MirOS Manual: cvs(1)


CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

NAME

     cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS

     cvs [ cvs_options ]
          cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE

     This manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.
     It is auto-generated from an appendix of the CVS manual. For
     more in-depth documentation, please consult the Cederqvist
     manual (via the cvs(GNU) and cvsclient(GNU) links in the
     MirBSD online (HTML) manual pages, the infocvs command or
     otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section of this man-
     page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in
     the same.

CVS commands

     Guide to CVS commands

     This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs com-
     mands, and describes some commands in detail (others are
     described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands,
     see node Invoking CVS in the CVS manual).

Structure

     Overall structure of CVS commands

     The overall format of all cvs commands is:

       cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [
       command_args ]

     cvs

       The name of the cvs program.

     cvs_options

       Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These
       are described below.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        1

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     cvs_command

       One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the com-
       mands have aliases that can be used instead; those aliases
       are noted in the reference manual for that command.  There
       are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command:
       cvs -H elicits a list of available commands, and cvs -v
       displays version information on cvs itself.

     command_options

       Options that are specific for the command.

     command_args

       Arguments to the commands.

       There is unfortunately some confusion between cvs_options
       and command_options. When given as a cvs_option, some
       options only affect some of the commands.  When given as a
       command_option it may have a different meaning, and be
       accepted by more commands.  In other words, do not take
       the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the docu-
       mentation instead.

Exit status

     CVSs exit status

     cvs can indicate to the calling environment whether it suc-
     ceeded or failed by setting its exit status. The exact way
     of testing the exit status will vary from one operating sys-
     tem to another.  For example in a unix shell script the $?
     variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful
     exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated
     failure.

     If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if
     there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a
     failure status.  The one exception to this is the cvs diff
     command.  It will return a successful status if it found no
     differences, or a failure status if there were differences
     or if there was an error.  Because this behavior provides no
     good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that
     cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs com-
     mands.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        2

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

~/.cvsrc
     Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file

     There are some command_options that are used so often that
     you might have set up an alias or some other means to make
     sure you always specify that option.  One example (the one
     that drove the implementation of the default output of the
     diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con-
     text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

     The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options
     to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or
     other shell scripts.

     The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is
     searched for a line that begins with the same name as the
     cvs_command being executed.  If a match is found, then the
     remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters)
     into separate options and added to the command arguments
     before any options from the command line.

     If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the
     official name, not necessarily the one used on the command
     line, will be used to match against the file.  So if this is
     the contents of the users ~/.cvsrc file:

       log -N
       diff -uN
       rdiff -u
       update -Pd
       checkout -P
       release -d

     the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added
     to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo.

     With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar
     will be in unidiff format.  cvs diff -c foobar will provide
     context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be
     slightly more complicated, because diff doesnt have an
     option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need
     cvs -f diff foobar.

     In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify glo-
     bal options (see node Global options in the CVS manual).
     For example the following line in .cvsrc

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        3

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       cvs -z6

     causes cvs to use compression level 6.

Global options

     The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of
     cvs_command) are:

     --allow-root=rootdir

       May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot
       directory with each invocation.  Also causes CVS to
       preparse the configuration file for each specified root,
       which can be useful when configuring write proxies,  See
       node Password authentication server in the CVS manual &
       node Write proxies in the CVS manual.

     -a

       Authenticate all communication between the client and the
       server.  Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this
       writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con-
       nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated in the CVS manual).
       Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving
       hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentica-
       tion does not enable encryption.

     -b bindir

       In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs
       are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do
       not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is
       accepted, but it does nothing.

     -T tempdir

       Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are
       located.

       The cvs client and server store temporary files in a

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        4

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       temporary directory. The path to this temporary directory
       is set via, in order of precedence:

     +   The argument to the global -T option.

     +   The value set for TmpDir in the config file (server only
         - see node config in the CVS manual).

     +   The contents of the $TMPDIR environment variable
         (%TMPDIR% on Windows - see node Environment variables in
         the CVS manual).

     +   /tmp

         Temporary directories should always be specified as an
         absolute pathname. When running a CVS client, -T affects
         only the local process; specifying -T for the client has
         no effect on the server and vice versa.

     -d cvs_root_directory

       Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of
       the repository.  Overrides the setting of the $CVSROOT
       environment variable.  See node Repository in the CVS
       manual.

     -e editor

       Use editor to enter revision log information.  Overrides
       the setting of the $CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment
       variables.  For more information, see node Committing your
       changes in the CVS manual.

     -f

       Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file.  This option is most often
       used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option
       set.  For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display
       of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn
       the display on.  So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry
       for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        5

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -g

       Forges group-writable permissions on files in the working
       copy. This option is typically used when you have multiple
       users sharing a single checked out source tree, allowing
       them to operate their shells with a less dangerous umask
       at the expense of cvs security. To use this feature,
       create a directory to hold the checked-out source tree,
       set it to a private group, and set up the directory such
       that files created under it inherit the gid of the direc-
       tory. On BSD systems, this occurs automatically. On SYSV
       systems and GNU/Linux, the sgid bit must be set on the
       directory for this. The users who are to share the checked
       out tree must be placed in that group which owns the
       directory.

       Note that the sharing of a single checked-out source tree
       is very different from giving several users access to a
       common cvs repository. Access to a common cvs repository
       already maintains shared group-write permissions and does
       not require this option.

       Due to the security implications, setting this option glo-
       bally in your .cvsrc file is strongly discouraged; if you
       must, ensure all source checkouts are "firewalled" within
       a private group or a private mode 0700 directory.

       This option is a MidnightBSD extension merged into MirBSD
       cvs.

     -H

     --help

       Display usage information about the specified cvs_command
       (but do not actually execute the command).  If you dont
       specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for
       cvs, including a list of other help options.

     -R

       Turns on read-only repository mode.  This allows one to
       check out from a read-only repository, such as within an
       anoncvs server, or from a cd-rom repository.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        6

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Same effect as if the CVSREADONLYFS environment variable
       is set. Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts
       over NFS.

     -n

       Do not change any files.  Attempt to execute the
       cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove,
       update, or merge any existing files, or create any new
       files.

       Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the
       same output as without -n.  In some cases the output will
       be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the
       processing that would have been required to produce the
       exact same output.

     -Q

       Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will
       only generate output for serious problems.

     -q

       Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational mes-
       sages, such as reports of recursion through subdirec-
       tories, are suppressed.

     -r

       Make new working files read-only.  Same effect as if the
       $CVSREAD environment variable is set (see node Environment
       variables in the CVS manual).  The default is to make
       working files writable, unless watches are on (see node
       Watches in the CVS manual).

     -s variable=value

       Set a user variable (see node Variables in the CVS
       manual).

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        7

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -t

       Trace program execution; display messages showing the
       steps of cvs activity.  Particularly useful with -n to
       explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

     -v

     --version

       Display version and copyright information for cvs.

     -w

       Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting
       of the $CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created
       read-write by default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is
       given.

     -x

       Encrypt all communication between the client and the
       server.  Only has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this
       writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con-
       nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated in the CVS manual)
       or a Kerberos connection (see node Kerberos authenticated
       in the CVS manual). Enabling encryption implies that mes-
       sage traffic is also authenticated.  Encryption support is
       not available by default; it must be enabled using a spe-
       cial configure option, --enable-encryption, when you build
       cvs.

     -z level

       Request compression level for network traffic. cvs inter-
       prets level identically to the gzip program. Valid levels
       are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low speed, high
       compression), or 0 to disable compression (the default).
       Data sent to the server will be compressed at the
       requested level and the client will request the server use

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        8

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       the same compression level for data returned.  The server
       will use the closest level allowed by the server adminis-
       trator to compress returned data.  This option only has an
       effect when passed to the cvs client.

Common options

     Common command options

     This section describes the command_options that are avail-
     able across several cvs commands.  These options are always
     given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands support
     all of these options; each option is only supported for com-
     mands where it makes sense. However, when a command has one
     of these options you can almost always count on the same
     behavior of the option as in other commands.  (Other command
     options, which are listed with the individual commands, may
     have different behavior from one cvs command to the other).

     Note: the history command is an exception; it supports many
     options that conflict even with these standard options.

     -D date_spec

       Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.
       date_spec is a single argument, a date description speci-
       fying a date in the past.

       The specification is sticky when you use it to make a
       private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a
       working file using -D, cvs records the date you specified,
       so that further updates in the same directory will use the
       same date (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see
       node Sticky tags in the CVS manual).

       -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,
       history, ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands.
       (The history command uses this option in a slightly dif-
       ferent way; see node history options in the CVS manual).

       For a complete description of the date formats accepted by
       cvs, see node Date input formats in the CVS manual.

       Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your
       shell doesnt interpret spaces as argument separators.  A
       command using the -D flag can look like this:

         $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                        9

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -f

       When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands,
       they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or
       did not exist prior to the date) that you specified.  Use
       the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there
       is no match for the tag or date.  (The most recent revi-
       sion of the file will be used).

       Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist
       (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file).
       This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you
       mistype a tag name.

       -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout,
       export, rdiff, rtag, and update.

       WARNING:  The commit and remove commands also have a -f
       option, but it has a different behavior for those com-
       mands.  See node commit options in the CVS manual, and
       node Removing files in the CVS manual.

     -k kflag

       Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than
       -kb.  See node Keyword substitution in the CVS manual, for
       the meaning of kflag.  Used with the checkout and update
       commands, your kflag specification is sticky; that is,
       when you use this option with a checkout or update com-
       mand, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files it
       operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future
       commands on the same files until you specify otherwise.

       The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff,
       export, import, rdiff, and update commands.

       WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode
       the -kb indication for a binary file.  This could some-
       times corrupt binary files.  See node Merging and keywords
       in the CVS manual, for more.

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory, rather than

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       10

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       recursing through subdirectories.

       Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout,
       commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove,
       rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

     -m message

       Use message as log information, instead of invoking an
       editor.

       Available with the following commands: add, commit and
       import.

     -n

       Do not run any tag program.  (A program can be specified
       to run in the modules database (see node modules in the
       CVS manual); this option bypasses it).

       Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program option,
       which you can specify to the left of a cvs command!

       Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag com-
       mands.

     -P

       Prune empty directories.  See node Removing directories in
       the CVS manual.

     -p

       Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard
       output, rather than writing them in the current directory.
       Available with the checkout and update commands.

     -R

       Process directories recursively.  This is the default for
       all cvs commands, with the exception of ls & rls.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       11

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout,
       commit, diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove,
       rls, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watch-
       ers.

     -r tag

     -r tag[:date]

       Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the
       date argument for the commands which accept it) instead of
       the default head revision.  As well as arbitrary tags
       defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are
       always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version
       available in the repository (also known as the tip of the
       MAIN branch, also known as trunk; the name of a branch
       refers to its tip; this version of cvs introduces .bhead,
       but only for the diff command, for the same), and BASE
       refers to the revision you last checked out into the
       current working directory.

       The tag specification is sticky when you use this with
       checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs
       remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update
       commands, until you specify otherwise (for more informa-
       tion on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags in the CVS
       manual).

       The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as
       described in node Tags in the CVS manual, or the name of a
       branch, as described in node Branching and merging in the
       CVS manual. When tag is the name of a branch, some com-
       mands accept the optional date argument to specify the
       revision as of the given date on the branch. When a com-
       mand expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is
       interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch.

       As a MirOS cvs extension, specifying BASE as the date por-
       tion of the argument yields the base revision of the
       branch specified by the tag portion of the argument, i.e.
       the revision on the parent branch the tag branch split
       off, or, where both branches were the same. This option
       has not received very much testing, beware!

       Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command
       option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages
       when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       12

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Note: this is not the same as the overall cvs -r option,
       which you can specify to the left of a cvs command!

       -r tag is available with the commit and history commands.

       -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout,
       diff, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands.

     -W

       Specify file names that should be filtered.  You can use
       this option repeatedly.  The spec can be a file name pat-
       tern of the same type that you can specify in the
       .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands:
       import, and update.

admin

     Administration

     + Requires: repository, working directory.

     + Changes: repository.

     + Synonym: rcs

       This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative
       facilities.  Some of them have questionable usefulness for
       cvs but exist for historical purposes.  Some of the ques-
       tionable options are likely to disappear in the future.
       This command does work recursively, so extreme care should
       be used.

       On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members
       of that group can run cvs admin commands, except for those
       specified using the UserAdminOptions configuration option
       in the CVSROOT/config file.  Options specified using
       UserAdminOptions can be run by any user.  See node config
       in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions.

       The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any sys-
       tem running the non-client/server cvs. To disallow cvs
       admin for all users, create a group with no users in it.
       On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all users
       can run cvs admin.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       13

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

admin options

     Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs
     but exist for historical purposes.  Some even make it impos-
     sible to use cvs until you undo the effect!

     -Aoldfile

       Might not work together with cvs.  Append the access list
       of oldfile to the access list of the rcs file.

     -alogins

       Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login names
       appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access
       list of the rcs file.

     -b[rev]

       Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do
       not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (see node
       Sticky tags in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide
       which branch you want to work on.  There is one reason to
       run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendors version when
       using vendor branches (see node Reverting local changes in
       the CVS manual). There can be no space between -b and its
       argument.

     -cstring

       Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is
       not used by current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  There-
       fore, you can almost surely not worry about it.  See node
       Keyword substitution in the CVS manual.

     -e[logins]

       Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names
       appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the
       access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omitted, erase
       the entire access list. There can be no space between -e
       and its argument.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       14

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -I

       Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a
       terminal.  This option does not work with the
       client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future
       release of cvs.

     -i

       Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs
       file, without depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files
       with the cvs add command (see node Adding files in the CVS
       manual).

     -ksubst

       Set the default keyword substitution to subst.  See node
       Keyword substitution in the CVS manual.  Giving an expli-
       cit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs checkout
       overrides this default.

     -l[rev]

       Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is given,
       lock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omit-
       ted, lock the latest revision on the default branch.
       There can be no space between -l and its argument.

       This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script
       in the contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to
       provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be
       editing a given file at a time).  See the comments in that
       file for details (and see the README file in that direc-
       tory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of con-
       trib).  According to comments in that file, locking must
       set to strict (which is the default).

     -L

       Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the
       owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for chec-
       kin.  For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see
       the discussion under the -l option above.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       15

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -mrev:msg

       Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

     -Nname[:[rev]]

       Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of
       name.  For use with magic branches, see node Magic branch
       numbers in the CVS manual.

     -nname[:[rev]]

       Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revi-
       sion rev.  It is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs
       rtag instead.  Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev
       are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is
       already associated with another number. If rev is sym-
       bolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consist-
       ing of a branch number followed by a . stands for the
       current latest revision in the branch.  A : with an empty
       rev stands for the current latest revision on the default
       branch, normally the trunk.  For example, cvs admin
       -nname: associates name with the current latest revision
       of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin
       -nname:$ which associates name with the revision numbers
       extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding work-
       ing files.

     -orange

       Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

       Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you
       know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warn-
       ings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

       If you are short on disc this option might help you. But
       think twice before using it-there is no way short of res-
       toring the latest backup to undo this command! If you
       delete different revisions than you planned, either due to
       carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no
       opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
       deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment
       on a copy of the repository first.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       16

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Specify range in one of the following ways:

       rev1::rev2

         Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that
         cvs only stores the differences associated with going
         from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For example,
         after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revi-
         sion 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but
         not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and
         1.4.  Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have
         no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions
         to remove.

       ::rev

         Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch
         containing rev and rev itself.  The branchpoint and rev
         are left intact.  For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes
         revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in
         between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.

       rev::

         Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch
         containing rev.  Revision rev is left intact but the
         head revision is deleted.

       rev

         Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is
         equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4.

       rev1:rev2

         Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on
         the same branch.  One will not be able to retrieve rev1
         or rev2 or any of the revisions in between.  For exam-
         ple, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely
         useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and includ-
         ing, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are files
         that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file
         will have the same numerical revision number assigned to
         the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So not only will it be
         impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to
         be restored from the tapes!  In most cases you want to
         specify rev1::rev2 instead.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       17

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       :rev

         Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch con-
         taining rev up to and including rev.

       rev:

         Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev
         itself, to the end of the branch containing rev.

         None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or
         locks.

         If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic
         names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then
         cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions.  If
         you really want to delete both the symbolic names and
         the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs
         tag -d, then run cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the
         non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but
         leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revi-
         sions.  This behavior is preserved for compatibility
         with previous versions of cvs, but because it isnt very
         useful, in the future it may change to be like the ::
         case.

         Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be speci-
         fied symbolically if it is a branch. See node Magic
         branch numbers in the CVS manual, for an explanation.

         Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the
         revision you outdate.  Strange things will happen if he
         starts to edit it and tries to check it back in.  For
         this reason, this option is not a good way to take back
         a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus
         change instead (see node Merging two revisions in the
         CVS manual).

     -q

       Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

     -sstate[:rev]

       Useful with cvs.  Set the state attribute of the revision
       rev to state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the
       latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       18

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       the latest revision on the default branch.  Any identifier
       is acceptable for state.  A useful set of states is Exp
       (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for
       released).  By default, the state of a new revision is set
       to Exp when it is created.  The state is visible in the
       output from cvs log (see node log in the CVS manual), and
       in the $Log$ and $State$ keywords (see node Keyword sub-
       stitution in the CVS manual).  Note that cvs uses the dead
       state for its own purposes (see node Attic in the CVS
       manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use com-
       mands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node Adding and
       removing in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.

     -t[file]

       Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from the contents
       of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing
       text.  The file pathname may not begin with -.  The
       descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log
       (see node log in the CVS manual). There can be no space
       between -t and its argument.

       If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input,
       terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by
       itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible;
       see -I.

     -t-string

       Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string
       into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can
       be no space between -t and its argument.

     -U

       Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that
       the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin.
       For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the dis-
       cussion under the -l option above.

     -u[rev]

       See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this
       option with cvs.  Unlock the revision with number rev.  If

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       19

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that
       branch.  If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by
       the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may
       unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
       lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit
       notification (see node Getting Notified in the CVS
       manual). There can be no space between -u and its argu-
       ment.

     -Vn

       In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an
       rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but
       it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an
       error.

     -xsuffixes

       In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way
       of specifying the names of the rcs files.  However, cvs
       has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in
       ,v, so this option has never done anything useful.

annotate

     What revision modified each line of a file?

     + Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

     + Requires: repository.

     + Changes: nothing.

       For each file in files, print the head revision of the
       trunk, together with information on the last modification
       for each line.  If backwards annotation is requested, show
       the first modification after the specified revision.
       (Backwards annotation currently appears to be broken.)

annotate options

     These standard options are supported by annotate (see node
     Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
     of them):

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       20

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -b

       Backwards, show when a line was removed. Currently appears
       to be broken.

     -l

       Local directory only, no recursion.

     -R

       Process directories recursively.

     -f

       Use head revision if tag/date not found.

     -F

       Annotate binary files.

     -r tag[:date]

       Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date
       is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
       branch tag as it existed on date.  See node Common options
       in the CVS manual.

     -D date

       Annotate file as of specified date.

annotate example

     For example:

       $ cvs annotate ssfile
       Annotations for ssfile

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       21

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       ***************
       1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
       1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

     The file ssfile currently contains two lines. The ssfile
     line 1 line was checked in by mary on March 27.  Then, on
     March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying
     the ssfile line 1 line.  This report doesnt tell you any-
     thing about lines which have been deleted or replaced; you
     need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff in the CVS
     manual).

     The options to cvs annotate are listed in node Invoking CVS
     in the CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and
     revisions to annotate.  The options are described in more
     detail there and in node Common options in the CVS manual.

checkout

     Check out sources for editing

     + Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

     + Requires: repository.

     + Changes: working directory.

     + Synonyms: co, get

       Create or update a working directory containing copies of
       the source files specified by modules.  You must execute
       checkout before using most of the other cvs commands,
       since most of them operate on your working directory.

       The modules are either symbolic names for some collection
       of source directories and files, or paths to directories
       or files in the repository.  The symbolic names are
       defined in the modules file. See node modules in the CVS
       manual.

       Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recur-
       sively create directories and populate them with the
       appropriate source files.  You can then edit these source
       files at any time (regardless of whether other software
       developers are editing their own copies of the sources);
       update them to include new changes applied by others to
       the source repository; or commit your work as a permanent
       change to the source repository.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       22

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Note that checkout is used to create directories.  The
       top-level directory created is always added to the direc-
       tory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same
       name as the specified module.  In the case of a module
       alias, the created sub-directory may have a different
       name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory,
       and that checkout will show the relative path leading to
       each file as it is extracted into your private work area
       (unless you specify the -Q global option).

       The files created by checkout are created read-write,
       unless the -r option to cvs (see node Global options in
       the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment
       variable is specified (see node Environment variables in
       the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for that file
       (see node Watches in the CVS manual).

       Note that running checkout on a directory that was already
       built by a prior checkout is also permitted. This is simi-
       lar to specifying the -d option to the update command in
       the sense that new directories that have been created in
       the repository will appear in your work area. However,
       checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a direc-
       tory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must be run
       from the top level directory (where you originally ran
       checkout from), so before you run checkout to update an
       existing directory, dont forget to change your directory
       to the top level directory.

       For the output produced by the checkout command see node
       update output in the CVS manual.

checkout options

     These standard options are supported by checkout (see node
     Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
     of them):

     -D date

       Use the most recent revision no later than date. This
       option is sticky, and implies -P.  See node Sticky tags in
       the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

     -f

       Only useful with the -D or -r flags.  If no matching revi-
       sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       23

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       of ignoring the file).

     -k kflag

       Process keywords according to kflag.  See node Keyword
       substitution in the CVS manual. This option is sticky;
       future updates of this file in this working directory will
       use the same kflag.  The status command can be viewed to
       see the sticky options.  See node Invoking CVS in the CVS
       manual, for more information on the status command.

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory.

     -n

       Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the -o
       option in the modules file; see node modules in the CVS
       manual).

     -P

       Prune empty directories.  See node Moving directories in
       the CVS manual.

     -p

       Pipe files to the standard output.

     -R

       Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by
       default.

     -r tag[:date]

       Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       24

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
       branch tag as it existed on date.  This option is sticky,
       and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in the CVS manual,
       for more information on sticky tags/dates.  Also, see node
       Common options in the CVS manual.

       In addition to those, you can use these special command
       options with checkout:

     -A

       Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See node
       Sticky tags in the CVS manual, for more information on
       sticky tags/dates.

     -c

       Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output,
       instead of creating or modifying any files or directories
       in your working directory.

     -d dir

       Create a directory called dir for the working files,
       instead of using the module name.  In general, using this
       flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by
       the checkout command without the -d flag.

       There is an important exception, however.  It is very con-
       venient when checking out a single item to have the output
       appear in a directory that doesnt contain empty intermedi-
       ate directories.  In this case only, cvs tries to ``shor-
       ten pathnames to avoid those empty directories.

       For example, given a module foo that contains the file
       bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory
       dir and place bar.c inside.  Similarly, given a module bar
       which has subdirectory baz wherein there is a file quux.c,
       the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz will create directory
       dir and place quux.c inside.

       Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior. Given the
       same module definitions above, cvs co -N -d dir foo will
       create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while
       cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories
       dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       25

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -j tag

       With two -j options, merge changes from the revision
       specified with the first -j option to the revision speci-
       fied with the second j option, into the working directory.

       With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revi-
       sion to the revision specified with the -j option, into
       the working directory.  The ancestor revision is the com-
       mon ancestor of the revision which the working directory
       is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option.

       In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date
       specification which, when used with branches, can limit
       the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An
       optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the
       tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

       See node Branching and merging in the CVS manual.

     -N

       Only useful together with -d dir.  With this option, cvs
       will not ``shorten module paths in your working directory
       when you check out a single module.  See the -d flag for
       examples and a discussion.

     -s

       Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort
       it by the status string.  See node modules in the CVS
       manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside
       the modules file to set the module status.

checkout examples

     Get a copy of the module tc:

       $ cvs checkout tc

     Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       26

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

commit

     Check files into the repository

     + Synopsis: commit [-lnRf] [-m log_message | -F file] [-r
       revision] [files...]

     + Requires: working directory, repository.

     + Changes: repository.

     + Synonym: ci

       Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your
       working source files into the source repository.

       If you dont specify particular files to commit, all of the
       files in your working current directory are examined.
       commit is careful to change in the repository only those
       files that you have really changed.  By default (or if you
       explicitly specify the -R option), files in subdirectories
       are also examined and committed if they have changed; you
       can use the -l option to limit commit to the current
       directory only.

       commit verifies that the selected files are up to date
       with the current revisions in the source repository; it
       will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of
       the specified files must be made current first with update
       (see node update in the CVS manual). commit does not call
       the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you
       to do when the time is right.

       When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to
       enter a log message that will be written to one or more
       logging programs (see node modules in the CVS manual, and
       see node loginfo in the CVS manual) and placed in the rcs
       file inside the repository.  This log message can be
       retrieved with the log command; see node log in the CVS
       manual.  You can specify the log message on the command
       line with the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor
       invocation, or use the -F file option to specify that the
       argument file contains the log message.

       At commit, a unique commitid is placed in the rcs file
       inside the repository. All files committed at once get the

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       27

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       same commitid, a string consisting only of hexadecimal
       digits (usually 16 in GNU cvs, 19 in MirBSD and MirDebian
       GNU cvs). FSF GNU cvs 1.11, MirOS GNU cvs 1.11, and
       OpenBSD OpenCVS do not support commitids yet. The commitid
       can be retrieved with the log and status command; see node
       log in the CVS manual and node File status in the CVS
       manual.

commit options

     These standard options are supported by commit (see node
     Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
     of them):

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory.

     -R

       Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

     -r revision

       Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or
       a revision on the main trunk that is higher than any
       existing revision number (see node Assigning revisions in
       the CVS manual).  You cannot commit to a specific revision
       on a branch.

       commit also supports these options:

     -c

       Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a
       valid edit on the file via cvs edit.  This is most useful
       when commit -c and edit -c have been placed in all .cvsrc
       files. A commit can be forced anyways by either regester-
       ing an edit retroactively via cvs edit (no changes to the
       file will be lost) or using the -f option to commit.  Sup-
       port for commit -c requires both client and a server ver-
       sions 1.12.10 or greater.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       28

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -F file

       Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an
       editor.

     -f

       Note that this is not the standard behavior of the -f
       option as defined in node Common options in the CVS
       manual.

       Force cvs to commit a new revision even if you havent made
       any changes to the file.  As of cvs version 1.12.10, it
       also causes the -c option to be ignored.  If the current
       revision of file is 1.7, then the following two commands
       are equivalent:

         $ cvs commit -f file
         $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

       The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).
       To force cvs to commit a new revision for all files in all
       subdirectories, you must use -f -R.

     -m message

       Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an
       editor.

commit examples

     Committing to a branch

     You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even
     number of dots) with the -r option.  To create a branch
     revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag commands (see
     node Branching and merging in the CVS manual).  Then, either
     checkout or update can be used to base your sources on the
     newly created branch.  From that point on, all commit
     changes made within these working sources will be automati-
     cally added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing
     main-line development in any way.  For example, if you had
     to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       29

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     though the 2.0 version is already under development, you
     might do:

       $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
       $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
       $ cd product_module
       [[ hack away ]]
       $ cvs commit

     This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

     Creating the branch after editing

     Say you have been working on some extremely experimental
     software, based on whatever revision you happened to
     checkout last week.  If others in your group would like to
     work on this software with you, but without disturbing
     main-line development, you could commit your change to a new
     branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff
     and utilize the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution.
     The scenario might look like:

       [[ hacked sources are present ]]
       $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
       $ cvs update -r EXPR1
       $ cvs commit

     The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on
     all files.  Note that your changes to the files will never
     be removed by the update command.  The commit will automati-
     cally commit to the correct branch, because the -r is
     sticky.  You could also do like this:

       [[ hacked sources are present ]]
       $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
       $ cvs commit -r EXPR1

     but then, only those files that were changed by you will
     have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       30

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may
     accidentally end up on the main trunk.

     To work with you on the experimental change, others would
     simply do

       $ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

diff

     Show differences between revisions

     + Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r
       rev1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]]
       [files...]

     + Requires: working directory, repository.

     + Changes: nothing.

       The diff command is used to compare different revisions of
       files.  The default action is to compare your working
       files with the revisions they were based on, and report
       any differences that are found.

       If any file names are given, only those files are com-
       pared.  If any directories are given, all files under them
       will be compared.

       The exit status for diff is different than for other cvs
       commands; for details see node Exit status in the CVS
       manual.

diff options

     These standard options are supported by diff (see node Com-
     mon options in the CVS manual, for a complete description of
     them):

     -D date

       Use the most recent revision no later than date. See -r
       for how this affects the comparison.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       31

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -k kflag

       Process keywords according to kflag.  See node Keyword
       substitution in the CVS manual.

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory.

     -R

       Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by
       default.

     -r tag[:date]

       Compare with revision specified by tag or, when date is
       specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
       branch tag as it existed on date.  Zero, one or two -r
       options can be present.  With no -r option, the working
       file will be compared with the revision it was based on.
       With one -r, that revision will be compared to your
       current working file. With two -r options those two revi-
       sions will be compared (and your working file will not
       affect the outcome in any way).

       One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date
       option, described above.

       The following options specify the format of the output.
       They have the same meaning as in GNU diff. Most options
       have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter
       preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name pre-
       ceded by --.

     -lines

       Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option
       does not specify an output format by itself; it has no
       effect unless it is combined with -c or -u.  This option
       is obsolete.  For proper operation, patch typically needs
       at least two lines of context.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       32

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -a

       Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line,
       even if they do not seem to be text.

     -b

       Ignore trailing white space and consider all other
       sequences of one or more white space characters to be
       equivalent.

     -B

       Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

     --binary

       Read and write data in binary mode.

     --brief

       Report only whether the files differ, not the details of
       the differences.

     -c

       Use the context output format.

     -C lines

     --context[=lines]

       Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer)
       lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For
       proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines
       of context.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       33

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     --changed-group-format=format

       Use format to output a line group containing differing
       lines from both files in if-then-else format.  See node
       Line group formats in the CVS manual.

     -d

       Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of
       changes.  This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

     -e

     --ed

       Make output that is a valid ed script.

     --expand-tabs

       Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the
       alignment of tabs in the input files.

     -f

       Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has
       changes in the order they appear in the file.

     -F regexp

       In context and unified format, for each hunk of differ-
       ences, show some of the last preceding line that matches
       regexp.

     --forward-ed

       Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       34

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       changes in the order they appear in the file.

     -H

       Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have
       numerous scattered small changes.

     --horizon-lines=lines

       Do not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix
       and the first lines lines of the common suffix.

     -i

       Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case
       letters equivalent.

     -I regexp

       Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match
       regexp.

     --ifdef=name

       Make merged if-then-else output using name.

     --ignore-all-space

       Ignore white space when comparing lines.

     --ignore-blank-lines

       Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

     --ignore-case

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       35

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to
       be the same.

     --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

       Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match
       regexp.

     --ignore-space-change

       Ignore trailing white space and consider all other
       sequences of one or more white space characters to be
       equivalent.

     --initial-tab

       Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line
       in normal or context format.  This causes the alignment of
       tabs in the line to look normal.

     -L label

       Use label instead of the file name in the context format
       and unified format headers.

     --label=label

       Use label instead of the file name in the context format
       and unified format headers.

     --left-column

       Print only the left column of two common lines in side by
       side format.

     --line-format=format

       Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       36

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       format. See node Line formats in the CVS manual.

     --minimal

       Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of
       changes.  This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

     -n

       Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command
       specifies the number of lines affected.

     -N

     --new-file

       In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one
       directory, treat it as present but empty in the other
       directory.

     --new-group-format=format

       Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the
       second file in if-then-else format.  See node Line group
       formats in the CVS manual.

     --new-line-format=format

       Use format to output a line taken from just the second
       file in if-then-else format.  See node Line formats in the
       CVS manual.

     --old-group-format=format

       Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the
       first file in if-then-else format.  See node Line group
       formats in the CVS manual.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       37

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     --old-line-format=format

       Use format to output a line taken from just the first file
       in if-then-else format.  See node Line formats in the CVS
       manual.

     -p

       Show which C function each change is in.

     --rcs

       Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command
       specifies the number of lines affected.

     --report-identical-files

     -s

       Report when two files are the same.

     --show-c-function

       Show which C function each change is in.

     --show-function-line=regexp

       In context and unified format, for each hunk of differ-
       ences, show some of the last preceding line that matches
       regexp.

     --side-by-side

       Use the side by side output format.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       38

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     --speed-large-files

       Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have
       numerous scattered small changes.

     --suppress-common-lines

       Do not print common lines in side by side format.

     -t

       Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the
       alignment of tabs in the input files.

     -T

       Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line
       in normal or context format.  This causes the alignment of
       tabs in the line to look normal.

     --text

       Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line,
       even if they do not appear to be text.

     -u

       Use the unified output format.

     --unchanged-group-format=format

       Use format to output a group of common lines taken from
       both files in if-then-else format.  See node Line group
       formats in the CVS manual.

     --unchanged-line-format=format

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       39

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Use format to output a line common to both files in
       if-then-else format.  See node Line formats in the CVS
       manual.

     -U lines

     --unified[=lines]

       Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer)
       lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For
       proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines
       of context.

     -w

       Ignore white space when comparing lines.

     -W columns

     --width=columns

       Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

     -y

       Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats

     Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many
     applications that allow if-then-else input, including pro-
     gramming languages and text formatting languages.  A line
     group format specifies the output format for a contiguous
     group of similar lines.

     For example, the following command compares the TeX file
     myfile with the original version from the repository, and
     outputs a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       40

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by
     \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

       cvs diff \
          --old-group-format=\begin{em}
       %<\end{em}
        \
          --new-group-format=\begin{bf}
       %>\end{bf}
        \
          myfile

     The following command is equivalent to the above example,
     but it is a little more verbose, because it spells out the
     default line group formats.

       cvs diff \
          --old-group-format=\begin{em}
       %<\end{em}
        \
          --new-group-format=\begin{bf}
       %>\end{bf}
        \
          --unchanged-group-format=%= \
          --changed-group-format=\begin{em}
       %<\end{em}
       \begin{bf}
       %>\end{bf}
        \
          myfile

     Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff list-
     ing with headers containing line numbers in a ``plain
     English style.

       cvs diff \
          --unchanged-group-format= \
          --old-group-format=-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted
       at %df:
       %< \
          --new-group-format=-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added
       after %de:
       %> \

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       41

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

          --changed-group-format=-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s)
       changed at %df:
       %<-------- to:
       %> \
          myfile

     To specify a line group format, use one of the options
     listed below.  You can specify up to four line group for-
     mats, one for each kind of line group.  You should quote
     format, because it typically contains shell metacharacters.

     --old-group-format=format

       These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the
       first file. The default old group format is the same as
       the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it
       is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

     --new-group-format=format

       These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the
       second file.  The default new group format is same as the
       changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a
       format that outputs the line group as-is.

     --changed-group-format=format

       These line groups are hunks containing lines from both
       files.  The default changed group format is the concatena-
       tion of the old and new group formats.

     --unchanged-group-format=format

       These line groups contain lines common to both files.  The
       default unchanged group format is a format that outputs
       the line group as-is.

       In a line group format, ordinary characters represent
       themselves; conversion specifications start with % and
       have one of the following forms.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       42

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     %<

       stands for the lines from the first file, including the
       trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the
       old line format (see node Line formats in the CVS manual).

     %>

       stands for the lines from the second file, including the
       trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the
       new line format.

     %=

       stands for the lines common to both files, including the
       trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the
       unchanged line format.

     %%

       stands for %.

     %cC

       where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be
       a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c: stands for
       a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else for-
       mat, which a colon would normally terminate.

     %c\O

       where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for
       the character with octal code O. For example, %c\0 stands
       for a null character.

     Fn

       where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one
       of the following letters, stands for ns value formatted

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       43

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       with F.

       e

         The line number of the line just before the group in the
         old file.

       f

         The line number of the first line in the group in the
         old file; equals e + 1.

       l

         The line number of the last line in the group in the old
         file.

       m

         The line number of the line just after the group in the
         old file; equals l + 1.

       n

         The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals
         l - f + 1.

       E, F, L, M, N

         Likewise, for lines in the new file.

         The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x,
         or %X, specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexade-
         cimal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively.
         After the % the following options can appear in
         sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer
         specifying the minimum field width; and a period fol-
         lowed by an optional integer specifying the minimum
         number of digits. For example, %5dN prints the number of
         new lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters,
         using the printf format "%5d".

     (A=B?T:E)

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       44

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       If A equals B then T else E. A and B are each either a
       decimal constant or a single letter interpreted as above.
       This format spec is equivalent to T if As value equals Bs;
       otherwise it is equivalent to E.

       For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to
       no lines if N (the number of lines in the group in the new
       file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines other-
       wise.

Line formats

     Line formats control how each line taken from an input file
     is output as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

     For example, the following command outputs text with a
     one-column change indicator to the left of the text.  The
     first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for added
     lines, and a space for unchanged lines.  The formats contain
     newline characters where newlines are desired on output.

       cvs diff \
          --old-line-format=-%l
        \
          --new-line-format=|%l
        \
          --unchanged-line-format= %l
        \
          myfile

     To specify a line format, use one of the following options.
     You should quote format, since it often contains shell meta-
     characters.

     --old-line-format=format

       formats lines just from the first file.

     --new-line-format=format

       formats lines just from the second file.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       45

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     --unchanged-line-format=format

       formats lines common to both files.

     --line-format=format

       formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above
       options simultaneously.

       In a line format, ordinary characters represent them-
       selves; conversion specifications start with % and have
       one of the following forms.

     %l

       stands for the contents of the line, not counting its
       trailing newline (if any).  This format ignores whether
       the line is incomplete.

     %L

       stands for the contents of the line, including its trail-
       ing newline (if any).  If a line is incomplete, this for-
       mat preserves its incompleteness.

     %%

       stands for %.

     %cC

       where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be
       a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c: stands for
       a colon.

     %c\O

       where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for
       the character with octal code O. For example, %c\0 stands
       for a null character.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       46

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     Fn

       where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for
       the line number formatted with F. For example, %.5dn
       prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d".
       See node Line group formats in the CVS manual, for more
       about printf conversion specifications.

       The default line format is %l followed by a newline char-
       acter.

       If the input contains tab characters and it is important
       that they line up on output, you should ensure that %l or
       %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by
       preceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should
       use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

       Taken together, the line and line group formats let you
       specify many different formats.  For example, the follow-
       ing command uses a format similar to diffs normal format.
       You can tailor this command to get fine control over diffs
       output.

       cvs diff \
          --old-line-format=< %l
        \
          --new-line-format=> %l
        \
          --old-group-format=%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
       %< \
          --new-group-format=%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
       %> \
          --changed-group-format=%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
       %<-
       %> \
          --unchanged-group-format= \
          myfile

diff examples

     The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between
     revision 1.14 and 1.19 of backend.c.  Due to the -kk flag no
     keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend on
     keyword substitution are ignored.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       47

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

     Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of
     files tagged RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that
     branch, the following can be used:

       $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

     A command like this can be used to produce a context diff
     between two releases:

       $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

     If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the fol-
     lowing just before you commit your changes may help you
     write the ChangeLog entry.  All local modifications that
     have not yet been committed will be printed.

       $ cvs diff -u | less

export

     Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout

     + Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k
       subst] [-d dir] module...

     + Requires: repository.

     + Changes: current directory.

       This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you
       want a copy of the source for module without the cvs
       administrative directories.  For example, you might use
       export to prepare source for shipment off-site.  This com-
       mand requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D or

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       48

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you
       ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty direc-
       tories).

       One often would like to use -kv with cvs export.  This
       causes any keywords to be expanded such that an import
       done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision
       information.  But be aware that doesnt handle an export
       containing binary files correctly.  Also be aware that
       after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident
       command (which is part of the rcs suite-see ident(1))
       which looks for keyword strings.  If you want to be able
       to use ident you must not use -kv.

export options

     These standard options are supported by export (see node
     Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
     of them):

     -D date

       Use the most recent revision no later than date.

     -f

       If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent
       revision (instead of ignoring the file).

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory.

     -n

       Do not run any checkout program.

     -R

       Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       49

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -r tag[:date]

       Export the revision specified by tag or, when date is
       specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
       branch tag as it existed on date.  See node Common options
       in the CVS manual.

       In addition, these options (that are common to checkout
       and export) are also supported:

     -d dir

       Create a directory called dir for the working files,
       instead of using the module name. See node checkout
       options in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs
       handles this flag.

     -k subst

       Set keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes in
       the CVS manual).

     -N

       Only useful together with -d dir. See node checkout
       options in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs
       handles this flag.

history

     Show status of files and users

     + Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args]
       [files...]

     + Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

     + Changes: nothing.

       cvs can keep a history log that tracks each use of most
       cvs commands.  You can use history to display this infor-
       mation in various formats.

       To enable logging, the LogHistory config option must be

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       50

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       set to some value other than the empty string and the his-
       tory file specified by the HistoryLogPath option must be
       writable by all users who may run the cvs executable (see
       node config in the CVS manual).

       To enable the history command, logging must be enabled as
       above and the HistorySearchPath config option (see node
       config in the CVS manual) must be set to specify some
       number of the history logs created thereby and these files
       must be readable by each user who might run the history
       command.

       Creating a repository via the cvs init command will enable
       logging of all possible events to a single history log
       file ($CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history) with read and write per-
       missions for all users (see node Creating a repository in
       the CVS manual).

       Note: history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that con-
       flict with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common
       options in the CVS manual).

history options

     Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind
     of report is generated:

     -c

       Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the
       repository was modified).

     -e

       Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying
       -x with all record types.  Of course, -e will also include
       record types which are added in a future version of cvs;
       if you are writing a script which can only handle certain
       record types, youll want to specify -x.

     -m module

       Report on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully use
       -m more than once on the command line.)

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       51

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -o

       Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report
       type.

     -T

       Report on all tags.

     -x type

       Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs
       history.  The types are indicated by single letters, which
       you may specify in combination.

       Certain commands have a single record type:

       F

         release

       O

         checkout

       E

         export

       T

         rtag

         One of five record types may result from an update:

       C

         A merge was necessary but collisions were detected
         (requiring manual merging).

       G

         A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

       U

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       52

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

         A working file was copied from the repository.

       P

         A working file was patched to match the repository.

       W

         The working copy of a file was deleted during update
         (because it was gone from the repository).

         One of three record types results from commit:

       A

         A file was added for the first time.

       M

         A file was modified.

       R

         A file was removed.

         The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the
         report without requiring option arguments:

     -a

       Show data for all users (the default is to show data only
       for the user executing history).

     -l

       Show last modification only.

     -w

       Show only the records for modifications done from the same
       working directory where history is executing.

       The options shown as -options args constrain the report
       based on an argument:

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       53

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -b str

       Show data back to a record containing  the  string str  in
       either the module name, the file name, or the repository
       path.

     -D date

       Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the
       normal use of -D date, which selects the newest revision
       older than date.

     -f file

       Show data for a particular file (you can specify several
       -f options on the same command line). This is equivalent
       to specifying the file on the command line.

     -n module

       Show data for a particular module (you can specify several
       -n options on the same command line).

     -p repository

       Show data for a particular source repository  (you can
       specify several -p options on the same command line).

     -r rev

       Show records referring to revisions since the revision or
       tag named rev appears in individual rcs files.  Each rcs
       file is searched for the revision or tag.

     -t tag

       Show records since tag tag was last added to the history
       file.  This differs from the -r flag above in that it
       reads only the history file, not the rcs files, and is

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       54

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       much faster.

     -u name

       Show records for user name.

     -z timezone

       Show times in the selected records using the specified
       time zone instead of UTC.

import

     Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches

     + Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag
       releasetag...

     + Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

     + Changes: repository.

       Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution
       from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your
       source repository directory.  You can use this command
       both for initial creation of a repository, and for whole-
       sale updates to the module from the outside source.  See
       node Tracking sources in the CVS manual, for a discussion
       on this subject.

       The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path
       to a directory) under the cvs root directory for reposi-
       tories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it.

       When you use import for updates to source that has been
       modified in your source repository (since a prior import),
       it will notify you of any files that conflict in the two
       branches of development; use checkout -j to reconcile the
       differences, as import instructs you to do.

       If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsig-
       nore in the CVS manual), it does not import it and prints
       I  followed by the filename (see node import output in the
       CVS manual, for a complete description of the output).

       If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file
       whose names match the specifications in that file will be

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       55

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be
       performed on the file/directory before being imported.
       See node Wrappers in the CVS manual.

       The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by
       default 1.1.1.  Updates are leaves of this branch; for
       example, files from the first imported collection of
       source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first
       imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on.

       At least three arguments are required. repository is
       needed to identify the collection of source.  vendortag is
       a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You must
       also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify
       the files at the leaves created each time you execute
       import.  The releasetag should be new, not previously
       existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the
       imported release,

       Note that import does not change the directory in which
       you invoke it.  In particular, it does not set up that
       directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to work
       with the sources import them first and then check them out
       into a different directory (see node Getting the source in
       the CVS manual).

import options

     This standard option is supported by import (see node Common
     options in the CVS manual, for a complete description):

     -m message

       Use message as log information, instead of invoking an
       editor.

       There are the following additional special options.

     -b branch

       See node Multiple vendor branches in the CVS manual.

     -k subst

       Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting
       will apply to all files created during the import, but not

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       56

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       to any files that previously existed in the repository.
       See node Substitution modes in the CVS manual, for a list
       of valid -k settings.

     -I name

       Specify file names that should be ignored during import.
       You can use this option repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any
       files at all (even those ignored by default), specify `-I
       !.

       name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
       can specify in the .cvsignore file. See node cvsignore in
       the CVS manual.

     -W spec

       Specify file names that should be filtered during import.
       You can use this option repeatedly.

       spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
       can specify in the .cvswrappers file. See node Wrappers in
       the CVS manual.

     -X

       Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files
       so that new files do not immediately appear on the main
       trunk.

       Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if
       they were deleted on the main trunk, by taking the follow-
       ing steps for each file in addition to those normally
       taken on import: creating a new revision on the main trunk
       indicating that the new file is dead, resetting the new
       files default branch, and placing the file in the Attic
       (see node Attic in the CVS manual) directory.

       Use of this option can be forced on a repository-wide
       basis by setting the ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly
       option in CVSROOT/config (see node config in the CVS
       manual).

import output

     import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       57

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     for each file, preceded by one character indicating the
     status of the file:

     U file

       The file already exists in the repository and has not been
       locally modified; a new revision has been created (if
       necessary).

     N file

       The file is a new file which has been added to the reposi-
       tory.

     C file

       The file already exists in the repository but has been
       locally modified; you will have to merge the changes.

     I file

       The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore in the CVS
       manual).

     L file

       The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic
       links. People periodically suggest that this behavior
       should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it
       should be changed to, it is not apparent. (Various options
       in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links
       on checkout, update, etc.; see node modules in the CVS
       manual.)

import examples

     See node Tracking sources in the CVS manual, and node From
     files in the CVS manual.

log


MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       58

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     Print out log information for files

     + Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

     + Requires: repository, working directory.

     + Changes: nothing.

       Display log information for files.  log used to call the
       rcs utility rlog.  Although this is no longer true in the
       current sources, this history determines the format of the
       output and the options, which are not quite in the style
       of the other cvs commands.

       The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head
       revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic
       names (tags) and some other things.  For each revision,
       the revision number, the date, the author, the number of
       lines added/deleted, the commitid and the log message are
       printed.  All dates are displayed in local time at the
       client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment
       variable, which can be set to govern how log displays
       dates.

       Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal
       use inside cvs (see node Common options in the CVS
       manual).

log options

     By default, log prints all information that is available.
     All other options restrict the output.  Note that the revi-
     sion selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect,
     other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic
     directories, when used in conjunction with the options that
     restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R,
     and -t) unless the -S option is also specified.

     -b

       Print information about the revisions on the default
       branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk.

     -d dates

       Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time
       in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       59

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       dates.  The date formats accepted are those accepted by
       the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common
       options in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into
       ranges as follows:

       d1<d2

       d2>d1

         Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and
         d2.

       <d

       d>

         Select all revisions dated d or earlier.

       d<

       >d

         Select all revisions dated d or later.

       d

         Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

         The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate
         an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one.

         Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).

     -h

       Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in
       the working directory, head, default branch, access list,
       locks, symbolic names, and suffix.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       60

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory.  (Default is
       to run recursively).

     -N

       Do not print the list of tags for this file.  This option
       can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so
       rather than "more"ing over 3 pages of tag information, the
       log information is presented without tags at all.

     -R

       Print only the name of the rcs file.

     -rrevisions

       Print information about revisions given in the
       comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges.
       The following table explains the available range formats:

       rev1:rev2

         Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same
         branch).

       rev1::rev2

         The same, but excluding rev1.

       :rev

       ::rev

         Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and
         including rev.

       rev:

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       61

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

         Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch
         containing rev.

       rev::

         Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the
         branch containing rev.

       branch

         An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that
         branch.

       branch1:branch2

       branch1::branch2

         A range of branches means all revisions on the branches
         in that range.

       branch.

         The latest revision in branch.

         A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on
         the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no
         space between the -r option and its argument.

     -S

       Suppress the header if no revisions are selected.

     -s states

       Print information about revisions whose state attributes
       match one of the states given in the comma-separated list
       states.  Individual states may be any text string, though
       cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead.  See node
       admin options in the CVS manual for more information.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       62

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -t

       Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.

     -wlogins

       Print information about revisions checked in by users with
       login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins.
       If logins is omitted, the users login is assumed.  There
       can be no space between the -w option and its argument.

       log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with
       the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of
       the revisions selected by -b and -r.

log examples

     Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see
     them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other
     timezone. To do this you can set your $TZ environment vari-
     able before invoking cvs:

       $ TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c
       $ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

     (If you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would
     need to prefix the examples above with env.)

ls & rls
     + ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

     + Requires: repository for rls, repository & working direc-
       tory for ls.

     + Changes: nothing.

     + Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist
       are synonyms for rls.

       The ls and rls commands are used to list files and direc-
       tories in the repository.

       By default ls lists the files and directories that belong
       in your working directory, what would be there after an
       update.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       63

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       By default rls lists the files and directories on the tip
       of the trunk in the topmost directory of the repository.

       Both commands accept an optional list of file and direc-
       tory names, relative to the working directory for ls and
       the topmost directory of the repository for rls.  Neither
       is recursive by default.

ls & rls options
     These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

     -d

       Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

     -e

       Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to
       remain easily parsable by automation.

     -l

       Display all details.

     -P

       Dont list contents of empty directories when recursing.

     -R

       List recursively.

     -r tag[:date]

       Show files specified by tag or, when date is specified and
       tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it
       existed on date.  See node Common options in the CVS
       manual.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       64

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -D date

       Show files from date.

rls examples

       $ cvs rls
       cvs rls: Listing module: `.
       CVSROOT
       first-dir

       $ cvs rls CVSROOT
       cvs rls: Listing module: `CVSROOT
       checkoutlist
       commitinfo
       config
       cvswrappers
       loginfo
       modules
       notify
       rcsinfo
       taginfo
       verifymsg

rdiff

     patch format diffs between releases

     + rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r
       tag2[:date2] | -D date2] modules...

     + Requires: repository.

     + Changes: nothing.

     + Synonym: patch

       Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two
       releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program
       to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release.
       (This is one of the few cvs commands that operates
       directly from the repository, and doesnt require a prior

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       65

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output
       device.

       You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any
       combination of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one
       revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects
       differences between that revision or date and the current
       head revisions in the rcs file.

       Note that if the software release affected is contained in
       more than one directory, then it may be necessary to
       specify the -p option to the patch command when patching
       the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files
       that are located in other directories.

rdiff options

     These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node Com-
     mon options in the CVS manual, for a complete description of
     them):

     -D date

       Use the most recent revision no later than date.

     -f

       If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent
       revision (instead of ignoring the file).

     -k kflag

       Process keywords according to kflag.  See node Keyword
       substitution in the CVS manual.

     -l

       Local; dont descend subdirectories.

     -R

       Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       66

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       default.

     -r tag

       Use the revision specified by tag, or when date is speci-
       fied and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch
       tag as it existed on date.  See node Common options in the
       CVS manual.

       In addition to the above, these options are available:

     -c

       Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

     -p

       Show which C function each change is in.

     -s

       Create a summary change report instead of a patch.  The
       summary includes information about files that were changed
       or added between the releases.  It is sent to the standard
       output device.  This is useful for finding out, for exam-
       ple, which files have changed between two dates or revi-
       sions.

     -t

       A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard
       output device.  This is most useful for seeing what the
       last change to a file was.

     -u

       Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember
       that old versions of the patch program cant handle the
       unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the
       net you should probably not use -u.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       67

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -V vn

       Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs ver-
       sion vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5).
       Note that this option is no longer accepted.  cvs will
       always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.

rdiff examples

     Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an
     update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler.  You have
     no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be
     fixed with a command such as this:

       $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
       $$ Mail -s The patches you asked for foo@example.net

     Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch
     called R_1_3fix for bug fixes.  R_1_3_1 corresponds to
     release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago.  Now, you want
     to see how much development has been done on the branch.
     This command can be used:

       $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
       cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
       File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to
       1.52.2.6
       File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
       File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2

release

     Indicate that a Module is no longer in use

     + release [-d] directories...

     + Requires: Working directory.

     + Changes: Working directory, history log.

       This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs
       checkout.  Since cvs doesnt lock files, it isnt strictly

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       68

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       necessary to use this command.  You can always simply
       delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk
       losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no
       trace in the cvs history file (see node history file in
       the CVS manual) that youve abandoned your checkout.

       Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command
       checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you
       are executing it from immediately above a cvs working
       directory; and that the repository recorded for your files
       is the same as the repository defined in the module data-
       base.

       If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a
       record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally
       abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.

release options

     The release command supports one command option:

     -d

       Delete your working copy of the file if the release
       succeeds.  If this flag is not given your files will
       remain in your working directory.

       WARNING:  The release command deletes all directories and
       files recursively.  This has the very serious side-effect
       that any directory that you have created inside your
       checked-out sources, and not added to the repository
       (using the add command; see node Adding files in the CVS
       manual) will be silently deleted-even if it is non-empty!

release output

     Before release releases your sources it will print a
     one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date.

     U file

     P file

       There exists a newer revision of this file in the reposi-
       tory, and you have not modified your local copy of the

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       69

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       file (U and P mean the same thing).

     A file

       The file has been added to your private copy of the
       sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository.
       If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be
       lost.

     R file

       The file has been removed from your private copy of the
       sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository,
       since you have not yet committed the removal.  See node
       commit in the CVS manual.

     M file

       The file is modified in your working directory.  There
       might also be a newer revision inside the repository.

     ? file

       file is in your working directory, but does not correspond
       to anything in the source repository, and is not in the
       list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
       the -I option, and see node cvsignore in the CVS manual).
       If you remove your working sources, this file will be
       lost.

release examples

     Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy
     of the files.

       $ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the
                       # sources when you issue cvs release.
       $ cvs release -d tc
       You have [0] altered files in this repository.
       Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory
       `tc: y
       $

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       70

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

server & pserver
     Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout

     + pserver [-c path]

       server [-c path]

     + Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout

     + Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working direc-
       tory.

       The cvs server and pserver commands are used to provide
       repository access to remote clients and expect a client
       conversation on stdin & stdout.  Typically these commands
       are launched from inetd or via ssh (see node Remote repo-
       sitories in the CVS manual).

       server expects that the client has already been authenti-
       cated somehow, typically via ssh, and pserver attempts to
       authenticate the client itself.

       Only one option is available with the server and pserver
       commands:

     -c path

       Load configuration from path rather than the default loca-
       tion $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config (see node config in the CVS
       manual).  path must be /etc/cvs.conf or prefixed by
       /etc/cvs/.  This option is supported beginning with cvs
       release 1.12.13.

suck

     Download RCS ,v file raw

     + suck module/path

     + Requires: repository

       Locates the file module/path,v or module/pa/Attic/th,v and
       downloads it raw as RCS comma-v file.

       Output consists of the real pathname of the comma-v file,

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       71

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       relative to the CVS repository, followed by a newline and
       the binary file content immediately thereafter.

update

     Bring work tree in sync with repository

     + update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag]
       [-r tag[:date] | -D date] [-W spec] files...

     + Requires: repository, working directory.

     + Changes: working directory.

       After youve run checkout to create your private copy of
       source from the common repository, other developers will
       continue changing the central source.  From time to time,
       when it is convenient in your development process, you can
       use the update command from within your working directory
       to reconcile your work with any revisions applied to the
       source repository since your last checkout or update.
       Without the -C option, update will also merge any differ-
       ences between the local copy of files and their base revi-
       sions into any destination revisions specified with -r,
       -D, or -A.

update options

     These standard options are available with update (see node
     Common options in the CVS manual, for a complete description
     of them):

     -D date

       Use the most recent revision no later than date. This
       option is sticky, and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in
       the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

     -f

       Only useful with the -D or -r flags.  If no matching revi-
       sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead
       of ignoring the file).

     -k kflag

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       72

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Process keywords according to kflag.  See node Keyword
       substitution in the CVS manual. This option is sticky;
       future updates of this file in this working directory will
       use the same kflag.  The status command can be viewed to
       see the sticky options.  See node Invoking CVS in the CVS
       manual, for more information on the status command.

     -l

       Local; run only in current working directory.  See node
       Recursive behavior in the CVS manual.

     -P

       Prune empty directories.  See node Moving directories in
       the CVS manual.

     -p

       Pipe files to the standard output.

     -R

       Update directories recursively (default).  See node Recur-
       sive behavior in the CVS manual.

     -r tag[:date]

       Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when date is
       specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
       branch tag as it existed on date.  This option is sticky,
       and implies -P. See node Sticky tags in the CVS manual,
       for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also see node
       Common options in the CVS manual.

       These special options are also available with update.

     -A

       Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See node

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       73

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

       Sticky tags in the CVS manual, for more information on
       sticky tags/dates.

     -C

       Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from
       the repository (the modified file is saved in

     -d

       Create any directories that exist in the repository if
       theyre missing from the working directory.  Normally,
       update acts only on directories and files that were
       already enrolled in your working directory.

       This is useful for updating directories that were created
       in the repository since the initial checkout; but it has
       an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliberately avoided
       certain directories in the repository when you created
       your working directory (either through use of a module
       name or by listing explicitly the files and directories
       you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d
       will create those directories, which may not be what you
       want.

     -I name

       Ignore files whose names match name (in your working
       directory) during the update.  You can specify -I more
       than once on the command line to specify several files to
       ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all.  See
       node cvsignore in the CVS manual, for other ways to make
       cvs ignore some files.

     -Wspec

       Specify file names that should be filtered during update.
       You can use this option repeatedly.

       spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
       can specify in the .cvswrappers file. See node Wrappers in
       the CVS manual.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       74

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     -jrevision

       With two -j options, merge changes from the revision
       specified with the first -j option to the revision speci-
       fied with the second j option, into the working directory.

       With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revi-
       sion to the revision specified with the -j option, into
       the working directory.  The ancestor revision is the com-
       mon ancestor of the revision which the working directory
       is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option.

       Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j
       branchname to merge changes from a branch will often not
       remove files which were removed on the branch. See node
       Merging adds and removals in the CVS manual, for more.

       In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date
       specification which, when used with branches, can limit
       the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An
       optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the
       tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

       See node Branching and merging in the CVS manual.

update output

     update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by
     printing a line for each file, preceded by one character
     indicating the status of the file:

     U file

       The file was brought up to date with respect to the repo-
       sitory.  This is done for any file that exists in the
       repository but not in your working directory, and for
       files that you havent changed but are not the most recent
       versions available in the repository.

     P file

       Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an
       entire file.  This accomplishes the same thing as U using
       less bandwidth.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       75

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     A file

       The file has been added to your private copy of the
       sources, and will be added to the source repository when
       you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you
       that the file needs to be committed.

     R file

       The file has been removed from your private copy of the
       sources, and will be removed from the source repository
       when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to
       you that the file needs to be committed.

     M file

       The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

       M can indicate one of two states for a file youre working
       on: either there were no modifications to the same file in
       the repository, so that your file remains as you last saw
       it; or there were modifications in the repository as well
       as in your copy, but they were merged successfully,
       without conflict, in your working directory.

       cvs will print some messages if it merges your work, and a
       backup copy of your working file (as it looked before you
       ran update) will be made.  The exact name of that file is
       printed while update runs.

     C file

       A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes
       to file with changes from the source repository.  file
       (the copy in your working directory) is now the result of
       attempting to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy
       of your file is also in your working directory, with the
       name is the revision that your modified file started from.
       Resolve the conflict as described in node Conflicts exam-
       ple in the CVS manual. (Note that some systems automati-
       cally purge files that begin with .# if they have not been
       accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy of
       your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)
       Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       76

CVS(1)              UNIX Programmer's Manual               CVS(1)

     ? file

       file is in your working directory, but does not correspond
       to anything in the source repository, and is not in the
       list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
       the -I option, and see node cvsignore in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS

     Dick Grune
          Original author of the cvs shell script version posted
          to comp.sources.unix in the volume6 release of
          December, 1986. Credited with much of the cvs conflict
          resolution algorithms.

     Brian Berliner
          Coder and designer of the cvs program itself in April,
          1989, based on the original work done by Dick.

     Jeff Polk
          Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and ven-
          dor branch support and author of the checkin(1) shell
          script (the ancestor of cvs import).

     Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
          Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

     And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO

     The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management
     with CVS by Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system,
     you may be able to get it with the info CVS command or it
     may be available as cvs.pdf (Portable Document Format),
     cvs.ps (PostScript), cvs.texinfo (Texinfo source), or
     cvs.html.

     For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software
     related to CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

         http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/

ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1),
rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

MirOS BSD #10-current   Printed 4.7.2014                       77

Generated on 2014-07-04 21:17:45 by $MirOS: src/scripts/roff2htm,v 1.79 2014/02/10 00:36:11 tg Exp $

These manual pages and other documentation are copyrighted by their respective writers; their source is available at our CVSweb, AnonCVS, and other mirrors. The rest is Copyright © 2002‒2014 The MirOS Project, Germany.
This product includes material provided by Thorsten Glaser.

This manual page’s HTML representation is supposed to be valid XHTML/1.1; if not, please send a bug report – diffs preferred.