NETSTAT(1) BSD Reference Manual NETSTAT(1)
netstat - show network status
netstat [-Aan] [-f address_family] [-M core] [-N system] netstat [-bdgilmnqrSstu] [-f address_family] [-M core] [-N system] netstat [-bdn] [-I interface] [-M core] [-N system] [-w wait] netstat [-s] [-M core] [-N system] [-p protocol] netstat [-a] [-f address_family] [-i | -I interface]
The netstat command symbolically displays the contents of various network-related data structures. There are a number of output formats, depending on the options for the information presented. The first form of the command displays a list of active sockets for each protocol. The second form presents the contents of one of the other net- work data structures according to the option selected. Using the third form, with a wait interval specified, netstat will continuously display the information regarding packet traffic on the configured network inter- faces. The fourth form displays statistics about the named protocol. The fifth form displays per interface statistics for the specified address family. The options are as follows: -A With the default display, show the address of any protocol con- trol blocks associated with sockets; used for debugging. -a With the default display, show the state of all sockets; normally sockets used by server processes are not shown. With the inter- face display (options -I or -i), show multicast addresses. -b With the interface display (options -I or -i), show bytes in and out, instead of packet statistics. -d With either the interface display (options -I or -i) or an inter- val (option -w), show the number of dropped packets. -f address_family Limit statistics or address control block reports to those of the specified address_family. The following address families are recognized: Address Family Constant Description inet AF_INET IP Version 4 inet6 AF_INET6 IP Version 6 ipx AF_IPX Novell IPX atalk AF_APPLETALK AppleTalk ns AF_NS Xerox NS Protocols encap PF_KEY IPsec local AF_LOCAL Local to Host (i.e., pipes) unix AF_UNIX Local to Host (i.e., pipes) -g Show information related to multicast (group address) routing. By default, show the IP multicast virtual-interface and routing tables. If the -s option is also present, show multicast routing statistics. -I interface Show information about the specified interface; used with a wait interval as described below. If the -a option is also present, multicast addresses currently in use are shown for the given interface and for each IP inter- face address. Multicast addresses are shown on separate lines following the interface address with which they are associated. If the -f address_family option (with the -s option) is present, show per-interface statistics on the given interface for the specified address_family. -i Show the state of interfaces which have been auto-configured (in- terfaces statically configured into a system but not located at boot-time are not shown). If the -a option is also present, multicast addresses currently in use are shown for each Ethernet interface and for each IP in- terface address. Multicast addresses are shown on separate lines following the interface address with which they are associated. If the -f address_family option (with the -s option) is present, show per-interface statistics on all interfaces for the specified address_family. -l With the -g option, display wider fields for the IPv6 multicast routing table "Origin" and "Group" columns. -M core Extract values associated with the name list from the specified core instead of the running kernel. -m Show statistics recorded by the memory management routines (the network manages a private pool of memory buffers). -N system Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the running kernel. -n Show network addresses as numbers (normally netstat interprets addresses and attempts to display them symbolically). This option may be used with any of the display formats. -p protocol Restrict the output to protocol, which is either a well-known name for a protocol or an alias for it. Some protocol names and aliases are listed in the file /etc/protocols. The program will complain if protocol is unknown. If the -s option is specified, the per-protocol statistics are displayed. Otherwise the states of the matching sockets are shown. -q Only show interfaces that have seen packets (or bytes if -b is specified). -r Show the routing tables. If the -s option is also specified, show routing statistics instead. -S Make the -r command display the source selector part of the routes. -s Show per-protocol statistics. If this option is repeated, counters with a value of zero are suppressed. -t With the -i option, display the current value of the watchdog ti- mer function. -u Limit statistics or address control block reports to the AF_UNIX address family. -v Be verbose. Avoids truncation of long addresses. -w wait Show network interface statistics at intervals of wait seconds. The default display, for active sockets, shows the local and remote ad- dresses, send and receive queue sizes (in bytes), protocol, and the internal state of the protocol. Address formats are of the form "host.port" or "network.port" if a socket's address specifies a network but no specific host address. When known, the host and network addresses are displayed symbolically accord- ing to the databases /etc/hosts and /etc/networks, respectively. If a symbolic name for an address is unknown, or if the -n option is speci- fied, the address is printed numerically, according to the address fami- ly. For more information regarding the Internet "dot format", refer to inet(3). Unspecified or "wildcard" addresses and ports appear as a single '*'. If a local port number is registered as being in use for RPC by portmap(8), its RPC service name or RPC service number will be printed in "" immediately after the port number. The interface display provides a table of cumulative statistics regarding packets transferred, errors, and collisions. The network addresses of the interface and the maximum transmission unit (MTU) are also displayed. The routing table display indicates the available routes and their status. Each route consists of a destination host or network and a gate- way to use in forwarding packets. If the destination is a network in numeric format, the netmask (in /24 style format) is appended. The flags field shows a collection of information about the route stored as binary choices. The individual flags are discussed in more detail in the route(8) and route(4) manual pages. The mapping between letters and flags is: 1 RTF_PROTO1 Protocol specific routing flag #1. 2 RTF_PROTO2 Protocol specific routing flag #2. 3 RTF_PROTO3 Protocol specific routing flag #3. B RTF_BLACKHOLE Just discard pkts (during updates). C RTF_CLONING Generate new routes on use. c RTF_CLONED Cloned routes (generated from RTF_CLONING). D RTF_DYNAMIC Created dynamically (by redirect). G RTF_GATEWAY Destination requires forwarding by intermediary. H RTF_HOST Host entry (net otherwise). L RTF_LLINFO Valid protocol to link address translation. M RTF_MODIFIED Modified dynamically (by redirect). R RTF_REJECT Host or net unreachable. S RTF_STATIC Manually added. U RTF_UP Route usable. X RTF_XRESOLVE External daemon translates proto to link address. Direct routes are created for each interface attached to the local host; the gateway field for such entries shows the address of the outgoing in- terface. The refcnt field gives the current number of active uses of the route. Connection oriented protocols normally hold on to a single route for the duration of a connection while connectionless protocols obtain a route while sending to the same destination. The use field provides a count of the number of packets sent using that route. The MTU entry shows the MTU associated with that route. This MTU value is used as the basis for the TCP maximum segment size (MSS). The 'L' flag appended to the MTU value indicates that the value is locked, and that path MTU discovery is turned off for that route. A '-' indicates that the MTU for this route has not been set, and a default TCP maximum segment size will be used. The interface entry indicates the network interface utilized for the route. When netstat is invoked with the -w option and a wait interval argument, it displays a running count of statistics related to network interfaces. An obsolescent version of this option used a numeric parameter with no option, and is currently supported for backward compatibility. This display consists of a column for the primary interface (the first inter- face found during autoconfiguration) and a column summarizing information for all interfaces. The primary interface may be replaced with another interface with the -I option. The first line of each screen of informa- tion contains a summary since the system was last rebooted. Subsequent lines of output show values accumulated over the preceding interval.
nfsstat(1), ps(1), inet(3), netintro(4), route(4), hosts(5), networks(5), protocols(5), services(5), iostat(8), portmap(8), route(8), tcpdrop(8), trpt(8), vmstat(8)
The netstat command appeared in 4.2BSD. IPv6 support was added by WIDE/KAME project.
The notion of errors is ill-defined. MirOS BSD #10-current April 18, 1994 3
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