MirBSD manpage: neqn(1)

NEQN(1)                     UNIX Reference Manual                      NEQN(1)

NAME

     eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics

SYNOPSIS

     eqn [-dxy] [-pn] [-sn] [-fn] [file] ...
     neqn [-d xy] [-p n] [-s n] [-f n] [file] ...
     checkeq [file] ...

DESCRIPTION

     eqn is a troff(1) preprocessor for typesetting mathematics on a Graphic
     Systems phototypesetter, neqn on terminals. Usage is almost always:

           eqn file ... | troff

           neqn file ... | nroff

     If no files are specified, these programs read from the standard input. A
     line beginning with `.EQ' marks the start of an equation; the end of an
     equation is marked by a line beginning with `.EN'. Neither of these lines
     is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering,
     numbering, etc. It is also possible to set two characters as `delim-
     iters'; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated as eqn input.
     Delimiters may be set to characters x and y with the command-line argu-
     ment -d -xy or (more commonly) with `delim xy ' between .EQ and .EN. The
     left and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are turned off by
     `delim off'. All text that is neither between delimiters nor between .EQ
     and .EN is passed through untouched.

     The program checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN
     pairs.

     Tokens within eqn are separated by spaces, tabs, newlines, braces, double
     quotes, tildes or circumflexes. Braces {} are used for grouping; general-
     ly speaking, anywhere a single character like x could appear, a compli-
     cated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. Tilde ~
     represents a full space in the output, circumflex ^ half as much.

     Subscript and superscript are produced with the keywords sub and sup.
                                                    2
     Thus x sub i makes xi, a sub i sup 2 produces ai

     and e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2} gives ex2+y2.
                                                   _.
     Fractions are made with over: a over b yields b

     sqrt makes square roots: 1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c} results in:

     __________
       ________
     \|ax2+bx+c

     The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary
     things: lim from {n-> inf} sum from 0 to n x sub i produces:

          n
      lim ≥̅xi
     n->oo0

     Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right height are made with
     left and right: left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1 makes:

            |
      |   _2_| = 1
      |x2+( |
      |

     The right clause is optional. Legal characters after left and right are
     braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing
     at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).

     Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile:

     a
     b  is produced by pile {a above b above c}. There can be an arbitrary
     c  number of elements in a pile. lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile
        center, with different vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.

     Matrices are made with matrix:
     matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } } produces:

     xi
     y2
         1
         2

     In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column.

     Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad
     and under:
                         . ____                               _._
     x dot = f(t) bar is x=f(t), y dotdot bar ~=~ n under" is y  = _,

                             _   _
     and x vec ~=~ y dyad is x = y.

     Sizes and font can be changed with size [n] or size ±_n, roman, italic,
     bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document by
     gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line arguments -sn and -fn.

     Normally subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from
     the previous size; this may be changed by the command-line argument -pn.

     Successive display arguments can be lined up. Place mark before the
     desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place
     that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.

     Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define:
     define thing % replacement % defines a new token called thing which will
     be replaced by replacement whenever it appears thereafter. The % may be
     any character that does not occur in replacement.

     Keywords like sum (≥̅) int () inf (oo) and shorthands like >= (≥) -> (->),
     and != (/) are recognized. Greek letters are spelled out in the desired
     case, as in alpha or GAMMA. Mathematical words like sin, cos, log are
     made Roman automatically. troff(1) four-character escapes like \(co ((C))
     can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed
     through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can
     be used to communicate with troff(1) when all else fails.

SEE ALSO

     nroff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), ms(7), eqnchar(7)

     B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, Typesetting Mathematics-User's Guide J.
     F. Ossanna, NROFF/TROFF User's Manual

HISTORY

     eqn appeared in Version 6 AT&T Unix.

BUGS

     To embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote them, as in
     `bold "12.3"'.

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