         choose not to use cpan-mac for some reason, there are
         alternatives listed here.

         After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on
         the untarzipme droplet, which will decompress and unpack
         for you.

         Or, you can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander
         program ( http://www.aladdinsys.com/expander/ ) in com-
         bination with DropStuff with Expander Enhancer (
         http://www.aladdinsys.com/dropstuff/ ) or the freeware
         MacGzip program (
         http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html
         ).

         B. UNPACK

         If you're using untarzipme or StuffIt, the archive
         should be extracted now.  Or, you can use the freeware
         suntar or Tar (
         http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/cmp/
         ).

         C. BUILD

         Check the contents of the distribution. Read the
         module's documentation, looking for reasons why you
         might have trouble using it with MacPerl.  Look for .xs
         and .c files, which normally denote that the distribu-
         tion must be compiled, and you cannot install it "out of
         the box." (See "PORTABILITY".)

         If a module does not work on MacPerl but should, or
         needs to be compiled, see if the module exists already
         as a port on the MacPerl Module Porters site (
         http://pudge.net/mmp/ ). For more information on doing
         XS with MacPerl yourself, see Arved Sandstrom's XS
         tutorial ( http://macperl.com/depts/Tutorials/ ), and
         then consider uploading your binary to the CPAN and
         registering it on the MMP site.

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         D. INSTALL

         If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the
         installme droplet, and use the module.

         Or, if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual labor.

         Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac for-
         mat, not Unix format. If they are not then you might
         have decompressed them incorrectly.  Check your
         decompression and unpacking utilities settings to make
         sure they are translating text files properly.

         As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:

             perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>

         on the source files.

         Then move the files (probably just the .pm files, though
         there may be some additional ones, too; check the module
         documentation) to their final destination: This will
         most likely be in "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" (i.e.,
         "HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:").  You can add new paths
         to the default @INC in the Preferences menu item in the
         MacPerl application ("$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" is added
         automagically).  Create whatever directory structures
         are required (i.e., for "Some::Module", create
         "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:" and put "Module.pm" in
         that directory).

         Then run the following script (or something like it):

              #!perl -w
              use AutoSplit;
              my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
              autosplit("$dir:Some:Module.pm", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);

     +   If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,

            A. DECOMPRESS

         djtarx (
         ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/v2/ ) will
         both uncompress and unpack.

            B. UNPACK

         See above.

            C. BUILD

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         Go into the newly-created directory and type:

               perl Makefile.PL
               make test

         You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in
         the Perl distribution.

            D. INSTALL

         While still in that directory, type:

              make install

         You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in
         the Perl distribution.

     +   If you're on OS/2,

         Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either
         Hobbes ( http://hobbes.nmsu.edu ) or Leo (
         http://www.leo.org ), and then follow the instructions
         for Unix.

     +   If you're on VMS,

         When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a ".tgz"
         extension instead of ".tar.gz".  All other periods in
         the filename should be replaced with underscores.  For
         example, "Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz" should be downloaded
         as "Your-Module-1_33.tgz".

         A. DECOMPRESS

         Type

             gzip -d Your-Module.tgz

         or, for zipped modules, type

             unzip Your-Module.zip

         Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:

             http://www.openvms.digital.com/freeware/
             http://www.crinoid.com/utils/

         and their source code:

             http://www.fsf.org/order/ftp.html

         Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as

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         Info-ZIP's zip/unzip package.  The former is a simple
         compression tool; the latter permits creation of multi-
         file archives.

         B. UNPACK

         If you're using VMStar:

              VMStar xf Your-Module.tar

         Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:

              tar/extract/verbose Your_Module.tar

         C. BUILD

         Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware
         MMK ( available from MadGoat at http://www.madgoat.com
         ).  Then type this to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the
         module:

             perl Makefile.PL

         Now you're ready to build:

             mms test

         Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

         D. INSTALL

         Type

             mms install

         Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

     +   If you're on MVS,

         Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary; don't
         translate from ASCII to EBCDIC.

         A. DECOMPRESS

         Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

         You can get gzip from
         http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html

         B. UNPACK

         Unpack the result with

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              pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar

         The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for
         Unix.  Some modules generate Makefiles that work better
         with GNU make, which is available from
         http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/

PORTABILITY

     Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms.
     See perlport for more information on portability issues.
     Read the documentation to see if the module will work on
     your system.  There are basically three categories of
     modules that will not work "out of the box" with all plat-
     forms (with some possibility of overlap):

     +   Those that should, but don't.  These need to be fixed;
         consider contacting the author and possibly writing a
         patch.

     +   Those that need to be compiled, where the target plat-
         form doesn't have compilers readily available.  (These
         modules contain .xs or .c files, usually.)  You might be
         able to find existing binaries on the CPAN or elsewhere,
         or you might want to try getting compilers and building
         it yourself, and then release the binary for other poor
         souls to use.

     +   Those that are targeted at a specific platform. (Such as
         the Win32:: modules.)  If the module is targeted specif-
         ically at a platform other than yours, you're out of
         luck, most likely.

     Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your
     platform but it doesn't behave as you'd expect, or you
     aren't sure whether or not a module will work under your
     platform.  If the module you want isn't listed there, you
     can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers know, you can join
     CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.

         http://testers.cpan.org/

HEY

     If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me
     know.  Please don't send me mail asking for help on how to
     install your modules. There are too many modules, and too
     few Orwants, for me to be able to answer or even acknowledge
     all your questions.  Contact the module author instead, or
     post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone familiar with
     Perl on your operating system.

AUTHOR

     Jon Orwant

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     orwant@medita.mit.edu

     with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help
     from Brandon Allbery, Charles Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic
     Dunlop, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick
     Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J. Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen,
     Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy, Christoph Spalinger, Dan
     Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.

     First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21, 2001.

COPYRIGHT

     Copyright (C) 1998, 2002, 2003 Jon Orwant.  All Rights
     Reserved.

     Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies
     of this documentation provided the copyright notice and this
     permission notice are preserved on all copies.

     Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified ver-
     sions of this documentation under the conditions for verba-
     tim copying, provided also that they are marked clearly as
     modified versions, that the authors' names and title are
     unchanged (though subtitles and additional authors' names
     may be added), and that the entire resulting derived work is
     distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical
     to this one.

     Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of
     this documentation into another language, under the above
     conditions for modified versions.

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