NEQN(1) UNIX Reference Manual NEQN(1)

eqn,neqn,checkeq- typeset mathematics

eqn[-dxy] [-pn] [-sn] [-fn] [file] ...neqn[-dxy] [-pn] [-sn] [-fn] [file] ...checkeq[file] ...

eqnis a troff(1) preprocessor for typesetting mathematics on a Graphic Systems phototypesetter, neqn on terminals. Usage is almost always: eqn file ... | troff neqn file ... | nroff If no files are specified, these programs read from the standard input. A line beginning with `.EQ' marks the start of an equation; the end of an equation is marked by a line beginning with `.EN'. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, etc. It is also possible to set two characters as `delim- iters'; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated aseqninput. Delimiters may be set to charactersxandywith the command-line argu- ment-d -xyor (more commonly) with `delimxy' between .EQ and .EN. The left and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are turned off by `delim off'. All text that is neither between delimiters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched. The programcheckeqreports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs. Tokens withineqnare separated by spaces, tabs, newlines, braces, double quotes, tildes or circumflexes. Braces {} are used for grouping; general- ly speaking, anywhere a single character likexcould appear, a compli- cated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. Tilde ~ represents a full space in the output, circumflex ^ half as much. Subscript and superscript are produced with the keywordssubandsup. 2 Thusx sub imakes xi,a sub i sup 2produces ai ande sup{x sup 2+y sup 2} gives ex2+y2._.Fractions are made withover:a over byields bsqrtmakes square roots:1 over sqrt{ax sup 2+bx+c} results in:__________ ________ \|ax2+bx+c The keywordsfromandtointroduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary things:lim from{n->inf}sum from 0 to n x sub iproduces: n lim ≥̅xi n->oo0 Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right height are made withleftandright:left[x sup 2+y sup 2 over alpha right] ~=~1makes: | |_2_| = 1 |x2+(| | Therightclause is optional. Legal characters afterleftandrightare braces, brackets, bars,candffor ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket). Vertical piles of things are made withpile,lpile,cpile, andrpile: a b is produced bypile{a above b above c}. There can be an arbitrary c number of elements in a pile.lpileleft-justifies,pileandcpilecenter, with different vertical spacing, andrpileright justifies. Matrices are made withmatrix:matrix{lcol{x sub i above y sub 2}ccol{1 above 2} } produces: xi y2 1 2 In addition, there isrcolfor a right-justified column. Diacritical marks are made withdot,dotdot,hat,tilde,bar,vec,dyadandunder: . _____._x dot=f(t) baris x=f(t),y dotdot bar~=~n under" is y =_,_ _ andx vec~=~y dyadis x = y. Sizes and font can be changed withsize[n] orsize ±_n,roman,italic,bold, andfontn. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document bygsizenandgfontn, or by the command-line arguments-snand-fn. Normally subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previous size; this may be changed by the command-line argument-pn. Successive display arguments can be lined up. Placemarkbefore the desired lineup point in the first equation; placelineupat the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations. Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined withdefine:define thing % replacement% defines a new token calledthingwhich will be replaced byreplacementwhenever it appears thereafter. The%may be any character that does not occur inreplacement. Keywords likesum(≥̅)int () inf(oo) and shorthands like >= (≥) -> (->), and != (/) are recognized. Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as inalphaorGAMMA. Mathematical words like sin, cos, log are made Roman automatically. troff(1) four-character escapes like \(co ((C)) can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to communicate with troff(1) when all else fails.

nroff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), ms(7), eqnchar(7) B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry,Typesetting Mathematics-User's GuideJ. F. Ossanna,NROFF/TROFF User's Manual

eqnappeared in Version 6 AT&T Unix.

To embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.