MirBSD manpage: netstat(1)

NETSTAT(1)                   BSD Reference Manual                   NETSTAT(1)


     netstat - show network status


     netstat [-Aan] [-f address_family] [-M core] [-N system]
     netstat [-bdgilmnqrSstu] [-f address_family] [-M core] [-N system]
     netstat [-bdn] [-I interface] [-M core] [-N system] [-w wait]
     netstat [-s] [-M core] [-N system] [-p protocol]
     netstat [-a] [-f address_family] [-i | -I interface]


     The netstat command symbolically displays the contents of various
     network-related data structures. There are a number of output formats,
     depending on the options for the information presented.

     The first form of the command displays a list of active sockets for each
     protocol. The second form presents the contents of one of the other net-
     work data structures according to the option selected. Using the third
     form, with a wait interval specified, netstat will continuously display
     the information regarding packet traffic on the configured network inter-
     faces. The fourth form displays statistics about the named protocol. The
     fifth form displays per interface statistics for the specified address

     The options are as follows:

     -A      With the default display, show the address of any protocol con-
             trol blocks associated with sockets; used for debugging.

     -a      With the default display, show the state of all sockets; normally
             sockets used by server processes are not shown. With the inter-
             face display (options -I or -i), show multicast addresses.

     -b      With the interface display (options -I or -i), show bytes in and
             out, instead of packet statistics.

     -d      With either the interface display (options -I or -i) or an inter-
             val (option -w), show the number of dropped packets.

     -f address_family
             Limit statistics or address control block reports to those of the
             specified address_family.

             The following address families are recognized:

                   Address Family    Constant      Description
                   inet              AF_INET       IP Version 4
                   inet6             AF_INET6      IP Version 6
                   ipx               AF_IPX        Novell IPX
                   atalk             AF_APPLETALK  AppleTalk
                   ns                AF_NS         Xerox NS Protocols
                   encap             PF_KEY        IPsec
                   local             AF_LOCAL      Local to Host (i.e., pipes)
                   unix              AF_UNIX       Local to Host (i.e., pipes)

     -g      Show information related to multicast (group address) routing. By
             default, show the IP multicast virtual-interface and routing
             tables. If the -s option is also present, show multicast routing

     -I interface
             Show information about the specified interface; used with a wait
             interval as described below.

             If the -a option is also present, multicast addresses currently
             in use are shown for the given interface and for each IP inter-
             face address. Multicast addresses are shown on separate lines
             following the interface address with which they are associated.

             If the -f address_family option (with the -s option) is present,
             show per-interface statistics on the given interface for the
             specified address_family.

     -i      Show the state of interfaces which have been auto-configured (in-
             terfaces statically configured into a system but not located at
             boot-time are not shown).

             If the -a option is also present, multicast addresses currently
             in use are shown for each Ethernet interface and for each IP in-
             terface address. Multicast addresses are shown on separate lines
             following the interface address with which they are associated.

             If the -f address_family option (with the -s option) is present,
             show per-interface statistics on all interfaces for the specified

     -l      With the -g option, display wider fields for the IPv6 multicast
             routing table "Origin" and "Group" columns.

     -M core
             Extract values associated with the name list from the specified
             core instead of the running kernel.

     -m      Show statistics recorded by the memory management routines (the
             network manages a private pool of memory buffers).

     -N system
             Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the
             running kernel.

     -n      Show network addresses as numbers (normally netstat interprets
             addresses and attempts to display them symbolically). This option
             may be used with any of the display formats.

     -p protocol
             Restrict the output to protocol, which is either a well-known
             name for a protocol or an alias for it. Some protocol names and
             aliases are listed in the file /etc/protocols. The program will
             complain if protocol is unknown. If the -s option is specified,
             the per-protocol statistics are displayed. Otherwise the states
             of the matching sockets are shown.

     -q      Only show interfaces that have seen packets (or bytes if -b is

     -r      Show the routing tables. If the -s option is also specified, show
             routing statistics instead.

     -S      Make the -r command display the source selector part of the

     -s      Show per-protocol statistics. If this option is repeated,
             counters with a value of zero are suppressed.

     -t      With the -i option, display the current value of the watchdog ti-
             mer function.

     -u      Limit statistics or address control block reports to the AF_UNIX
             address family.

     -v      Be verbose. Avoids truncation of long addresses.

     -w wait
             Show network interface statistics at intervals of wait seconds.

     The default display, for active sockets, shows the local and remote ad-
     dresses, send and receive queue sizes (in bytes), protocol, and the
     internal state of the protocol.

     Address formats are of the form "host.port" or "network.port" if a
     socket's address specifies a network but no specific host address. When
     known, the host and network addresses are displayed symbolically accord-
     ing to the databases /etc/hosts and /etc/networks, respectively. If a
     symbolic name for an address is unknown, or if the -n option is speci-
     fied, the address is printed numerically, according to the address fami-

     For more information regarding the Internet "dot format", refer to
     inet(3). Unspecified or "wildcard" addresses and ports appear as a single
     '*'. If a local port number is registered as being in use for RPC by
     portmap(8), its RPC service name or RPC service number will be printed in
     "[]" immediately after the port number.

     The interface display provides a table of cumulative statistics regarding
     packets transferred, errors, and collisions. The network addresses of the
     interface and the maximum transmission unit (MTU) are also displayed.

     The routing table display indicates the available routes and their
     status. Each route consists of a destination host or network and a gate-
     way to use in forwarding packets. If the destination is a network in
     numeric format, the netmask (in /24 style format) is appended. The flags
     field shows a collection of information about the route stored as binary
     choices. The individual flags are discussed in more detail in the
     route(8) and route(4) manual pages.

     The mapping between letters and flags is:

     1       RTF_PROTO1       Protocol specific routing flag #1.
     2       RTF_PROTO2       Protocol specific routing flag #2.
     3       RTF_PROTO3       Protocol specific routing flag #3.
     B       RTF_BLACKHOLE    Just discard pkts (during updates).
     C       RTF_CLONING      Generate new routes on use.
     c       RTF_CLONED       Cloned routes (generated from RTF_CLONING).
     D       RTF_DYNAMIC      Created dynamically (by redirect).
     G       RTF_GATEWAY      Destination requires forwarding by intermediary.
     H       RTF_HOST         Host entry (net otherwise).
     L       RTF_LLINFO       Valid protocol to link address translation.
     M       RTF_MODIFIED     Modified dynamically (by redirect).
     R       RTF_REJECT       Host or net unreachable.
     S       RTF_STATIC       Manually added.
     U       RTF_UP           Route usable.
     X       RTF_XRESOLVE     External daemon translates proto to link address.

     Direct routes are created for each interface attached to the local host;
     the gateway field for such entries shows the address of the outgoing in-
     terface. The refcnt field gives the current number of active uses of the
     route. Connection oriented protocols normally hold on to a single route
     for the duration of a connection while connectionless protocols obtain a
     route while sending to the same destination. The use field provides a
     count of the number of packets sent using that route. The MTU entry shows
     the MTU associated with that route. This MTU value is used as the basis
     for the TCP maximum segment size (MSS). The 'L' flag appended to the MTU
     value indicates that the value is locked, and that path MTU discovery is
     turned off for that route. A '-' indicates that the MTU for this route
     has not been set, and a default TCP maximum segment size will be used.
     The interface entry indicates the network interface utilized for the

     When netstat is invoked with the -w option and a wait interval argument,
     it displays a running count of statistics related to network interfaces.
     An obsolescent version of this option used a numeric parameter with no
     option, and is currently supported for backward compatibility. This
     display consists of a column for the primary interface (the first inter-
     face found during autoconfiguration) and a column summarizing information
     for all interfaces. The primary interface may be replaced with another
     interface with the -I option. The first line of each screen of informa-
     tion contains a summary since the system was last rebooted. Subsequent
     lines of output show values accumulated over the preceding interval.


     nfsstat(1), ps(1), inet(3), netintro(4), route(4), hosts(5), networks(5),
     protocols(5), services(5), iostat(8), portmap(8), route(8), tcpdrop(8),
     trpt(8), vmstat(8)


     The netstat command appeared in 4.2BSD. IPv6 support was added by
     WIDE/KAME project.


     The notion of errors is ill-defined.

MirBSD #10-current              April 18, 1994                               3

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