FSTAT(1) BSD Reference Manual FSTAT(1)
fstat - display status of open files
fstat [-fnov] [-M core] [-N system] [-p pid] [-u user] [file ...]
fstat identifies open files. A file is considered open by a process if it was explicitly opened, is the working directory, root directory, active pure text, or kernel trace file for that process. If no options are specified, fstat reports on all open files in the system. The options are as follows: -f Restrict examination to files open in the same file systems as the named file arguments, or to the file system containing the current directory if there are no additional filename arguments. For example, to find all files open in the file system where the directory /usr/src resides, type # fstat -f /usr/src -M core Extract values associated with the name list from the specified core instead of the running kernel. -N system Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the running kernel. -n Numerical format. Print the device number (maj,min) of the file system the file resides in rather than the mount point name. For special files, print the device number that the special device refers to rather than the filename in /dev. Also, print the mode of the file in octal instead of symbolic form. -o Output file offset. Follow the size field with the descriptor's offset. Useful for checking progress as a process works through a large file. -p pid Report all files open by the specified process. -u user Report all files open by the specified user. -v Verbose mode. Print error messages upon failures to locate par- ticular system data structures rather than silently ignoring them. Most of these data structures are dynamically created or deleted and it is possible for them to disappear while fstat is running. This is normal and unavoidable since the rest of the system is running while fstat itself is running. file ... Restrict reports to the specified files. The following fields are printed: USER The username of the owner of the process (effective UID). CMD The command name of the process. PID The process ID. FD The file number in the per-process open file table or one of the following special names: text - pure text inode wd - current working directory root - root inode tr - kernel trace file If the file number is followed by an asterisk ('*'), the file is not an inode, but rather a socket, FIFO, or there is an error. In this case the remainder of the line doesn't correspond to the remaining headers -- the format of the line is described later under SOCKETS. MOUNT If the -n flag wasn't specified, this header is present and is the pathname that the file system the file resides in is mounted on. DEV If the -n flag is specified, this header is present and is the major/minor number of the device that this file resides in. INUM The inode number of the file. MODE The mode of the file. If the -n flag isn't specified, the mode is printed using a symbolic format (see strmode(3)); otherwise, the mode is printed as an octal number. SZ|DV If the file is not a character or block special file, prints the size of the file in bytes. Otherwise, if the -n flag is not speci- fied, prints the name of the special file as located in /dev. If that cannot be located, or the -n flag is specified, prints the major/minor device number that the special device refers to. R/W This column describes the access mode that the file allows. The letter 'r' indicates open for reading; the letter 'w' indicates open for writing. This field is useful when trying to find the processes that are preventing a file system from being downgraded to read-only. NAME If filename arguments are specified and the -f flag is not, then this field is present and is the name associated with the given file. Normally the name cannot be determined since there is no mapping from an open file back to the directory entry that was used to open that file. Also, since different directory entries may reference the same file (via ln(1)), the name printed may not be the actual name that the process originally used to open that file.
The formatting of open sockets depends on the protocol domain. In all cases the first field is the domain name, the second field is the socket type (stream, dgram, etc), and the third is the socket flags field (in hex). The remaining fields are protocol dependent. For TCP, it is the ad- dress of the tcpcb, and for UDP, the inpcb (socket pcb). For Unix domain sockets, it's the address of the socket pcb and the address of the con- nected pcb (if connected). Otherwise the protocol number and address of the socket itself are printed. The attempt is to make enough information available to permit further analysis without duplicating netstat(1). For example, the addresses mentioned above are the addresses which the netstat -A command would print for TCP, UDP, and Unix domain. Note that since pipes are implemented using sockets, a pipe appears as a connected Unix domain stream socket. A unidirectional Unix domain socket indicates the direction of flow with an arrow ("<-" or "->"), and a full duplex socket shows a double arrow ("<->"). For AF_INET sockets, fstat also attempts to print the internet address and port for the local end of a connection. If the socket is connected, it also prints the remote internet address and port. A '*' is used to in- dicate an INADDR_ANY binding. In this case, the use of the arrow ("<--" or "-->") indicates the direction the socket connection was created.
Every pipe is printed as an address which is the same for both sides of the pipe and a state that is built of the letters "RWE". W - The pipe blocks waiting for the reader to read data. R - The pipe blocks waiting for the writer to write data. E - The pipe is in EOF state.
Each crypto(4) device is printed with only the kernel address of the dev- ice private data.
Each kqueue(2) is printed with some information as to queue length. Since these things are normally serviced quickly, it is likely that nothing of real importance can be discerned.
Each systrace device is printed with only the kernel address of the dev- ice private data.
netstat(1), nfsstat(1), ps(1), systat(1), iostat(8), pstat(8), tcpdrop(8), vmstat(8)
The fstat command appeared in 4.3BSD-Tahoe.
Sockets in use by the kernel, such as those opened by nfsd(8), will not be seen by fstat, even though they appear in netstat(1).
Since fstat takes a snapshot of the system, it is only correct for a very short period of time. Moreover, because DNS resolution and YP lookups cause many file descrip- tor changes, fstat does not attempt to translate the internet address and port numbers into symbolic names. MirOS BSD #10-current February 25, 1994 2
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