MirBSD manpage: perl(1)

PERL(1)         Perl Programmers Reference Guide          PERL(1)


     perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language


     perl [ -sTtuUWX ]      [ -hv ] [ -V[:configvar] ]
          [ -cw ] [ -d[t][:debugger] ] [ -D[number/list] ]
          [ -pna ] [ -Fpattern ] [ -l[octal] ] [ -0[octal/hexadecimal] ]
          [ -Idir ] [ -m[-]module ] [ -M[-]'module...' ] [ -f ]
          [ -C [number/list] ]      [ -P ]      [ -S ]
          [ -x[dir] ]      [ -i[extension] ]
          [ -e 'command' ] [ -- ] [ programfile ] [ argument ]...

     If you're new to Perl, you should start with perlintro,
     which is a general intro for beginners and provides some
     background to help you navigate the rest of Perl's extensive

     For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into
     several sections.


         perl                Perl overview (this section)
         perlintro           Perl introduction for beginners
         perltoc             Perl documentation table of contents


         perlreftut          Perl references short introduction
         perldsc             Perl data structures intro
         perllol             Perl data structures: arrays of arrays

         perlrequick         Perl regular expressions quick start
         perlretut           Perl regular expressions tutorial

         perlboot            Perl OO tutorial for beginners
         perltoot            Perl OO tutorial, part 1
         perltooc            Perl OO tutorial, part 2
         perlbot             Perl OO tricks and examples

         perlstyle           Perl style guide

         perlcheat           Perl cheat sheet
         perltrap            Perl traps for the unwary
         perldebtut          Perl debugging tutorial

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         perlfaq             Perl frequently asked questions
           perlfaq1          General Questions About Perl
           perlfaq2          Obtaining and Learning about Perl
           perlfaq3          Programming Tools
           perlfaq4          Data Manipulation
           perlfaq5          Files and Formats
           perlfaq6          Regexes
           perlfaq7          Perl Language Issues
           perlfaq8          System Interaction
           perlfaq9          Networking

     Reference Manual

         perlsyn             Perl syntax
         perldata            Perl data structures
         perlop              Perl operators and precedence
         perlsub             Perl subroutines
         perlfunc            Perl built-in functions
           perlopentut       Perl open() tutorial
           perlpacktut       Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial
         perlpod             Perl plain old documentation
         perlpodspec         Perl plain old documentation format specification
         perlrun             Perl execution and options
         perldiag            Perl diagnostic messages
         perllexwarn         Perl warnings and their control
         perldebug           Perl debugging
         perlvar             Perl predefined variables
         perlre              Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story
         perlreref           Perl regular expressions quick reference
         perlref             Perl references, the rest of the story
         perlform            Perl formats
         perlobj             Perl objects
         perltie             Perl objects hidden behind simple variables
           perldbmfilter     Perl DBM filters

         perlipc             Perl interprocess communication
         perlfork            Perl fork() information
         perlnumber          Perl number semantics

         perlthrtut          Perl threads tutorial
           perlothrtut       Old Perl threads tutorial

         perlport            Perl portability guide
         perllocale          Perl locale support
         perluniintro        Perl Unicode introduction
         perlunicode         Perl Unicode support
         perlebcdic          Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

         perlsec             Perl security

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         perlmod             Perl modules: how they work
         perlmodlib          Perl modules: how to write and use
         perlmodstyle        Perl modules: how to write modules with style
         perlmodinstall      Perl modules: how to install from CPAN
         perlnewmod          Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution

         perlutil            utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

         perlcompile         Perl compiler suite intro

         perlfilter          Perl source filters

         perlglossary        Perl Glossary

     Internals and C Language Interface

         perlembed           Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application
         perldebguts         Perl debugging guts and tips
         perlxstut           Perl XS tutorial
         perlxs              Perl XS application programming interface
         perlclib            Internal replacements for standard C library functions
         perlguts            Perl internal functions for those doing extensions
         perlcall            Perl calling conventions from C

         perlapi             Perl API listing (autogenerated)
         perlintern          Perl internal functions (autogenerated)
         perliol             C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers
         perlapio            Perl internal IO abstraction interface

         perlhack            Perl hackers guide


         perlbook            Perl book information
         perltodo            Perl things to do

         perldoc             Look up Perl documentation in Pod format

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         perlhist            Perl history records
         perldelta           Perl changes since previous version
         perl587delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.7
         perl586delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.6
         perl585delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.5
         perl584delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.4
         perl583delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.3
         perl582delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.2
         perl581delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.1
         perl58delta         Perl changes in version 5.8.0
         perl573delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.3
         perl572delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.2
         perl571delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.1
         perl570delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.0
         perl561delta        Perl changes in version 5.6.1
         perl56delta         Perl changes in version 5.6
         perl5005delta       Perl changes in version 5.005
         perl5004delta       Perl changes in version 5.004

         perlartistic        Perl Artistic License
         perlgpl             GNU General Public License


         perlcn              Perl for Simplified Chinese (in EUC-CN)
         perljp              Perl for Japanese (in EUC-JP)
         perlko              Perl for Korean (in EUC-KR)
         perltw              Perl for Traditional Chinese (in Big5)


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         perlaix             Perl notes for AIX
         perlamiga           Perl notes for AmigaOS
         perlapollo          Perl notes for Apollo DomainOS
         perlbeos            Perl notes for BeOS
         perlbs2000          Perl notes for POSIX-BC BS2000
         perlce              Perl notes for WinCE
         perlcygwin          Perl notes for Cygwin
         perldgux            Perl notes for DG/UX
         perldos             Perl notes for DOS
         perlepoc            Perl notes for EPOC
         perlfreebsd         Perl notes for FreeBSD
         perlhpux            Perl notes for HP-UX
         perlhurd            Perl notes for Hurd
         perlirix            Perl notes for Irix
         perllinux           Perl notes for Linux
         perlmachten         Perl notes for Power MachTen
         perlmacos           Perl notes for Mac OS (Classic)
         perlmacosx          Perl notes for Mac OS X
         perlmint            Perl notes for MiNT
         perlmpeix           Perl notes for MPE/iX
         perlnetware         Perl notes for NetWare
         perlopenbsd         Perl notes for OpenBSD
         perlos2             Perl notes for OS/2
         perlos390           Perl notes for OS/390
         perlos400           Perl notes for OS/400
         perlplan9           Perl notes for Plan 9
         perlqnx             Perl notes for QNX
         perlsolaris         Perl notes for Solaris
         perltru64           Perl notes for Tru64
         perluts             Perl notes for UTS
         perlvmesa           Perl notes for VM/ESA
         perlvms             Perl notes for VMS
         perlvos             Perl notes for Stratus VOS
         perlwin32           Perl notes for Windows

     By default, the manpages listed above are installed in the
     /usr/local/man/ directory.

     Extensive additional documentation for Perl modules is
     available.  The default configuration for perl will place
     this additional documentation in the
     /usr/local/lib/perl5/man directory (or else in the man sub-
     directory of the Perl library directory).  Some of this
     additional documentation is distributed standard with Perl,
     but you'll also find documentation for third-party modules

     You should be able to view Perl's documentation with your
     man(1) program by including the proper directories in the
     appropriate start-up files, or in the MANPATH environment
     variable.  To find out where the configuration has installed
     the manpages, type:

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         perl -V:man.dir

     If the directories have a common stem, such as
     /usr/local/man/man1 and /usr/local/man/man3, you need only
     to add that stem (/usr/local/man) to your man(1) configura-
     tion files or your MANPATH environment variable.  If they do
     not share a stem, you'll have to add both stems.

     If that doesn't work for some reason, you can still use the
     supplied perldoc script to view module information.  You
     might also look into getting a replacement man program.

     If something strange has gone wrong with your program and
     you're not sure where you should look for help, try the -w
     switch first.  It will often point out exactly where the
     trouble is.


     Perl is a language optimized for scanning arbitrary text
     files, extracting information from those text files, and
     printing reports based on that information.  It's also a
     good language for many system management tasks.  The
     language is intended to be practical (easy to use, effi-
     cient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant,

     Perl combines (in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the
     best features of C, sed, awk, and sh, so people familiar
     with those languages should have little difficulty with it.
     (Language historians will also note some vestiges of csh,
     Pascal, and even BASIC-PLUS.)  Expression syntax corresponds
     closely to C expression syntax.  Unlike most Unix utilities,
     Perl does not arbitrarily limit the size of your data--if
     you've got the memory, Perl can slurp in your whole file as
     a single string.  Recursion is of unlimited depth.  And the
     tables used by hashes (sometimes called "associative
     arrays") grow as necessary to prevent degraded performance.
     Perl can use sophisticated pattern matching techniques to
     scan large amounts of data quickly.  Although optimized for
     scanning text, Perl can also deal with binary data, and can
     make dbm files look like hashes.  Setuid Perl scripts are
     safer than C programs through a dataflow tracing mechanism
     that prevents many stupid security holes.

     If you have a problem that would ordinarily use sed or awk
     or sh, but it exceeds their capabilities or must run a lit-
     tle faster, and you don't want to write the silly thing in
     C, then Perl may be for you.  There are also translators to
     turn your sed and awk scripts into Perl scripts.

     But wait, there's more...

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     Begun in 1993 (see perlhist), Perl version 5 is nearly a
     complete rewrite that provides the following additional

     +   modularity and reusability using innumerable modules

         Described in perlmod, perlmodlib, and perlmodinstall.

     +   embeddable and extensible

         Described in perlembed, perlxstut, perlxs, perlcall,
         perlguts, and xsubpp.

     +   roll-your-own magic variables (including multiple simul-
         taneous DBM implementations)

         Described in perltie and AnyDBM_File.

     +   subroutines can now be overridden, autoloaded, and pro-

         Described in perlsub.

     +   arbitrarily nested data structures and anonymous func-

         Described in perlreftut, perlref, perldsc, and perllol.

     +   object-oriented programming

         Described in perlobj, perlboot, perltoot, perltooc, and

     +   support for light-weight processes (threads)

         Described in perlthrtut and threads.

     +   support for Unicode, internationalization, and localiza-

         Described in perluniintro, perllocale and

     +   lexical scoping

         Described in perlsub.

     +   regular expression enhancements

         Described in perlre, with additional examples in perlop.

     +   enhanced debugger and interactive Perl environment, with

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         integrated editor support

         Described in perldebtut, perldebug and perldebguts.

     +   POSIX 1003.1 compliant library

         Described in POSIX.

     Okay, that's definitely enough hype.


     Perl is available for most operating systems, including vir-
     tually all Unix-like platforms.  See "Supported Platforms"
     in perlport for a listing.


     See perlrun.


     Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of
     other folks.

     If your Perl success stories and testimonials may be of help
     to others who wish to advocate the use of Perl in their
     applications, or if you wish to simply express your grati-
     tude to Larry and the Perl developers, please write to
     perl-thanks@perl.org .


      "@INC"                 locations of perl libraries


      a2p    awk to perl translator
      s2p    sed to perl translator

      http://www.perl.org/       the Perl homepage
      http://www.perl.com/       Perl articles (O'Reilly)
      http://www.cpan.org/       the Comprehensive Perl Archive
      http://www.pm.org/         the Perl Mongers


     The "use warnings" pragma (and the -w switch) produces some
     lovely diagnostics.

     See perldiag for explanations of all Perl's diagnostics.
     The "use diagnostics" pragma automatically turns Perl's nor-
     mally terse warnings and errors into these longer forms.

     Compilation errors will tell you the line number of the
     error, with an indication of the next token or token type
     that was to be examined. (In a script passed to Perl via -e
     switches, each -e is counted as one line.)

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     Setuid scripts have additional constraints that can produce
     error messages such as "Insecure dependency".  See perlsec.

     Did we mention that you should definitely consider using the
     -w switch?


     The -w switch is not mandatory.

     Perl is at the mercy of your machine's definitions of vari-
     ous operations such as type casting, atof(), and floating-
     point output with sprintf().

     If your stdio requires a seek or eof between reads and
     writes on a particular stream, so does Perl.  (This doesn't
     apply to sysread() and syswrite().)

     While none of the built-in data types have any arbitrary
     size limits (apart from memory size), there are still a few
     arbitrary limits:  a given variable name may not be longer
     than 251 characters.  Line numbers displayed by diagnostics
     are internally stored as short integers, so they are limited
     to a maximum of 65535 (higher numbers usually being affected
     by wraparound).

     You may mail your bug reports (be sure to include full con-
     figuration information as output by the myconfig program in
     the perl source tree, or by "perl -V") to perlbug@perl.org .
     If you've succeeded in compiling perl, the perlbug script in
     the utils/ subdirectory can be used to help mail in a bug

     Perl actually stands for Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish
     Lister, but don't tell anyone I said that.


     The Perl motto is "There's more than one way to do it."
     Divining how many more is left as an exercise to the reader.

     The three principal virtues of a programmer are Laziness,
     Impatience, and Hubris.  See the Camel Book for why.

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