MirBSD manpage: lesskey(1)

LESSKEY(1)                   BSD Reference Manual                   LESSKEY(1)


     lesskey - specify key bindings for less


     lesskey [-o output | --output=output] [input]
     lesskey -V | --version


     lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1).
     The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. If the
     input file is '-', standard input is read. If no input file is specified,
     a standard filename is used as the name of the input file; by default
     $HOME/.lesskey. The output file is a binary file which is used by
     less(1). If no output file is specified, and the environment variable
     LESSKEY is set, the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output
     file. Otherwise, a standard filename is used as the name of the output
     file; by default $HOME/.less is used. If the output file already exists,
     lesskey will overwrite it.

     A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. If
     a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide
     file, key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the
     system-wide file. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set,
     less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. Otherwise,
     less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On
     OpenBSD, the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless.

     The -V or --version option causes lesskey to print its version number and
     immediately exit. If -V or --version is present, other options and argu-
     ments are ignored.

     The input file consists of one or more sections. Each section starts with
     a line that identifies the type of section. Possible sections are:

           #command    Defines new command keys.

           #line-edit  Defines new line-editing keys.

           #env        Defines environment variables.

     Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored, ex-
     cept for the special section header lines.


     The command section begins with the line


     If the command section is the first section in the file, this line may be
     omitted. The command section consists of lines of the form:

           string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline>

     Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. The string
     is the command key(s) which invoke the action. The string may be a single
     command key, or a sequence of up to 15 keys. The action is the name of
     the less action, from the list below. The characters in the string may
     appear literally, or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. A
     backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a
     character by its octal value. A backslash followed by certain characters
     specifies input characters as follows:

           \b      BACKSPACE
           \e      ESCAPE
           \n      NEWLINE
           \r      RETURN
           \t      TAB
           \ku     UP ARROW
           \kd     DOWN ARROW
           \kr     RIGHT ARROW
           \kl     LEFT ARROW
           \kU     PAGE UP
           \kD     PAGE DOWN
           \kh     HOME
           \ke     END
           \kx     DELETE

     A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is
     to be taken literally. Characters which must be preceded by backslash in-
     clude caret, space, tab and the backslash itself.

     An action may be followed by an "extra" string. When such a command is
     entered while running less, the action is performed, and then the extra
     string is parsed, just as if it were typed in to less. This feature can
     be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. For
     example, see the '{' and ':t' commands in the example below. The extra
     string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits,
     first character of the extra string is used as its exit status.

     The following input file describes the set of default command keys used
     by less:

           \r      forw-line
           \n      forw-line
           e       forw-line
           j       forw-line
           \kd     forw-line
           ^E      forw-line
           ^N      forw-line
           k       back-line
           y       back-line
           ^Y      back-line
           ^K      back-line
           ^P      back-line
           J       forw-line-force
           K       back-line-force
           Y       back-line-force
           d       forw-scroll
           ^D      forw-scroll
           u       back-scroll
           ^U      back-scroll
           \40     forw-screen
           f       forw-screen
           ^F      forw-screen
           ^V      forw-screen
           \kD     forw-screen
           b       back-screen
           ^B      back-screen
           \ev     back-screen
           \kU     back-screen
           z       forw-window
           w       back-window
           \e\40   forw-screen-force
           F       forw-forever
           R       repaint-flush
           r       repaint
           ^R      repaint
           ^L      repaint
           \eu     undo-hilite
           g       goto-line
           \kh     goto-line
           <       goto-line
           \e<     goto-line
           p       percent
           %       percent
           \e[     left-scroll
           \e]     right-scroll
           \e(     left-scroll
           \e)     right-scroll
           {       forw-bracket {}
           }       back-bracket {}
           (       forw-bracket ()
           )       back-bracket ()
           [       forw-bracket []
           ]       back-bracket []
           \e^F    forw-bracket
           \e^B    back-bracket
           G       goto-end
           \e>     goto-end
           >       goto-end
           \ke     goto-end
           =       status
           ^G      status
           :f      status
           /       forw-search
           ?       back-search
           \e/     forw-search *
           \e?     back-search *
           n       repeat-search
           \en     repeat-search-all
           N       reverse-search
           \eN     reverse-search-all
           m       set-mark
           '       goto-mark
           ^X^X    goto-mark
           E       examine
           :e      examine
           ^X^V    examine
           :n      next-file
           :p      prev-file
           t       next-tag
           T       prev-tag
           :x      index-file
           :d      remove-file
           -       toggle-option
           :t      toggle-option t
           s       toggle-option o
           _       display-option
           |       pipe
           v       visual
           !       shell
           +       firstcmd
           H       help
           h       help
           V       version
           0       digit
           1       digit
           2       digit
           3       digit
           4       digit
           5       digit
           6       digit
           7       digit
           8       digit
           9       digit
           q       quit
           Q       quit
           :q      quit
           :Q      quit
           ZZ      quit


     Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands.
     A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file
     with the action "invalid". Alternatively, a key may be defined to do
     nothing by using the action "noaction". "noaction" is similar to
     "invalid", but less will give an error beep for an "invalid" command, but
     not for a "noaction" command. In addition, ALL default commands may be
     disabled by adding this control line to the input file:


     This will cause all default commands to be ignored. The #stop line should
     be the last line in that section of the file.

     Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. Since all default commands are dis-
     abled, you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to en-
     able all necessary actions. For example, failure to provide a "quit" com-
     mand can lead to frustration.


     The line-editing section begins with the line:


     This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands, in
     a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are speci-
     fied in the #command section. The line-editing section consists of a list
     of keys and actions, one per line as in the example below.

     The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys
     used by less:

           \t      forw-complete
           \17     back-complete
           \e\t    back-complete
           ^L      expand
           ^V      literal
           ^A      literal
           \el     right
           \kr     right
           \eh     left
           \kl     left
           \eb     word-left
           \e\kl   word-left
           \ew     word-right
           \e\kr   word-right
           \ei     insert
           \ex     delete
           \kx     delete
           \eX     word-delete
           \ekx    word-delete
           \e\b    word-backspace
           \e0     home
           \kh     home
           \e$     end
           \ke     end
           \ek     up
           \ku     up
           \ej     down


     The environment variable section begins with the line


     Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. Each
     line consists of an environment variable name, an equals sign ('=') and
     the value to be assigned to the environment variable. Whitespace before
     and after the equals sign is ignored. Variables assigned in this way are
     visible only to less. If environment variables are defined in more than
     one place, variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over
     variables defined in the system environment, which take precedence over
     variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. Although the lesskey
     file can be used to override variables set in the environment, the main
     purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all
     less configuration information stored in one file.

     The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run, and
     specifies the character set to be "latin1":

           LESS = -i
           LESSCHARSET = latin1


     LESSKEY         Name of the default lesskey file.
     LESSKEY_SYSTEM  Name of the default system-wide lesskey file.


     $HOME/.less     Default lesskey file.
     $HOME/.lesskey  Default lesskey input file.
     /etc/sysless    Default system-wide lesskey file.




     Mark Nudelman <markn@greenwoodsoftware.com>

     Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to


     It is not possible to specify special keys, such as uparrow, in a
     keyboard-independent manner. The only way to specify such keys is to
     specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a
     key is pressed.

MirBSD #10-current             January 17, 2003                              4

Generated on 2022-12-24 01:00:14 by $MirOS: src/scripts/roff2htm,v 1.113 2022/12/21 23:14:31 tg Exp $ — This product includes material provided by mirabilos.

These manual pages and other documentation are copyrighted by their respective writers; their sources are available at the project’s CVSweb, AnonCVS and other mirrors. The rest is Copyright © 2002–2022 MirBSD.

This manual page’s HTML representation is supposed to be valid XHTML/1.1; if not, please send a bug report — diffs preferred.

Kontakt / Impressum & Datenschutzerklärung